Cataloging CD-ROMs & Other Direct Access Electronic Resources: Original Cataloging Checklist

To: Catalog Librarians & Technical Services Staff
From: Steven Arakawa for CCC/CPDC
Date: (03/15/06 issue date/ 03/15/2006 2:03 PM revision date)



Fixed Fields:

Form of Item/Original Item
007 Physical Characteristics.
006 Additional Physical Characteristics

Variable Fields.9.0B1. Chief Source

9.1. Title Area (245):

9.1B2. Source of title.
9.1B3. File/dataset names.
9.1C1-9.1C2. GMD.
9.1F1. Statement of responsibility

9.2 (250). Edition Area

9.2B1 Source of edition statement.
9.2B2. Terms other than "edition"
9.2B3. When to supply bracketed statement
9.2B4. Minor changes not recorded in edition statement
9.2B5. Multiple edition statements

9.3 (256/255/254/362). Material Specific Details Area

9.4. (260) Publication Area

9.5 Physical Description

9.5B1 (300 $a). Extent.
9.5B4 (300 $a) Qualifying extent.
9.5C (300 $b). Other physical details.
9.5D (300 $c). Dimensions

9.7 Notes.

9.7B1. System Details (538)
9.7B3. Source of title
9.7B4. Variations in title (246)
9.7B6. Statements of responsibility
9.7B7. Edition and history
[12.7B10. Numbering peculiarities (Serials)
9.7B8 (516) Type of File or Data
9.7B11. Accompanying material
9.7B17. Summary

Access & Choice of Entry


Subject Access & Classification. Form subject obsolete.

A. Databases in LCSH
B. Electronic Serials in LCSH
C. Software in LCSH
D. Classification and Call Numbers

Processing (SML only) .


This document applies to direct access electronic resources cataloged with reference to AACR2 2002 rev. Chapter 9. Direct access electronic resources have a physical carrier that can be described (a disc, a cassette, or a cartridge) that is inserted into a computer device (e.g. a workstation CD-ROM drive) or a peripheral attached to the computer device. Some examples of direct access electronic resources include: CD-ROMs, photo CDs, DVD-ROMs, floppy discs, memory sticks, & computer tape cassettes, reels, etc. The primary focus of this document will be on CD-ROMs. (Do not use this document for CD-audio recordings or video DVDs)

In all cases, the cataloger should consult Chapter 1 for general descriptive rules.

CD-ROMs are cataloged on the basis of their content (i.e., content as text, score, cartographic, graphic, or electronic material [in a very narrowly defined sense; see scope note below]). If an AACR2 format chapter does not have special descriptive rules for electronic resources, Chapter 9 is used instead to describe the electronic aspects of the resource, supplemented by relevant non-electronic descriptive elements prescribed by the class of material [the content] or mode of issuance chapter. Chapter 9 is currently applied in combination with Chapter 2 (Books), Chapter 3 (Cartographic Materials), Chapter 4 (unpublished textual material), Chapter 5 (Music), Chapter 8 (Graphic materials), and Chapter 12 (Continuing Resources [for textual serials and integrating resources in electronic form]). As noted by AACR2, Chapter 9 may be used in combination with more than one chapter, e.g. describing a serially-issued cartographic resource, the cataloger would refer to chapters 1, 3, 9, and 12.

On the other hand, If an AACR format chapter has special descriptive rules for electronic resources, it is used in combination with Chapter 1 but not with Chapter 9. Therefore, follow only the descriptive rules in chapter 6 for sound recordings, and chapter 7 for videorecordings. If necessary, rules for these chapters should be combined with the rules for continuing resources in Chapter 12.

For direct access electronic resources, Chapter 9 alone is applied only to direct access electronic databases and software programs.

Note that the procedures in this document are not applied to remote electronic resources (web resources); these are documented separately.

Although occasional reference is made to direct access electronic serials in this document, the primary reference source for this category should be Module 30 of the CONSER Cataloging Manual [CCM]; see also: CONSER Editing Guide [CEG], Section F. Appendix N. Special physical formats. [Subsection] Electronic Resources. While it may be the case that most current & future serial electronic resources will be remote rather than direct resources, serial backfiles on CD-ROM may continue to be the preferred format for some publishers in developing countries.

Note that LCRI 1.0 has a section Monograph or Serial, with a special section Situations Requiring Further Consideration. The key statement: "If the resource was/is published in print, make the decision to catalog the electronic resource as a serial, integrating resource, or monograph based on the electronic resource itself, not on how it was issued in print." [emphasis added] LC/PCC practice is:

  • catalog as a serial a direct access electronic resource "whose carrier is issued successively (this situation is analogous to a print serial whose latest volume supersedes any earlier volumes)."
  • catalog as a monograph a direct access electronic resource "complete in one part or intended to be complete in a finite number of parts, including those resources that are corrected via 'errata' information." *
  • "no direct access resource can be issued as an integrating resource (assumption that would be changed if proven incorrect)."

*Because, exceptionally, the basis for cataloging of electronic resources is the mode of issuance of the resource itself & not how it was issued in print, the later section of the RI, 5) Republications, will not apply if a serial backfile is issued on CD-ROM as a one-time cumulation. (LCRI 1.0 Situations Requiring Further Consideration, 5) Republications states: "Generally, catalog a republication of a serial as a serial.") Note that CONSER practice for print reprints of serials, which are generally cataloged as serials (CCM 17.7), will not apply to a serial issued on CD-ROM as a one-time cumulation. However, if a serial that has appeared in print is issued on CD-ROM with periodic cumulations, it should be cataloged as a serial, even if only the latest CD-ROM is retained.

Fixed Fields:


Type of record/Bibliographic Level. Use the appropriate code for the content (e.g. a/m for a textual monograph; a/s for a textual serial) not the physical carrier (the CD-ROM or the floppy disc). Examples:

  • Shakespeare's plays on CD-ROM: a/m
  • an atlas on diskette: e/m
  • Bach's cantatas (the musical scores) on CD-ROM: c/m
  • Biological abstracts on compact disc: a/s <ongoing serial>
  • Complete Lingua franca on CD-ROM: a/m <re-issue of a complete run of a dead serial on CD-ROM>
  • a master's thesis on CD-ROM: t/m
  • a "database" of 18th century digitized prints: k/m.

