Background -- Cataloging Copy -- Original Cataloging Recommendations Examples1. Finding Aids 2. Link from tangible resource held by Yale to version digitized by Yale -- 3. Canned Search to Remote Digital Surrogate 4. From microform collection purchased by Yale to publisher's guide on the web -- Batch Loading -- Maintenance (or New Cataloging): Use of 856 to Link Related Records in Orbis.
This document summarizes treatment of field 856 in ORBIS records for tangible resources. A tangible resource is a printed text, a graphic print, a DVD, a microform, a CD-ROM, etc. The policies and procedures are not intended to be applied to records for web resources, such as electronic reserves.
The rationale for the policy is that:
- accepting links to remote electronic resources provided in member records will outweigh the maintenance issues, if link checking software support is factored in
- reducing editing of cataloging copy will make processing more efficient
- including links from records for some tangible resources to remote electronic versions owned* by Yale will facilitate efficient use of the catalog record, require minimum maintenance, and will cause minimum problems with record duplication
- adding links from records for tangible resources to remote electronic resources not owned by Yale will not outweigh the time required to evaluate the resource and for any future maintenance
*Effectively, any remote electronic resource for which Yale controls the administrative rights, e.g. an electronic image digitized from a tangible resource owned by Yale. In contrast, Yale does not control ("own") the administrative rights to government documents, free websites on the Internet, or to remote electronic serials leased from a vendor.
Basic guidelines for new cataloging:
- Cataloging Copy. Generally accept 856s found on cataloging copy, whether from LC or member libraries. (Exception: Serials; see Cataloging Copy section below)
- Original Cataloging. For original cataloging, an 856 field may be added to the bibliographic record or to the holdings record as appropriate if the link is to a remote resource owned by Yale.
- Member/Original Cataloging. Generally, do not make a link from a record for a tangible resource owned by Yale to a remote electronic resource not owned by Yale, such as an electronic serial leased from a vendor. Exceptions may be made if the remote resource is used to organize a collection owned by Yale.
- Batch Loading. Profiles to delete or retain links will be determined on a case-by-case basis.
Basic guidelines for maintenance:
- Catalog Management will use link checker software to fix dead links.
- If Catalog Management receives a report that a live link is to a remote resource that cannot be accessed through the Yale Library permissions, the link will be purged; at this time we will rely on feedback from users and public services to identify these links.
- MFHDs for Cataloging Copy or Original Cataloging may include 856 links to other bibliographic records in Orbis if they are needed and other linkage procedures are not satisfactory. Generally, use of MFHD 856 links will be applied retroactively.
Copy catalogers are not expected to evaluate an 856 link in cataloging copy. Any maintenance will be performed retroactively.
EXCEPTION: Copy catalogers should remove 856 fields from cataloging copy for serials at the time of cataloging.
EXAMPLES. NOTE: examples are from the OPAC and are to be considered illustrative. The Orbis number can be used to retrieve and view the record in the Staff Cataloging Module.
Library of Congress records with detailed tables of contents available through remote links.
4559773 Africa in my blood ... (Includes separate links to Sample Text, Publisher Description, and TOC)
7145140 The Oxford guide to library research.
Orbis # 7725886 War in human civilization. (Cf. the formal contents note in 505 in the OPAC long view with the linked contents note)
Current accepted practices are listed. Please notify a CCC or CPDC member if you are aware of any consistent unit practices which are not listed here. As a standard procedure, always check any URL added to the record in the OPAC or by using the Voyager link checker (ctrl+k).
i. Units should document their procedures, including
- decisions that do not follow the standard guidelines (and rationale for doing so)
- standard public notes used by the unit
- decision to use bibliographic or MFHD record
As these become available, a link will be provided from this document.
ii. Use 856 in the MFHD to link to an online resource related to the print resource represented by the bibliographic record.
Use the following standard construction for 856 fields (in either bibliographic or MFHD records). Second indicator 2 means the link is to a "related resource."
856 42 ‡3 <specific material described, if applicable, e.g. Finding aid; Online guide > ‡u <URL> ‡z <public note, if applicable>
Avoid entering only a ‡u in 856, since this will cause the URL path to display. Use of both ‡3 and ‡z is allowed, but both will display in Orbis as currently configured.
iii. Use 856 in the MFHD if a link is made from a tangible resource to a digital surrogate.
Use the following standard construction for 856 fields (in either bibliographic or MFHD records). Second indicator 1 ("version of the resource") means the link is to a digital surrogate.
856 41 ‡y Digital version. ‡u <URL>
Avoid entering only a ‡u in 856, since this will cause the URL path to display. Note that in the current version of Orbis, ‡y will block display of ‡z, so use of ‡z in this situation is not an option.
iv. Standard text in ‡y and ‡3. Subfield ‡y should refer only to the type of bibliographic item to which the field applies, per the MARC 21 standards. For terms authorized for use on YUL records, see the link below (Excel table):
To request an addition or change to the list of authorized terms, contact the Chief Catalog Librarian.
Whenever appropriate, use the same standard terms if ‡3 needs to be used. However, because the variety of potential terms used for parts of e-resources is so broad, a ‡3 term does not need to be authorized by a listing in the table.
