Basic Orbis/YUL glossary

To: Documentation Group
From: Steven Arakawa
Date: (6/26/03 creation date/ 06/07/2005 5:41 PM revision date)


050 MARC variable field used to record call numbers using the Library of Congress classification. Sometimes used as a shorthand for LC cataloging copy. Often pronounced "oh five oh"
2 check Near copy, e.g. cataloging is for a different edition or a different publisher of the same work. (SML searching jargon usually represented with 2 check marks)
3 check Cataloging copy for the same edition. (SML searching jargon usually represented with 3 check marks)
AACR2 Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, 2nd ed. An international set of rules for the description of bibliographic items and for the choice and form of entry for access points used to retrieve the record of the item described. Sometimes used as a shorthand term for bibliographic records following AACR2 rules for description and access (choice and form of entry). Standard full and core level cataloging at Yale follows both AACR2 and the LCRIs.
access point
  1. A name, term, code, etc. under which a bibliographic record may be searched and identified
  2. In computer-based information storage and retrieval, a field designated as a means of access to a record or file
added entry see ENTRY
aggregator "A company that provides digitized access to the content of many different serials and other resources, often from a variety of different publishers. Aggregators may also be called by other terms, including but not limited to: distributors, vendors, or secondary publishers. Aggregators provide access to digitized material through a searchable database. Generally the collections that aggregators produce fall into two different categories: those that provide access to complete issues of journal titles and those that contain the text to selected articles from journal issues."--CONSER Cataloging Manual
ALA American Library Association; the most general and largest U.S. professional librarians association. Has 2 conferences every year, the main conference is in the summer in late June; the smaller Midwinter conference is in January.
ALA character set ALA approved set of characters consisting of diacritics and special characters plus standard alphanumeric set characters.
analyze; analysis

Cataloging technique used to provide access to individual works that are part of a larger work.

1. Cataloger creates separate bibliographic records for the individual works and links the records for the individual works to the record for the larger work with a series added entry. ["classed-together analyzed"] Or,
2. Cataloger creates separate bibliographic records for the individual works and the individual works with a series added entry (but no bibliographic record is created for the larger work). ["classed separately'] Or,
3. Cataloger adds analytical added entries for the individual works to the bibliographic record of the larger work..