Prior to 1998 MARC standards required all CD-ROMs & other direct access electronic resources to be Type of Record m (computer data file). Currently, Type of Record m should still be used for:

  • computer software (Microsoft Office on CD-ROM),
  • numeric databases (e.g., census results),
  • computer oriented multimedia (e.g. video games, virtual art exhibition tours),
  • online systems or services (e.g. AOL on CD-ROM).

If the contents of the CD-ROM fall within the computer file category but the CD-ROM is also a serial, use Record Type/Bibliographical Level m/s, (e.g. an annual census report). Note that per CONSER (30.1), a CD-ROM is considered to be a serial & not an integrating resource even if it is cumulative and the latest issue only is retained.

008 Form of Item and Original Item

Whatever value is assigned to Type of Record, the fixed field Form of Item should be assigned value s for Electronic. For referencing MARC documentation for books, serials, and scores, Form of item is 008/23; for maps and visual materials, Form of item is 008/29. Note that this code is not used for audio CDs and DVDs.

For serials, Original Item (008/22) is also coded s [Electronic] unless it is clear that the electronic version was made for preservation purposes. Per the CEG,

"CONSER practice for electronic resources differs somewhat from that for microforms because the distinctions between original and reproduction are less clear. With electronic resources, a serial may be produced originally in a digital form from which a print version and an electronic version are both created. For this reason, the use of "reproduction" is limited to cases where it is very clear that an electronic serial is a reproduction according to the provisions of LCRI 1.11a . For other electronic serials for which a separate record is created, both the form of item and original form of item are coded as electronic."

007 Physical Characteristics

Mandatory. Click the 007 button to open the window, click to select the appropriate format tab, and click the NEW button at the bottom of the window. After the appropriate fixed fields have been selected, click the APPLY button. When all necessary 007 fields have been created, click CLOSE at the bottom of the window.

If the content is primarily textual, select Computer File and follow the 007 guidelines for Computer Files below. [NOTE: RLIN uses Electronic Resources instead of Computer File as the type of material option.]

If the content is non-textual, create two 007s. For the first 007, select the appropriate format tab, e.g. for a score on CD-ROM, select Notated Music; for an atlas on CD-ROM, select Map. For the second 007, select Computer File. (Click NEW and select) and follow the 007 guidelines for Computer Files below.

Computer File [Electronic Resources] guidelines (007) for textual content:

01 Specific Material Designation:

  1. Use: o: Optical disc for CD-ROMs, photo CDs, DVD-ROMs, CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD+R, DVD+RW.*
  2. Use j: Magnetic disk for floppy disks <spelled incorrectly on Voyager as disc>
  3. m: Magneto-Optical disc [almost never used] *

CAUTION: the scope notes for codes "o" and "m" in the MARC 21 documentation for 007 01 Electronic Resources may be misleading in that they appear to suggest that "o" applies only to read-only CDs and DVDs. Most read/write discs use optical technology, utilizing either "phase-change" or "dye-sublimation" recording techniques, which are considered optical. The magneto-optical recording technique is almost never used with the type of discs we would catalog; it appears to be used primarily with disc-drives. [Based on information from Bryan Baldus & Jay Weitz.] For technical distinctions, a frequent source cited is from the Wikipedia:



04 Dimension.

  1. Use a: 3 1/2 for floppy disks
  2. Use g: 4 3/4 for CD-ROMs (and CD-R/Ws)
  3. Use o: 5 1/4 for floppy disks

06-08 Image bit depth.

  1. Use nnn: Not applicable if there are no images;
  2. Use --- : Unknown (three dashes) if there are images but the bit depth is unknown;
  3. Use mmm: Multiple if the images are captured at more than one bit depth;
  4. Use 001-999: Exact bit depth if all of the images are one bit depth, e.g. 024 if all of the images are 24 bit color scans.
  5. Use 3. or 4. only if the information is readily available. Otherwise use 2. if there are images and 1. if there are no images.

09 File Format. Use u: Unknown

10 Quality Assurance Target. Use u:Unknown.

11 Antecedent/Source. Use u: Unknown

12 Level of Compression. Use u:Unknown

13 Reformatting Quality. Use u:Unknown

006 Additional Material Characteristics

Mandatory. Create a 006 even though a 007 has been created for Computer File. Click 006 to open. Select Computer File and click NEW at the bottom of the window. (The 006 is needed for limiting searches on Orbis.) When the appropriate values have been selected, click the APPLY button and click the CLOSE button.

[NOTE: RLIN uses Electronic Resources instead of Computer File as the type of material option]

There are only 3 fields in 006.

Target audience: Value depends on the item in hand, but is generally blank.

Type of File value is derived from the Type of Record code in the Leader, but the available code values may not be intuitive. Use these guidelines:

Resource LDR
Type of record
Type of file
Art Image k c
Game m g
Interactive Multimedia m i
Map e c
Music c c
Numeric data m a
Photograph k c
Text a d








When in doubt, use u=Unknown.

For more detail, refer to Cataloging Electronic Resources: OCLC-MARC Coding Guidelines, Field 006, "Type" and "File" Coding:

Govt Publication: same coding used for books.

Variable Data Fields

9.0B1. Chief source

With the 2001 amendments, the chief source of information is "the resource itself." Chief source information may be taken from formally presented evidence within the entire resource. In addition to title screens, main menus, program statements, initial displays of information, and file headers, "the physical carrier and its labels" [i.e., the disc itself] is an equally valid chief source, not a secondary alternative. If different valid chief sources vary in fullness, prefer the source with the most complete information. If different titles are equally full, use judgment.

EXCEPTION. For direct access electronic resources that are also serials, the disc label is the chief source, per AACR2 12.0B2 b). (The exception is made to facilitate serial checkin) In addition, the basis for description in serials cataloging is the first or earliest issue.

