SERIALS: SPECIAL TYPES
(Approved for use 13 March 2002)

General |  Almanacs |  Comics |  Dime Novels |  Directories |  Little Magazines |  Newspapers |  Periodicals

General
Listed below are several of the different types of serials that Beinecke collects. This list is not comprehensive, but touches on a few of the major categories within the collections. Special treatment and special tracings are specified for each category, along with any historical information. Serials should have appropriate subject headings (subdivided by Periodicals, if allowed) and applicable genre tracings. For general information on cataloging serials for Beinecke Library, see Serials Cataloging. Generally, chronological subdivisions of genre/form terms found on serial records are given as centuries, and on monographic records as years.

 
Almanacs
Almanacs can be cataloged either as monographs or as serials. Early almanacs, usually published before the mid-nineteenth century, often have many title changes, changes in person who does the calculations and changes in the printer. Frequently there are two and sometimes three different editions of an almanac in the same year. In these situations, monographic cataloging is preferred.

In addition to required special tracings, such as imprint tracings, the genre term Almanacs is used, subdivided by place and date of publication.

655   7 ‡a Almanacs ‡z [country or state] ‡z [city] ‡z [century or year]. ‡2 rbgenr
655   7 ‡a Almanacs ‡z Massachusetts ‡z Boston ‡y 1836. ‡2 rbgenr

The following subject is also traced for American almanacs:

650   0 ‡a Almanacs, American ‡z [state].
650   0 ‡a Almanacs, American ‡z Massachusetts

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Comics
Beinecke has a large collection of both cataloged and uncataloged comics. Some titles had as many as three copies of individual issues. In 2006 these collections were reviewed and decisions were made to keep or discard titles. The decision was also made to keep only the best copy of each issue.

Housing

Titles with 5 or more issues will be housed in folders and put into Hollinger boxes. The call number will be written on the top right corner of the folder. Titles with fewer than 5 issues will be stored in Gaylords.

Marking

The following guidelines are used when marking volumes:

  1. Mark on verso of last page, lower right hand corner. The lower left hand corner is the alternate location when the lower right hand corner is unusable.
  2. If the last page is unmarkable (e.g. too dark or shiny or filled with text or illustrations), mark the verso of the first usable page from the end.

Classification and Call Numbers

Comics new to Beinecke will be given a year/number call number. Comics currently classed in Folio year/number call number will not be reclassed, but only one copy of each issue will be kept and each issue will be housed in the appropriate "comic" folder.

Special notes and tracings

Subject headings will be made for characters already established with authority records, followed by the subdivision ‡v Comic books, strips, etc.

650   0 ‡a Batman (Fictitious character) ‡v Comic books, strips, etc.
650   0 ‡a Lane, Lois (Fictitious character) ‡v Comic books, strips, etc.
650   0 ‡a Supergirl (Fictitious character) ‡v Comic books, strips, etc.

The following genre term will be assigned to all comic books:

655   0 ‡a Comic books, strips, etc.

Make the following genre term for all underground comics:

655   0 ‡a Underground comic books, strips, etc.

Trace all publishers connected with a title.

Past Practice

The genre term, Comic books, was formerly assigned to all comic books. As these titles are encountered the term will be changed to the LCSH form: Comic books, strips, etc. At the end of processing all the comic books in the backlog, any outdated genre terms still remaining will be changed.

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Dime Novels
Dime novels were published in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, at regular intervals, usually weekly or more frequently. The works sometimes were reprints of popular novels by authors such as Dickens or Kipling or a series with common heros, such as Jesse James, Clif Stirling, Dick Dobbs, or Nick Carter. Frequently these were reprinted with either a different issue number and/or a different date. If this is the case, or if the novel is by an author that is collected by Beinecke, it is best to catalog them as monographs. In the past most dime novels have been cataloged as serials.

Use the genre term Dime novels, subdivided by place and date of publication. In the past the genre term was traced without any subdivisions.