ANSI/NISO Z39.71-1999 American National Standard/National Information Standards Z39.71-1999. Standard used for recording volume holdings; often referred to as "ANSI standards" or "ANSI/NISO" standards.
AUL (Yale) Associate University Librarian
authority control The methods by which the authoritative forms of names, subjects, uniform titles, etc. used as headings in a file of bibliographic records are consistently applied and maintained.
authority file A set of authority records establishing the authoritative forms of headings to be used in bibliographic records.
authority record A record which shows a heading in the form established for use in bibliographic records. The record will generally cite the sources consulted in establishing the heading, and notes information found in the sources as justification of the chosen form of entry and the specified references.
AUTOCAT Moderated electronic list focusing on cataloging issues and procedures; U.S. based with international contributors. Includes job postings. Link to the AUTOCAT archive is on Cataloging at Yale: Tools and Resources.
barcode A machine readable code consisting of printed parallel lines of varying thicknesses used for fast, error-free entry of data into a computer. See also item record.
BIBCO "The monographic bibliographic record component of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging." Allows NACO members to contribute monograph records to the national utilities. BIBCO records are under full authority control, i.e. all headings are represented by an authority record in the national file; description follows AACR2 and the LCRIs.
bibliographic description In cataloging, the description of any item, divided into the following areas: title and statement of responsibility, edition, publication, distribution, etc.; physical description, series, notes which further describe the item.
Bibliographic Formats and Standards Documents the OCLC intepretation of the MARC 21 format.
bibliographic record A catalog entry, now generally in machine readable form, carrying full cataloging information for a given item in the library.
bibliographic resource Whatever catalogers decide to catalog: a book, a collection of works, an object, a collection of objects, etc. AACR2 generally uses "item."
bibliographic utility Organizations maintaining large databases of bibliographic records, e.g. OCLC and RLIN (see below)
boolean operators Used to modify keyword searching requests. The most common operators are AND (narrows the search), OR (broadens), and NOT (excludes from the search).
bound-withs Multiple distinct bibliographic titles bound together in a single physical volume.
call number The unique combination of letters and numbers, which indicates the position of a book on the shelf. Books cataloged at Yale before about 1970 have call numbers based on the Yale classification system (also known as Old Yale); most titles cataloged from 1970 on have call numbers based on the Library of Congress classification system.
catalog A list of books, serials, maps, recordings, or any other medium of which a collection is composed. It may be arranged by alphabet, by number, or by subject.
Catalog Management Team responsible for QA of Orbis bibliographic records, especially with regard to recon clean-up.
Cataloger's Desktop A collection of infobases published by the Library of Congress Cataloging Distribution Service (CDS) and issued on CD-ROM. Includes AACR2, the LCRIs, the CONSER manuals, the SCM, and the MARC formats. At Yale, the contents of Cataloger's Desktop are copied to a library server, allowing simultaneous access to a set number of users determined by the site license.
Cataloger's Toolkit Software developed by Gary Strawn (Northwestern) to facilitate authority control and other aspects of cataloging in Voyager
CCC Cataloging Coordinating Council. Consists of representatives from YUL cataloging constituencies; responsible for YUL cataloging policies and procedures.
CIP Cataloging-in-Publication records are created from publisher's data sheets sent to the Library of Congress prior to publication. The CIP program is restricted to U.S. imprints, so most CIP records are for English-language publications. CIP does not represent cataloging with piece in hand, and the descriptive elements will require editing. The CIP record may deviate significantly from the book you are cataloging. Encoding level is 8. Usually pronounced See-Eye-Pea at Yale, but pronounced "sip" (as in drink) at other institutions.
ClassWeb Web version of the Library of Congress classification schedules. Includes the LCSH database as well. (Note that the Introduction to LCSH is on the Cataloger's Desktop) As a site-licensed product, access is limited at Yale to a set number of simultaneous users and is password protected. Local notes may only be entered by the designated administrators.
cluster A group of records in the same RLIN file with the same or similar values for some or all of the following: LC card number, ISBN, title, publisher, publication date, pagination, and edition statement. A search request using a value that matches an access point in any record in the cluster retrieves the entire cluster.
Connexion OCLC web and windows based software used for searching, cataloging, and exporting in OCLC.
CONSER Cooperative Online Serials program within PCC. Members contribute serial records on OCLC and set the standards for serial cataloging in the U.S. Yale does not contribute records on OCLC but follows the CONSER standards. The CONSER Cataloging Manual and the CONSER Editing Guide are on the Cataloger's Desktop.
content designators General term for the characters that identify the data elements of a machine readable bibliographic record. Specific content designators include: tags, indicators, subfield codes, and delimiters.
continuing resource A bibliographic resource that is issued over time with no predetermined conclusion. Continuing resources include serials and ongoing integrating resources
CJK Chinese-Japanese-Korean. Subset of JACKPHY
Connexion OCLC web-based software used to access Worldcat. Windows version expected late 2003. Replaces OCLC's Passport and CatMe software.
copy cataloging The cataloging of a bibliographic resource by using an existing bibliographic record and altering it as needed to match the item in hand and to conform to local cataloging practice. Also called derived cataloging.
core record BIBCO standard defining minimal data elements for a bibliographic record in each format, where all headings are represented by an authority record in the national file, and description follows AACR2 and the LCRIs. Core records have encoding level: 4.
corporate name Name of a corporate body, i.e. an organization or group of persons that can act as a single entity. In MARC corporate names are x10 tags, i.e. 110, 610, 710, 810, except for the subset of conference names that use x11: 111, 611, 711, 811. Examples of corporate bodies are: associations, institutions (hospitals, libraries), business firms, nonprofit enterprises, governments and government agencies, religious bodies, local churches, and conferences.