CAUTION. Even if the source of the title falls into one of the "chief source" categories, a source of title note is always created. This is not the case with the rules in the chapters for formats such as books or sound recordings, but if Chapter 2 (Books) is used in combination with Chapter 9 (Electronic Resources), a note giving the source of the title proper must be made even if the title is from a chief source. (This is not entirely explicit in the current rules; the rule for electronic resources is 9.1B2.)

Because there is no longer a strict order of preference in cataloging electronic resources, providing variant title access is of great importance. For serials, although there is, exceptionally, an order of preference, the cataloger should nevertheless take into account significant variations between the chief source [the disc label] and the title screens, menus, etc. and provide variant title access.

Note that, in addition to the title and statement of responsibility, the preferred prescribed source of information for the following areas is also the chief source: edition area, publication area, series area.

Types of secondary alternatives under the current rules: printed or online documentation or other accompanying material, such as publisher's letters and "about" files.

For multiparts & serials, the chief source is the container or its permanently affixed label if the title on the container provides the collective title and the parts do not.

Historical note: Prior to 2001 the chief source was the "title screen."

The following overview of Chapter 9 focuses on the rules that are specific to direct access electronic resources. Chapter 9 rules that substantially repeat Chapter 1 rules have been excluded. For example, the cataloger needs to consult Chapter 9 for the full list of available notes (9.7) and their order.

9.1B2. The source of the title proper is always given in a note. See note examples at 9.7B3.

9.1B3. File or dataset names should not be recorded as the title proper unless the file/dataset name is the only one given on the chief source. File or dataset names not used as the title proper may be recorded as notes. See example at 9.7B4.

9.1C1. GMD (subfield h) is required. Per 1.1C, use electronic resource.

245 0 0 ‡a 1987 economic censuses ‡h [electronic resource].

100 1   ‡a Johnson, Theopolis W.
245 1 3 ‡a An American experiment ‡h [electronic resource] : ‡b a database of all known participants in "The Tuskegee experience" / ‡c by Theopolis W. Johnson.

Note that subfield h is entered after subfields p and n if there. (CONSER example):

245 0 0 ‡a Current contents on diskette. ‡p Engineering, technology & applied sciences ‡h [electronic resource].

9.1C2. However, if you had an item in more than one physical part that combined a CD-ROM with another form of material, and neither was predominant, the GMD should be kit. [The rule also lists multimedia, but multimedia can only be used by British catalogers (List 1); see AACR2 1.1C1].

HISTORICAL NOTE. Prior to 2001, the GMD was computer file; this term is now obsolete. For a brief period in the late 1990s, the provisional GMD interactive multimedia was sometimes used, but the term was never authorized officially.

9.1F1. Record persons or bodies credited with "a major role in creating the content of the resource." Other persons/bodies may be recorded in a note. [9.7B6]

For serials, the statement of responsibility is recorded whether it comes from the chief source or from other prescribed sources. Per 1.1F, the statement of responsibility is bracketed if it does not appear on the chief source. Because the chief source for direct access electronic resources is flexible, generally bracketing statement of responsibility information is not an issue. But note that, exceptionally, for direct access electronic serial resources, the chief source is specifically identified as the physical carrier [AACR 12.0B2 b) Nonprint resources], so if information about the chief source is taken from a source other than the disc/disk, it is bracketed.


9.2B1. The source of the edition statement is given in a note if it differs from the source of the title proper. See example at 9.7B7.

9.2B2. Electronic resources commonly use terms other than "edition" to denote a new manifestation. The rule cites such terms as issue, version, release, level, update (and their equivalents in other languages) to justify an edition statement. Note that in serials cataloging, version numbers are relegated to 538, since these change as later issues are published; statements of the type "Macintosh version," on the other hand, would be considered edition statements even in serials cataloging (CCM 30.10), and in some cases "version" can function as enumerative designation.

LCCN sn 98033758 (note end punctuation)

250     ‡a Windows version.

LCCN 94790355

250     ‡a Version 1.1.

But cf. LCCN 2002201396 (a serial) [version functions as enumeration]

362 0   ‡a Version 98.2-

and LCCN 2003202101 (also a serial)

362 0   ‡a -97.1.
500     ‡a Description based on: Version 96.2a; title from diskette label.

9.2B3. The LCRI for this rule is to apply the option under the conditions stated under RI 1.2B4, which is to supply an edition statement in brackets if there are manifest differences, not supposed differences from other editions. Significant changes cited by AACR: "changes in the data involving content, standardized coding, etc.; changes in the programming including changes in the program statements, programming language, and programming routines and operations; the addition of sound or graphics; improvement of graphics)."

9.2B4. Examples of minor changes are "corrections of misspellings of data, changes in the arrangement of the contents, changes in the output format or the display medium, and changes in the physical characteristics (e.g., blocking factors, recording density)." These do not warrant a new record and are not recorded in the edition statement, though they may be recorded in notes (Cf. 9.2B7). Book catalogers tend to create a new record even if changes are relatively minor. If that's your background, be sure you have a good grasp of this rule when cataloging electronic resources.

9.2B5. Multiple edition statements. Transcribe only the statements relating to the whole resource in 250; edition statements relating to the parts may be recorded in a note.

9.3. Material Specific Details Area. This area (MARC21 256) was formerly used for recording uncompressed file sizes. It was not used by LC and probably was not much used on records by other libraries. With the 2002 amendments, it is no longer applied to electronic resources. However, when an item is cataloged using Chapter 9 in combination with Chapter 3 (Cartographic materials), Chapter 5 (Music), or Chapter 12 (Continuing resources), the MARC fields used to record area 3 data for the class of material is recorded, i.e. 255 (Cartographic materials: Cartographic mathematical data), 254 (Music: Musical Presentation Statement), and 362 (Serials: Date of Publication/Sequential Designation) [see serial examples at 9.2B2 above]

Cartographic example (LCCN 98678153, modified). The 256 field on the LC record is now obsolete.