655   7 ‡a Dime novels ‡z [country or state] ‡z [city] ‡y [century or year]. ‡2 rbgenr
655   7 ‡a Dime novels ‡z England ‡z London ‡y 1890. ‡2 rbgenr
Directories
Many directories have been cataloged for Beinecke, particularly in the Western Americana Collection. These are cataloged as serials when possible. It is preferable to catalog these as monographs, however, if the title changes almost every year or if the geographical area changes every year. At Beinecke, many directories have been cataloged under the latest entry convention. Whether cataloged as serials or monographs all directories receive a subject heading for the geographic area subdivided by Directories. The genre term Directories is also given, subdivided by place and date of publication.
651   0 ‡a [geographic area] ‡v Directories.
655   7 ‡a Directories ‡z [country or state] ‡z [city] ‡y [century or year]. ‡2 rbgenr
651   0 ‡a San Francisco (Calif.) ‡v Directories.
655   7 ‡a Directories ‡z California ‡z San Francisco ‡y 1848. ‡2 rbgenr
651   0 ‡a California ‡v Directories.
655   7 ‡a Directories ‡z California ‡y 20th century. ‡2 rbgenr

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Little Magazines
Little magazines is a term used to designate certain magazines that have as their purpose the publication of art, literature, or social theory by comparatively little-known writers. Little magazines differ from the large commercial periodicals and major scholarly reviews by their emphasis on experimentation in writing, their perilous nonprofit operation, and their comparatively small audience of intellectuals. Prototypes of the twentieth-century little magazine were The Dial (Boston, 1840–44), a transcendentalist review edited by Ralph Waldo Emerson and Margaret Fuller, and the English Savoy (1896), a manifesto in revolt against Victorian materialism.

Use the genre term Little magazines subdivided by country of publication.

655   7 ‡a Little magazines ‡z [country]. ‡2 rbgenr
655   7 ‡a Little magazines ‡z United States. ‡2 rbgenr
Also trace the following reference source, if magazine is in the bibliography:
510   4 ‡a Hoffman, F.J. Little magazine (2nd ed.) ‡c [page no.]
510   4 ‡a Hoffman, F.J. Little magazine (2nd ed.) ‡c p. 332
Newspapers
A newspaper is defined by the International Organization for Standardization as: A serial publication which contains news on current events of special or general interest. The individual parts are listed chronologically or numerically and appear usually at least once a week. Newspapers usually have a masthead rather than a cover and are normally larger than A3 (297 mm x 420 mm) in size.

Newspapers are assigned the following tracings:

651   0 ‡a [geographic area] ‡v Newspapers.
752     ‡a [country] ‡b [state, province, or territory] ‡d [city].
651   0 ‡a San Francisco (Calif.) ‡v Newspapers.
752     ‡a United States ‡b California ‡d San Francisco.

Use the genre term Newspapers, subdivided by place and date of publication.

655   7 ‡a Newspapers ‡z [country or state] ‡z [city] ‡y [century]. ‡2 rbgenr
655   7 ‡a Newspapers ‡z California ‡z San Francisco ‡y 19th century. ‡2 rbgenr

American newspapers
American newspapers were formerly classed in the old Yale classification scheme of AN. Almost all of the American newspapers were either quarto or folio. Sometimes an issue or two can be added, but the Beinecke shelf must be checked. Folio newspapers new to Beinecke are classed in the Year/Number call number scheme. Quarto newspapers new to Beinecke are classed either in the Western Americana call number scheme or in the Year/Number call number scheme. A local subject is also made:

690   4 ‡a American newspapers ‡z [state] ‡z [city].
690   4 ‡a American newspapers‡z California ‡z Stockton.

English newspapers
Yale has an outstanding collection of 18th century English newspapers classed in Z17. Additions to a cataloged title should be given the Z17 number so that they will shelve with the rest of the set. New titles are assigned serial year/number call numbers.

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Periodicals

A periodical is defined as: A serial appearing or intended to appear indefinitely at regular or stated intervals, generally more frequently than annually, each issue of which normally contains separate articles, stories, or other writings.

Use the genre term Periodicals subdivided by place and date of publication.

655   7 ‡a Periodicals ‡z [country or state] ‡z [city] ‡z [century]. ‡2 rbgenr
655   7 ‡a Periodicals ‡z England ‡z London ‡y 19th century. ‡2 rbgenr

Obsolete Practice
The local subject, Periodicals subdivided by place, was used for serials that did not have a specific subject and for newspapers.

690   4 ‡a Periodicals ‡z England.

Current Practice
The current practice is to make a distinction between periodicals and newspapers. When the obsolete pactice is encountered in cataloging, the 690 local subject tracing should be removed and a genre term for either newspapers or periodicals should be added.

690   4 ‡a Periodicals ‡z England.
655   7 ‡a Newspapers ‡z England ‡z London ‡y 19th century. ‡2 rbgenr
or
655   7 ‡a Periodicals ‡z England ‡z London ‡y 19th century. ‡2 rbgenr

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