LC Cataloging Policy and Support Office. Determines cataloging policy at LC; authors the LCRIs; has representatives on PCC and JSC.

cutter number Alpha-numeric designation used to subarrange call numbers with the same class number.
delimiter Character preceding a subfield code of a MARC variable field. On Voyager, the delimiter is presented by a double-dagger (‡); it is often represented in documentation by the dollar sign ($) or a line bar (|).
diacritic A mark, like the Spanish tilde (~) or the French grave accent that changes the pronunciation of the letter it modifies. In Voyager, diacritics are entered before or after the letter modified in the Cataloging Module but display above the letter in Web Voyage. Many workstations use MacroExpress software to mimic the keyboard mapping of RLIN or NOTIS for diacritic entry.
disc Optical disc, e.g. a CD-ROM
disk Magnetic disk, e.g. a floppy disk
Dublin Core Dublin Metadata Core Element Set. Standard set of data elements to be filled in by the creator of an electronic document to create a metadata record for the document.

For books, all copies produced from essentially the same type image and issued by the same publisher. YUL policy (as with most research libraries) is to create separate bibliographic records for different editions. (Some exceptions made for multipart sets)

In some European and Latin American publications, cognates of "edition" refer to printing rather than edition so defined; judgment must be exercised in such cases whether to treat as an edition or a printing.

entry Term used to determine priority of a heading (access point) for citation purposes. A main entry is the heading used for a citation (in combination with the title proper if the title proper is not the main entry). An added entry is any other name, title, or name-title heading used as a controlled access point.

Local Yale program used to warn staff when Voyager records should not be edited and to allow authorized staff to flag records for export to OCLC, RLIN, & MARS

filing indicator A content designator in a machine readable record used to control the filing order of data in a field, usually in order to suppress the initial article of a title in the alphabetical arrangement of the index display and to exclude the article as a search element. For examples:
fixed field A field whose length is controlled at a pre-set maximum number of characters. For example, country of publication data is restricted to 3 characters; type of publication date is restricted to one character.
FRBR Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records. International standard for bibliographic record content, emphasizing bibliographic relationships in the catalog. Influencing the ongoing revision of AACR2. Often pronounced "furbur."
GMD General Material Designator. Used to designate the broad class of material to which the item belongs. Entered in $h in 245. Not used for books or maps; most commonly used for microform, video, sound recordings, and CD-ROMs.
heading Standard access point under which the record of a book, serial, etc. may be retrieved and subarranged in the catalog. A heading represented by an authority record is considered to be an "established heading."
hit Desired result from an online search.
IFLA International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; international body representing the interests of library services and users. An IFLA study group is responsible for the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records.
ILS Integrated library system: a library automation package that covers all of the various library functions, e.g. acquisitions, cataloging, circulation, serials control, and the online catalog, using common databases. The YUL ILS is Voyager.
ISBD International Standard Bibliographic Description. Source of the punctuation used to demarcate areas and subareas of a standard bibliographic record, e.g. the "space slash space" used to separate the title from the statement of responsibility. Some of the ISBD punctuation separating descriptive areas does not display in Web Voyage; the RLIN LONG display uses full ISBD punctuation.
ISBN International Standard Book Number. A four part, ten digit code given to a book before publication as a means of identifying it concisely, uniquely and umambiguously (e.g., 0-123-45678-9). Plans are underway to expand the ISBN to 13 digits. Entered in MARC variable field 020. A key variable field and access point used in database searching and record matching.
ISSN International Standard Serial Number. A two part, eight digit code given to a serial before publication as a means of identifying it. A key variable field and access point used in database searching and record matching.
indicator In MARC, numeric codes associated with variable length fields, whose specific meaning depends on the field in which it occurs. See, for example, "filing indicator" above.
integrating resources A bibliographic resource that is added to or changed by means of updates that do not remain discrete and are integrated into the whole. Integrating resources can be finite or continuing. Examples of integrating resources include updating loose-leafs and updating Web sites.
item record Principal circulation and inventory record. In Voyager, an item record may or may not be associated with a barcode number.
item type Field in the Voyager item record that identifies the item's class of material and/or its circulation parameters.
iteration An instance of an integrating resource, either as first published or after it has been updated.
JACKPHY Japanese-Chinese-Korean-Persian-Hebrew-Yiddish. Non-roman scripts requiring special software for MARC record creation (until Voyager implements UNICODE)
JSC Joint Steering Committee for the Revision of AACR. Committee is made up of representatives from the national libraries of Australia, Canada, and the U.S. The JSC authorizes all updates to AACR2.
keyword searching Process of locating information that is indexed by one or more significant descriptive words.
LAC   Library and Archives Canada; formerly NLC (National Library of Canada)
LC Library of Congress
LCCN LC control (formerly card) number. Entered in MARC 010 field. A key variable field and access point used in database searching and record matching.
LCDB Orbis MARC resource file containing all roman script monograph bibliographic records created by LC within the last 4-5 years, the complete files of all roman script non-book and serial bibliographic records created by LC, and all NARs, SARs, and LCSH authority records created by LC/PCC. Because the file is batch-loaded, it is about 1-2 weeks behind the official national files. Accessed through the Voyager Cataloging Module, LCDB is used by staff to copy bibliographic records to create preliminary records or to update preliminary records to full cataloging status, and for authority verification. Although authority records found in LCDB for headings used in Orbis have copies in the Orbis database, authority records for subject subdivisions are only found in LCDB.
LCRIs Library of Congress Rule interpretations (of AACR2); the LCRIs are on the Cataloger's Desktop. Standard full and core level cataloging at Yale follows both AACR2 and the LCRIs.
LCSH Library of Congress Subject Headings. The authority list of subject headings established by LC and SACO participants. In book format, often referred to as "the red books." Searchable on the web through ClassWeb. The machine readable authority records for LCSH are also searchable in Voyager (integrated with the NARs, SARs, and LC bibliographic records) and in the RLIN authority database in the SAF file. The "Introduction to LCSH" is on Cataloger's Desktop.
LMC Library Management Council. Responsible for general YUL policies and administration.
LSF (Yale) Library Shelving Facility. The library's offsite storage facility in Hamden, Conn.
MacroExpress Commercial software used to create macros on Voyager.
main entry see ENTRY
major/minor changes