245 0 0 ‡a Electromap world atlas ‡h [electronic resource].
250     ‡a Diskette version.
255     ‡a Scale not given.
256     ‡a Computer data and program. <OBSOLETE>


9.4C2/9.4D2. Note that per AACR2, only remote electronic resources are always considered to be published. While most CD-ROMs are published, you may encounter an unpublished multimedia thesis on CD-ROM, or a reproduction of a thesis distributed on-demand in CD-ROM format. In that case, you must follow the publication area rules for unpublished materials in 1.4C8/1.4D8, i.e. don't use [s.l.] and [s.n.]; just record the unbracketed date of creation [9.4F2]. Reminder: For unpublished materials, Type of record in the Leader is "t" not "a."

9.4F4. If the item lacks a publication date applying to the whole resource, and it has multiple copyright dates that may apply to different aspects (e.g., programming, graphics, documentation), transcribe only the latest copyright date.


9.5B1. For extent terminology, YUL follows the LCRI, i.e. catalogers should apply the optional rule and use a term in common usage. Use "DVD-ROM" to distinguish from video DVDs. Note that magnetic disks are spelled with a "k." "Floppy disk" is commonly used to describe both 3 1/2 & 5 1/4 in. computer disks; "diskette" is used primarily for 3 1/2 in. computer disks.

300     ‡a 1 CD-ROM ...
300     ‡a CD-ROMs ... <for a serial>
300     ‡a 3 Photo CDs ...
300     ‡a 2 DVD-ROMs ...
300     ‡a 1 floppy disk ...
300     ‡a 3 diskettes ...
300     ‡a 1 zip disk ...

If in doubt about the "common usage" term, use one of the standard terms from the 9.5B1 list.

300     ‡a 3 computer tape cartridges ...

For new physical carriers lacking a common usage term & that are not listed in 9.5B1, AACR2 instruction is to give the specific name as concisely as possible, and include if possible the term "computer."

300     ‡a 1 computer card ...
300     ‡a 1 computer flash drive ...

Note that the conventional terminology option cannot be applied to sound recordings; the rules for physical description for audio recordings are in AACR Chapter 6; if you are cataloging a CD audio disc, you should not be referencing this document.

The 2004 amendments extended the common usage terminology exception to chapter 7, and YUL uses the option for videos, but you should not be referencing this document for videorecordings. Use instead: Video (DVD & Videocassette) Original Cataloging Checklist, Part 1.

Also following the RI, the 2nd 9.5B1 option can be used on a case by case basis (i.e., combining terms from the format chapter with the physical carrier term). For maps and other cartographic materials, this option is required per Cartographic Materials: a Manual for Interpretation for AACR2, 2002 Revision (2004 update), 5B33. (See Cataloger's Desktop)

300     ‡a 200 maps on 2 CD-ROMs ...

9.5B4. The number of files, records, and bytes may be recorded in parentheses if readily available and considered to be important. In practice, this information is rarely recorded in 300. Note field 516 may be a better location. (See 9.7B8)

300     ‡a 1 CD-ROM (1 file : 560,000 bytes) ...

9.5C. Note that "other physical details" (300 subfield b) are restricted to sd. and col.

300     ‡a 1 CD-ROM : ‡b sd., col. ...

Per 9.5C2, you have the option of recording additional physical characteristics in $b if readily available, but these should apply to the physical carrier (e.g. single sided, single density) not to the content (ill., ports.). LCRI: LC applies on a case-by-case basis. If it is considered necessary to include information about additional physical characteristics, a 516 note can also be used, cf. LCCN 95645685 example in 9.7B8 section below.

9.5D1. Dimensions are required, except for computer reels (do not give dimensions for computer reels). The diameter is used as the basis of measurement for the most common types.

Dimensions are given in inches and fractions of inches. Do not use the option to record dimensions in centimeters. (Canadian cataloging follows this option; LCRI does not)

Standard CD-ROM size is: 4 3/4 in.

Currently, the most common computer disk size is 3 1/2 in. Common usage term for computer disks of this size is either "floppy disk" or "diskette."

The common usage term for computer disks with diameter 5 1/4 in. (now generally superseded by 3 1/2 in. disks) is generally "floppy disk."

Deviations from the standard sizes are not uncommon; presumably these would be noticed when the cataloger tries to load the disc on the workstation.

Refer to AACR2 for dimensions on other physical carriers.

AACR2 examples give fractions in dimensions as, for example, 5¼ in. In MARC records, dimensions are recorded as: 5 1/4 in. (note space between 5 and the fraction).

300     ‡a 1 CD-ROM : ‡b sd., col. ; ‡c 4 3/4 in.

LCCN 2002555937

300     ‡a 1 floppy disk ; ‡c 3 1/2 in.

LCCN 2004206321

300     ‡a 3 diskettes : ‡b col. ; ‡c 3 1/2 in.

LCCN 2002564502

300     ‡a 1 floppy disk ; ‡c 5 1/4 in. + ‡e 1 user guide.

9.5D2. If the item consists of multiple carriers differing in size, give the range from smallest to largest:

LCCN sn 98053279 (modified) [a serial]

300     ‡a floppy disks ; ‡c 3 1/2-5 1/4 in.

9.5E. Accompanying material. Note that the field ends with a period.

LCCN 2003557644 (Use of "+ 1 insert" also in LCCN 2001562668, 2001562668; 2002564026):

300     ‡a 1 CD-ROM ; ‡b sd., col. ; ‡c 4 3/4 in. + ‡e 1 insert.

LCCN 2004565667

300     ‡a 1 CD-ROM ; ‡c 4 3/4 in. + ‡e 1 user's guide.

LCCN 95790915 (modified):

300     ‡a 1 CD-ROM ; ‡c 4 3/4 in. + ‡e 1 user's guide (32 p.) + 1 teacher's guide (47 p.) + 10 booklets.

LCCN 2001561569 (copycat; modified)

300     ‡a 1 CD-ROM : ‡b sd., col. ; ‡c 4 3/4 in. + ‡e 1 user's guide + 5 booklets + 1 poster.

LCCN 2003557817

300     ‡a 2 CD-ROMs : ‡b col. ; ‡c 4 3/4 in. + ‡e 1 user guide + 1 floppy disk (3 1/2 in.)