The hotlinked Orbis numbers connect to the record in the OPAC. From the OPAC, click on the appropriate hotlink to open the remote electronic resource. Examples are from the OPAC and are to be considered illustrative of the categories where linking is acceptable for new cataloging. However, they may not represent current best practice for 856 formatting (see standard construction in section iv. above). Examining some of the records in the OPAC that do not follow standard practice may shed light on why the standard has been recommended. The Orbis number can be used to retrieve and view the record in the Staff Cataloging Module, e.g. if it is unclear whether the link is in the bibliographic record or the MFHD.
1. Link to online finding aid for an archival collection held by Yale.
EXAMPLE: Orbis #
3976998 Leo Stein collection [Click on the Finding Aid link on the OPAC record to view the linked finding aid to the collection represented by the catalog record]
2. Link from a record for a tangible resource owned by Yale to a remote digital resource owned by Yale.
EXAMPLE: Orbis #
7784975 A stage box scene [click on Digital version in the OPAC display to view the digital version of the tangible resource held by LWL]
EXAMPLE Cf. Orbis #
7472703 Nova totivs terrarvm orbis geographica ac hydrographica tabula. [Maps digitized by the Yale Map Collection are currently in jpeg2000 format and require a special viewer that needs to be downloaded to the user's workstation. By clicking on the 7472703 link you will be able to view the bibliographic record but unless the software is on your workstation, you will not be able to link to the image. Probably some adjustments may have to be made to the bibliographic record to inform the user about the conditions for viewing the image.]
3. Link from a record for a collection of tangible resources owned by Yale to a specific remote digital surrogate of an item in the collection, where the digital version is owned by Yale. The link is a canned search.
Including the URL for the canned search allows the user to browse the digital surrogates of materials within the collection before calling for any materials from the collection.
EXAMPLE: Orbis #
1186609 The book of Thel / the author & printer Willm. Blake [From the OPAC, click on one of the "View a digital version" links to see a an electronic version of one of the two copies held by Beinecke. Note that the digital version is of the entire book, not just an image.]
4. Link from a record for a microform collection to an online guide to the collection. So far, use of this type of link is rare; it represents an exceptional practice in that it links to a remote electronic resource not owned by Yale. However, Catalog Management will begin to add links from bibliographic records for tangible resources sets to online guides based on spreadsheets provided by Research Services (beginning 2/07). Over 1000 records will be upgraded. Catalog Management will use a standard $3 note: $3 Online guide. The same note should be used in new cataloging if an 856 is added to a bibliographic record for this reason. It is not necessary to update the $3 note in member copy if the 856 note has already been added, as is the case with the examples here.
Orbis # 7760463 European women's periodicals [microform].
Orbis # 6995910 Everyday Stalinism [microform].
Batch-loading decisions are case by case. Not every decision will be listed here.
Links on GPO records. Current GPO practice is to use an 856 $u http://purl.access.gpo.gov link to open a PDF copy of the document represented by the catalog record. In this case, the loader program should not strip links from the bibliographic records even though some links may not be live.
Orbis # 7148544 Starving terrorists of money : the role of Middle Eastern financial institutions ...
Orbis # 7220081 H.R. 1999--The State and Local Housing Flexibility Act of 2005 ...
Maintenance (and New Cataloging): Use of 856 in MFHD to Link Related Records in Orbis
In Voyager, the 856 field can be used to create a hotlink from one bibliographic record to another using the following path:
The URL should be entered in a separate 856 field in this form:
856 42 ‡u http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/<bibid of target record>‡z <public note>
CAUTION: Do not use orbstaff.library.yale.edu in the URL; this will cause the linked record to open in a staff session with an extended time-out.
1. If a classed together analyzed series (serial or multipart) has an unanalyzable title, the item records are relinked from the analytics to the cover record. At that time, the unit doing the relinking has the option to link the analytic record to the cover record through an 856 linking field. Catalog Management will add 856 links to analytic record MFHDs if there is a request from Public Services.
EXAMPLE: Orbis # 6306476 Jinsei seibutsugaku sei kagaku.
Clicking on the link will send the user to the cover record (Orbis # 6313521) where the item records live and where the circulation status will display.
856 42 ‡u http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/6313521 ‡z Click here for circulation status or to request this title (v. 1 of the series: Yamamoto Senji zenshū.)
2. If a bound with set (particularly one involving serial issues or multipart volumes) requires a separate MFHD or complex note to explain the record relationship, the cataloger and/or Catalog Management have the option to use an 856 MFHD link instead of the Voyager 014 bound with item record link to show the relationship between the records.
EXAMPLE: Orbis #
2346024 Athenaeum and literary chronicle.
All issues of the title are actually bound with the last volume of Athenaeum (London, England : 1828). Clicking on the link sends the user to the 1828 Athenaeum record (Orbis # 2410420).
856 42 ‡u http://hdl.handle.net/10079/bibid/2410420 ‡z Click here for circulation status or to request no.41(1828:Aug.)-no.62(1828:Dec.) [bound with no.37(1828:July)-no.40(1828:July) of "The Athenaeum"]
Bound-with Procedures for Serials and Multiparts
Linking Text Subfields in 856
Standard Terms for Use in 856 $y or $3