Changes between issues of a serial that may or may not require a new bibliographic record.

MARC (21) Machine Readable Cataloging format. The MARC 21 format, maintained by LC, is the machine readable format used by U.S. libraries. There are a number of MARC 21 formats; Voyager cataloging utilizes the formats for bibliographic, authority, and holdings data. The format documentation is on the Cataloger's Desktop.
MARC record Bibliographic, holdings, or authority records in machine readable form.
MARS OCLC MARC Records Service; automated authorities processing service used by Yale.
member copy At Yale, this refers to cataloging copy contributed to the bibliographic utilities by libraries other than LC or YUL and used in Orbis as a source for copy cataloging or preliminary records.
metadata Encoded description of a bibliographic record intended to facilitate computer discrimination of large amounts of data. Term is most often used in the conjunction with the bibliographic control of remote electronic resources. For an example, see Dublin Core.
MFHD MARC format for holdings. Usually pronounced muffhead.
monograph an item complete in one part or intended to be comlete in a finite number of separate parts
mpm; multipart(s) Multipart monograph.(AACR2: multipart item; term in the process of revision) Monograph complete or intended to be complete in a finite number of parts. SML also used the term "book contins" until ca. 1990.
NACO Name Authority Cooperative program within PCC. Members set the standards for and contribute name, name/title, and series authority records to the national authority file.
NLM National Library of Medicine
OAI-PMH   Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting
OCLC Online Computer Library Center (formerly Ohio College Library Center). One of two bibliographic utilities used as a resource for cataloging copy by YUL.
OPAC Online Public Access Catalog. The Yale public catalog is now a Webpac, a Web-based Public Access Catalog
Orbis YUL OPAC and its ILS support modules. The Voyager version is sometimes referred to as Orbis2 in tech services to distinguish it from the NOTIS version that it replaced.
patron record A circulation module record containing data about an individual, department, or temporary library location capable of having books charged to it.

Software tool developed by the ITS Desktop Support Group to help coordinate and automate software deployment in the Windows 2000 environment. Allows the user to download software updates (e.g. Voyager updates) from a central server. The PCAmigo icon is on every library workstation Start Menu. See general guidelines at:

PCC Program for Cooperative Cataloging. Umbrella organization for CONSER, NACO, SACO, and BIBCO. Yale is a member.The code pcc in MARC 21 variable field 042 indicates that the bibliographic record was created according to program standards requiring minimal adjustment by PCC member libraries.