In serials cataloging, accompanying material is generally not recorded in 300 $e unless it is certain that the material accompanies each issue. (CCM 30.12.4)

NOTES (in order):

9.7B1. System Requirements (538). MANDATORY if applicable. 538 is repeatable, so if the system runs on both PC and MAC, record the system requirements in separate 538 fields if necessary. The 538 note always begins with "System Requirements." The text is not machine-supplied, as is the case with other notes. The information is recorded "if readily available." The type of information required is given, and should be listed in the order following:

  • make and model of the computer needed to run the resource
  • amount of memory required
  • name of operating system
  • software requirements (including programming language)
  • any required or recommended peripherals
  • required or recommended hardware modifications

See also policy on field 753 below.

538 field examples:

Orbis 6202781 (Comprehensive radiographic pathology)

538     ‡a System requirements for Windows: Internet Explorer, version 5 (or later) or Netscape version 4.79 (or later); Adobe Acrobat Reader 4 (or later); 800 x 600 pixels screen resolution; 16-bit color (65,000 colors); 64 MB RAM; Windows 95, 98, 2000, NT, ME, or YX operating system.
538     ‡a System requirements for the Mac: Internet Explorer, version 5 (or later) or Netscape version 4.79 (or later); Adobe Acrobat Reader 4 (or later); 800 x 600 pixels screen resolution; 16-bit color (65,000 colors); 64 MB RAM; MAC OS 8.1 (or later), or OS X operating system.

Orbis 4417476 (Patchwork girl)

538     ‡a System requirements for Windows: 486, Celeron, Pentium, or faster processor; Windows 3.1, 95, 98, NT, or later.
538     ‡a System requirements for Macintosh: Mac OS 6.07 or later.
538     ‡a System requirements for electronic manual: Adobe acrobat or Adobe acrobat reader.

Programming language is recorded in 538, not in 546.

OBSOLETE. A 538 note is not mandatory if no information about system requirements is readily available.

Orbis 4358519 (Schillers Werke (Nationalausgabe) auf CD-ROM; no information available about system requirements).

538     ‡a System requirements: CD-ROM drive.

9.7B3. Source of title (500). (Cf. 9.1B2) MANDATORY. The source of title is always recorded (especially important since there is no order of priority for selecting from the list of potential chief sources). See also the Chief Source 9.0B1 section above.

AACR2 example (reminder: the title screen is no longer given priority as the chief source)

500     ‡a Title from title screen.

In the following example, keep in mind the footnote in 9.0B1 for the term "label." (On Cataloger's Desktop, click on the green highlighted term in 9.0B1 to open up the footnote as a popup window). A label as source of the title proper can be affixed or it can be embossed or printed on the disc by the publisher. Per the footnote, the label as the source for the title proper is NOT information taken from any label on the container; the label referred to must be from the disc.

The note in the example shows the usual LC note practice (e.g. LCCN 2004565667; 2002565744; 2002564903; 2004565275) for CD-ROMs:

500     ‡a Title from disc label.

If the item cataloged is a floppy disk/diskette (note spelling):

500     ‡a Title from disk label.

LCCN 2002565681:

500     ‡a Title from jewel case.

LCCN sn 98053279 (serial issued on floppy disks and diskettes). Standard serial practice is to combine "Description based on" note with source of title note. The source of title note is made for direct access electronic serials even though direct access electronic serials have a specific chief source. [CCM 30.3.3]

500     ‡a Description based on: 1960-1985; title from disk label.

For serials, it is common practice to record series-like words or phrases in At head of title notes. Example from CCM:

500     ‡a At head of title: Wilsondisc.

LCCN 92644515 (quotes indicate the series-like phrase is from the disc label)

500     ‡a "Compact Cambridge."
500     ‡a Description based on: 1982-Mar. 1992; title from disc label.

9.7B4. Variations in title. The option to record the romanized form of the title proper in a note is not followed by LC or Yale (instead, the romanized title proper is recorded in 245 6 880). The second 9.7B4 option to record the filename in a note is applied case-by-case (Cf. 9.1B3.). AACR2 example of a filename note:

246 1   ‡i File name: ‡a CC.RIDER


500     ‡a File name: CC.RIDER.

LCCN 00230172 (a serial):

246 1   ‡i Executable file name: ‡a Annual energy review data base ‡f 1993-199

LCCN sn 97048231

130 0   ‡a Best evidence (CD-ROM)
245 0 0 ‡a Best evidence ‡h [electronic resource].
246 1   ‡i Title on Readme icon: ‡a BE

LCCN 2002201396

245 0 0 ‡a BNA corporate tax audit analyzer ‡h [electronic resource] / ‡c BNA Software.
246 1   ‡i Title from user's manuals: ‡a Corporate tax audit analyzer
500     ‡a Title from diskette label.

9.7B6. Statements of responsibility. Use for recording statements of responsibility not recorded in 245 for persons or bodies connected with the work (cf. 9.1F1) or for significant persons/bodies connected with previous editions. Most of the examples in AACR are for additional contributors to the software development of the item cataloged, but in practice, notes about such contributions are not often made. However, the chief source for direct electronic resources is often not as detailed as a book title page, so information about persons/bodies responsible may need to be found elsewhere. The source for the statement of responsibility note is not required.

LCCN 00388539

110 1   ‡a Colombia.
245 1 0 ‡a Carrera administrativa ‡h [electronic resource].
500     ‡a Title from disk label.
500     ‡a Compiled by Alvaro Jiménez Lozano.
700 1   ‡a Jiménez Lozano, Alvaro.

LCCN 98802418 (modified)

100 1   ‡a Cohen, Judith Love, ‡d 1933-
245 1 0 ‡a You can be a woman engineer ‡h [electronic resource].
500     ‡a Title from disc label.
500     ‡a The CD-ROM is based on the book by the same author, Judith Love Cohen, and illustrated by David A. Katz.
700 1   ‡a Katz, David A. ‡q (David Arthur), ‡d 1949-

9.7B7. Edition and history notes.

As indicated in 9.2B1, the source of the edition statement is given in a note if it differs from the source for the title proper.

LCCN 2002625372

250     ‡a Version 3.00.
500     ‡a Title from disc label.
500     ‡a Edition statement from back cover of jewel case.

As indicated in 9.2B4, minor changes are recorded in the note area.

AACR2 examples

500     ‡a Mnemonic tags substituted for numeric tags.
500     ‡a Monochrome version recoded for color.

Edition/history notes are also used to give dates for accompanying material, resource coverage, and when the data was collected, "if they are considered to be important."

AACR2 example

500     ‡a Manual dated 1983.

Often this information is recorded as part of the summary note in field 520:

LCCN 2001561457

520     ‡a An indexed collection of references to 4.8 million birth, christening, marriage, and death records from New South Wales (1788-1888), Tasmania (1803-1899), Victoria (1837-1888), and Western Australia (1841-1905).

LCCN 2002556235

520     ‡a Contains magnetotelluric (MT) and audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) data collected in Alaska between 1985 and 1992. The data from over 500 soundings was collected with computer systems that are now obsolete. Data collected in 23 Alaskan 1:250,000-scale sheets (quadrangles).

9.7B7 is also applied for publication history notes when a printed text is reissued in CD-ROM format.

LCCN 98803402

500     ‡a Originally published: New York : The Review of Reviews Co., 1911.

[12.7B10. Numbering peculiarities] For serials, direct access electronic resources may need a numbering peculiarities note because of the organization of the information on the carriers.

LCCN 98645082 (a CD-ROM serial)

515     ‡a Issues for Sept. 1994-<Dec. 1995> on 2 discs, (disc A and disc B) with each disc containing the three primary files plus laws and regulations for approximately half the states; laws and regulations from the other states included on other disc.

9.7B8. Field 516 (Type of File or Data note) is probably a better location for additional physical carrier characteristics than field 300. The field can accommodate content information as well. Use first indicator blank as the default indicator. (First indicator blank will generate the label Type of file: in some OPACs)

AACR2 example:

516     ‡a Electronic data (2 files : 800, 1250 records) and programs (3 files : 7260, 3490, 5076 bytes).

LCCN 2004564633

516     ‡a ISO 9660 format.

LCCN sn 95043436

516     ‡a Files are OECD-compressed ASCII databases.

LCCN 95645685

516     ‡a Disk characteristics: double sided, high density, soft sectored.

Examples from MARC21 Format for Bibliographic Data:

516     ‡a Numeric (Spatial data: Point).
516     ‡a Text (Law reports and digests).

9.7B11. Accompanying material notes. Recall that accompanying material for serials is generally recorded in notes rather in 300 $e, unless it is certain the accompanying material comes with each issue. Per CCM 30.14.7, record notes about search and retrieval software in 500, but use 556 to record documentation information. (556 seems appropriate also for monographic titles requiring detailed notes about accompanying documentation.)

CCM example from 30.14.7

500     ‡a Accompanied by installation software on 1 5 1/4 in. floppy disk.
556     ‡a Accompanied by: SPIRS user's manual, tutorial on 1 3 1/2 in. floppy disk, and quick reference cards .

9.7B17. Summary note. This note is required unless another part of the description provides enough information. Not always present on LC records.

LCCN 91655114

520     ‡a Contains demographic, economic, and governmental data from both the federal government and private agencies, presented for the purpose of multi-area comparisons or single area profiles. Current estimates and benchmark census results are included.

LCCN 98678153 (cataloged as cartographic material)

520     ‡a A reference tool that contains a world atlas, almanac, and world fact book, all in one. Graphics include over 200 full-color maps, thematic world maps, relief maps, and reference maps, complemented with comprehensive text on five subject areas: geography, people, government, economy, and communications. Features drop-down menus, point-and-click interfaces, and full index.

LCCN 2001360713

520     ‡a Collection of Indonesian tax laws and regulations.

See also: LCCN 94790355; LCCN 96801355; LCCN 98645082; LCCN sn 91022863; LCCN 98803082; LCCN 00530226; LCCN 2001561445; LCCN 2002565723; LCCN 2003556207; LCCN 2003557035; LCCN 2004564574.


Consult AACR2 chapters 21-25 and the LCRIs for access and choice of entry. The following brief section on Title, Series & 7xx only covers access fields of particular relevance to direct-access electronic resources.


[130/240 field]. For serials, consult CCM 30.5. The record for the CD-ROM (or the floppy disk) will need a uniform title with a format qualifier to distinguish the electronic serial from its print counterpart if the serial is issued in both print and electronic form, or if the print serial changes to electronic format.

LCCN sn 98053279

130 0   ‡a Annual national accounts (Diskette)
245 1 0 ‡a Annual national accounts ‡h [electronic resource] = ‡b Comptes nationaux annuels / ‡c Department of Economics and Statistics, OECD.

LCCN 92644515

130 0   ‡a Aquatic sciences & fisheries abstracts (CD-ROM)
245 0 0 ‡a Aquatic sciences & fisheries abstracts ‡h [electronic resource] : ‡b ASFA / ‡c Cambridge Scientific Abstracts.

LCCN 2004205045

110 1   ‡a Germany. ‡b Bundesministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie
240 1 0 ‡a Förderungskatalog. ‡p Bereiche Forschung und Technologie (CD-ROM)
245 1 0 ‡a Förderungskatalog. ‡p Bereiche Forschung und Technologie ‡h [electronic resource].
580     ‡a Continues a diskette version with the same title.
780 1 0 ‡a Germany. Bundesministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie. ‡t Förderungskatalog. Bereiche Forschung und Technologie ‡w (DLC) 2004205040 ‡w (OCoLC)54951980

See also 9.0B1 [Chief source] and 9.7B4 [Variations in title] above for guidelines on variant access of titles.


Note that the format qualifier will also need to be used for series if it is necessary to distinguish the print series from the CD-ROM series.

LCCN 2004564618:

490 1   ‡a Washington manual subspecialty consult series for PDA
830   0 ‡a Washington manual subspecialty consult series (CD-ROM)


753. Added entries tagged 753 will be found on some member copy records. The field is used for system details. Locally, we will not trace 753 on original records but we do not intend to remove them from member records.