YUL Public Interfaces Committee. Representatives from public and technical services; responsible for improving usability of YUL electronic interfaces, including Web Voyage, the library front door, etc.

portfolio Container for holding loose plates.
preliminary records aka provisional records Temporary bibliographic record created to track on order or in-process items; replaced through overlay or online editing when the item is cataloged. Preliminary records may be represented by minimal-level or unreviewed full-level cataloging copy imported from the resource file or the bibliographic utilities.
QA Quality Assurance
recon Retrospective conversion: process of converting to a machine-readable form the records in a manual or non-machine readable file that are not created through day to day processing.
RLG Research Libraries Group. Administers RLIN.
RLIN21 Formerly Research Libraries Information Network. One of two bibliographic utilities used as a resource for cataloging copy by YUL.
romanization Conversion of names or text not written in the Roman alphabet to Roman alphabet form.

Subject Authority Cooperative Program. Allows libraries to submit subject heading and classification proposals to the Libary of Congress. List of SACO headings contributed by Yale at:

SARs Series Authority Records. MARC authority record of decisions on established form for the series heading & whether the series is classed together or separately. Yale establishes all new series authority records to the national authority file through NACO.
SCM (Library of Congress) Subject Cataloging Manual. Consists of three manuals documenting LC procedures and policy for: Classification, Shelflisting, and Subject Headings. Unless otherwise noted, usually refers to the Subject Headings manual. SCM is on the Cataloger's Desktop.
serial A continuing resource issued in a succession of discrete parts, usually bearing numbering, that has no predetermined conclusion. Examples of serials include journals, magazines, electronic journals, continuing directories, annual reports, newspapers, and monographic series
series A group of separate items related to one another by the fact that each item bears, in addition to its own title proper, a collective title applying to the group as a whole.
shelflist Catalog arranged in call number order, representing the order in which the the volumes would appear on the shelves if all the titles were held in one location.
SML Sterling Memorial Library
SQIC The Service Quality Improvement (SQI) Council exists to promote, monitor, and coordinate the continual improvement of the Yale University Library's services to readers. It reviews library-wide service practices and policies and recommends and advocates changes as appropriate.
status tracking Method used to record the progress of a bibliographic item at any time while it is being processed in technical services. Currently status tracking is performed through the Voyager Circulation Module.

Yale Library's Staff Training and Organizational Development (division of Yale Library Human Resources).

tag Numeric or mnemonic code that uniquely defines each field in a MARC record
template In Voyager, a pre-defined MARC record used to facilitate creation of new records. Default template is changed via Preferences--> Folders/Files --> Templates
title proper The title on the bibliographic resource as recorded in MARC 245 (or in the series area for the title proper of a series) $a. Does not include the part of the title recorded in MARC 245 $b, e.g. the subtitle or the parallel title.
trace To add an access point to a bibliographic record
truncation Giving only part of a word or phrase value in a search request, allowing the system to retrieve all values that include the supplied fragment.
UNICODE Standard being adopted by LC, Voyager, OCLC, and RLIN. Will allow data entry and display of non-roman scripts.
uniform title The title used for citation purposes. Recorded in field 240, 130 or 830 if the uniform title differs from the title proper. Used primarily for translations, voluminous authors, pre1500 authors, and serials (including series).
updating loose-leaf An integrating resource that consists of one or more base volumes updated by separate pages that are inserted, removed, and/or substituted. On bibliographic records, identified by the qualifier "(loose-leaf)" in field 300 ‡a. Popular format in legal collections.
variable field A MARC field whose length may vary within predefined limits according to the amount of data to be stored or recorded.
Web Voyage The Voyager web-based OPAC
WorldCat The OCLC bibliographic database
YUL Yale University Libraries
Z39.50 Protocol standard that allows the user to search other databases using the local online interface.


Based on Orbis Glossary prepared by Christine de Vallet, Ellen Jaramillo, and Sue Versenyi, 1987.













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