776. In serials cataloging, this field is used to link the record for the electronic resource to the print record when the print record continues to be published. Example from CCM 30.16.2. Note that CCM uses 530 text Also available in a print ed. For original cataloging, use instead Also issued in a print ed. since this is considered to be less ambiguous for our users. Member copy using the CCM text will not be updated.

245 0 0 ‡a Applied science & technology index ‡h [electronic resource].
530     ‡a Also issued in a print ed.
776 1   ‡t Applied science & technology index ‡x 0003-6986 ‡w (DLC)sc 79002989 ‡w (OCoLC)1581557

CCM 30.16.2 has further examples & guidance addressing more complex situations.

780/785. When a serial print publication is discontinued & continued in electronic format, successive entry is used. The print record needs to be closed & linked to the electronic record. Example from CCM 30.18:


245 0 0 ‡a Index translationum = ‡b Repertoire international des traductions = International bibliography of translations.
362 1   ‡a Ceased with v. 39 in 1989.
580     ‡a Continued in 1994 as: Index translationum (CD-ROM).
785 1 0 ‡t Index translationum (CD-ROM) ‡w (DLC) 95660578 ‡w (OCoLC)32027032


130 0   ‡a Index translationum (CD-ROM)
245 1 0 ‡a Index translationum ‡h [electronic resource].
580     ‡a Continues a periodical with the same title issued in print.
780 1 0 ‡t Index translationum ‡x 0073-6074 ‡w (DLC) 50012446 ‡w (OCoLC)2433763


Subject Access for Direct Access Electronic Resources

Historical note. Former practice was to trace 655 _7 $a CD-ROMs $2 lcsh on every CD-ROM record. This practice ceased officially in 2005.

Assign subjects based on the content of the work cataloged as you would for a print monograph or serial. In addition, bring out, when appropriate, certain form aspects of electronic resources as instructed in SCM H 1520 Databases, SCM H 1580.5 Electronic Serials, and SCM H 2070 Software. (Summaries/excerpts follow)

A. H 1520 Databases (Excerpts)

BACKGROUND: A database is a collection of logically interrelated data stored together in one or more computerized files, usually created and managed by a database management system. The data are encoded, and each file is designed with a high-level structure for accepting, storing, and providing information on demand. Typically, there is a set of definitions for the database that describe its various data elements and a set of codes to identify each element. The database may include the database management software that created the file, or it may include only the data.

1. The subdivision --Databases. Assign the free-floating form subdivision --Databases under subjects for a database as defined above. [Note that subfield v is used] Examples:

Title: Food additives : toxicology, regulation, and properties [electronic resource].

520 ## $a Commercial, CD-ROM version of the Priority-based Assessment of Food Additives (PAFA) database used by the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (FDA/CFSAN), the primary repository for the toxicological effects of direct food additives. In addition to summaries of toxicological effects, the database contains regulatory information and property data for the compounds. Also includes the EAFUS database (Everything Added to Foods in the United States). The search software provides access to the 180 data fields for each of the 3,000 compounds, as well as the ability to save, export, print, or modify queries.

650 #0 $a Food additives $x Analysis $v Databases.

650 #0 $a Food additives $x Toxicology $v Databases.

650 #0 $a Food additives $x Safety regulations $z United States $v Databases.

Do not assign the subdivision --Databases under subjects for computer files that are essentially textual in nature, such as articles, conference proceedings, literary works, form letters. These texts may be keyboarded through a word-processing program, or they may be digitized images of a print or microform format. Assign only the subject(s) appropriate to the textual material. Examples:

Title: Legal issues surrounding the digital library [electronic resource] : proceedings of the Library of Congress Network Advisory Committee, December 3-5, 1995.

520 ## $a Full text of a Network Advisory Committee meeting. Features discussion of First Amendment rights and the roles and responsibilities of stakeholders such as authors, publishers, and libraries. Includes meeting agenda, table of contents, list of attendees, and presentations.

650 #0 $a Information superhighway $x Law and legislation $z United States $v Congresses.

2. Cataloging from other than internal sources. Catalogers who do not or cannot load the file for cataloging purposes may make the determination that an item is a database based on factors such as these:

  • the item presents itself as a database
  • accompanying information describes the file as containing specific data elements that would lend themselves to discrete coding
  • accompanying information describes the data elements and their coding and structure.

In case of doubt, do not assign the subdivision --Databases. Example:

Title:   The national dairy database [electronic resource]. 520 ## $a Collection of dairy-related educational materials, lists, and software tools gathered from land-grant universities and dairy industry organizations. Includes over 700 documents with 3,750 pages of material on such topics as herd and animal health, facilities and equipment, business management, etc. Contains 46 software programs, 750 tables/charts, and an expertise database. Designed to assist producers, educators, consultants, veterinarians, the media, and others in the dairy industry.

650 #0 $a Dairying.
650 #0 $a Dairy farming.
650 #0 $a Dairy product industry.

[Note: Although this item calls itself a database, the accompanying information describes this CD-ROM as consisting of over 3,000 pages of documents and research reports. There is no indication of distinct data elements that might be manipulated, nor is any software present which might manipulate the data. This computer file probably lacks the formal structure of a database and thus, the subdivision –Databases is not assigned.]

3. Special cases. Do not use the subdivision --Databases for the following types of works:

  • Computer files that have the structure of and present themselves as reference-type works, such as directories, bibliographies, catalogs, dictionaries, encyclopedias, indexes, or other similar types. Assign instead the pertinent form headings or form subdivision under subjects. (If one of these computer files is also a database, do not further subdivide by --Databases and do not assign another subject for the database.) Examples:

Title: The American business disk [electronic resource].

520 ## $a Business listings compiled from nationwide yellow pages.

650 #0 $a Business enterprises $z United States $v Telephone directories.

Title: DESIS desertification bibliography [electronic resource].

520 ## $a A referral database with 3,896 references, from 1967 to 1988, to conventional and nonconventional documents on desertification and its control. Indexed by author and subject and geographical descriptors. The database is accompanied by CD-ISIS database management software and is available as a CD-ISIS database or in ISO 2709 format. Its formatted output, titled World desertification bibliography, is provided in ASCII text.

650 #0 $a Desertification $v Bibliography.

Title: Brody's medical dictionary [electronic resource].

520 ## $a Complete electronic medical dictionary with over 40,000 entries.

650 #0 $a Medicine $v Dictionaries.

  • Collections of non-textual data that are not specifically formatted and encoded for the purposes of manipulation of the data. Assign only the headings appropriate to contents of the files; do not assign the subdivision --Databases. Example:

Title: SoundWAV. Volume 1 [electronic resource] : the ultimate 16-bit stereo .WAV collection.

  • 520 ## $a Contains over 600 megabytes of digitized sounds in the .WAV files. Playable in sixteen-bix stereo, eight-bit stereo, and eight-bit mono.
  • 650 #0 $a Sounds.

4. Works with electronic resources as accompanying materials. When a work being cataloged is accompanied by a computer file that constitutes at least 20% of the overall work and when the contents of the computer file are judged to be significant, assign the appropriate topical headings for the computer file (cf. H 180, sec. 1). Use the above guidelines in determining when to use the subdivision --Databases following such headings. Examples:

Title: The economic geography of Fujian : a sourcebook. [accompanying disks contain compressed locational data (15 files) and statistical data (49 files)]

651 #0 $a Fukien Province (China) $x Economic conditions $x Statistics $v Databases.

650 #0 $a Geographical positions $z China $z Fukien $v Databases.

650 #0 $a Geographic information systems.

B. SCM H 1580.5. Electronic Serials

1. Assign appropriate headings and subdivide by --Periodicals.

LCCN sn 96004817

130 0   ‡a American journal of agricultural economics (CD-ROM)
245 0 0 ‡a American journal of agricultural economics ‡h [electronic resource].
650   0 ‡a Agriculture ‡x Economic aspects ‡z United States ‡v Periodicals.
650   0 ‡a Agriculture ‡x Economic aspects ‡v Periodicals.
650   0 ‡a Agriculture ‡z United States ‡v Periodicals.
650   0 ‡a Agriculture ‡v Periodicals.

Do not subdivide or further subdivide by --Databases unless the serial is also a database, in which case apply 2.

2. Assign --Databases if the serial is also a database. Do not further subdivide by --Periodicals. Caution: many LCDB serial records for works that are no longer considered databases have not been updated and still have the obsolete subdivision. For example, LCCN sn 94004104, Art index (CD-ROM : H.W. Wilson Company) is a periodical index, not a database. LCDB records cannot be used as models without careful review.

LCCN 92646048 (not in LCDB; in LC Online Catalog; subdivision is used correctly; cited in SCM H 1580.5)

245 0 0 ‡a Software information database ‡h [electronic resource].
500     ‡a Description based on: May '91; title from disc label.
650   0 ‡a Computer software ‡v Databases.

3. Serials about databases. [Topic]--Databases--Periodicals.

Annual index in 3 subject areas, issued on floppy disks. (Caution: LCCN sn 95037032 for this title is not consistent with the SCM example)

245 0 0 ‡a TRC databases for chemistry and engineering comprehensive index ‡h [electronic resource].
650   0 ‡a Thermodynamics ‡x Databases ‡v Indexes ‡v Periodicals.
650   0 ‡a Thermochemistry ‡x Databases ‡v Indexes ‡v Periodicals.
650   0 ‡a Engineering ‡x Databases ‡v Indexes ‡v Periodicals.

Assign Databases--Periodicals or Relational databases--Periodicals to electronic serials whose subject is databases.

4. "Reference-type works. Do not assign the subdivision -- Databases to electronic serials that have the structure of and present themselves as reference-type works such as bibliographies, catalogs, collections of abstracts, directories, dictionaries, indexes, or other similar types. Instead, assign the appropriate form headings or the appropriate subjects subdivided by the pertinent form subdivision. Further subdivide by --Periodicals unless the subdivision is one not further subdivided by --Periodicals according to the provisions of H 1927, sec. 2 . If one of these electronic serials is also a database, do not further subdivide by --Databases and do not assign an additional subject for the database."

LCCN sn 94004104 (Orbis record corrected to follow SCM)

130 0   ‡a Art index (CD-ROM : H.W. Wilson Company)
245 0 0 ‡a Art index ‡h [electronic resource].
650   0 ‡a Art ‡x Periodicals ‡v Indexes ‡v Periodicals.
650   0 ‡a Design ‡x Periodicals ‡v Indexes ‡v Periodicals.
650   0 ‡a Architecture ‡x Periodicals ‡v Indexes ‡v Periodicals.
650   0 ‡a City planning ‡x Periodicals ‡v Indexes ‡v Periodicals.

C. Software programs

Summarized from the SCM: Subject Cataloging Training Guide. The training guide is internal training documentation used by LC and is only intermittently available via the Desktop.

Authority records for software programs are in the names file (NAF) established as uniform titles (130); they are retrieved in Orbis using Staff Title or Staff Subject. Former practice allowed software programs to be established in SAF & some may still turn up in that file. If a heading needed for a bib. record is only found in SAF, it must be established in NAF. (SCM H 2070)

C1. Names of software programs are unqualified unless there is a conflict. The qualifier used to break a conflict is (Computer file). The qualifier (Computer program) is obsolete as a qualifier for named software programs; it is now used exclusively for types of computer programs & devices.


Lotus 1-2-3 (Computer file) [ n86-111216 ] <formerly: Lotus 1-2-3 (Computer program) in the subject file>

WordPerfect Office [ n9l-4474] <no conflict, no qualifier>

Sometimes (Computer file) is used as a qualifier to facilitate retrieval. The heading MS-DOS (Computer file) is qualified because DOS is a stop word (or was a stop word) in one of the systems LC used, and MS is the abbreviation for manuscript.

C2. Types of Computer Programs. As noted above, (Computer program) is no longer used to qualify named software programs, but bear in mind that the qualifier continues to be used for types of computer programs, which are established in SAF. These headings can only be used as subjects and the authority records are searched on Orbis as Staff Subject.


Text editors (Computer programs) [ sh85-134303]

DOS device drivers (Computer programs) sh90-4446

Windows (Computer programs) [sh88-5220] <not to be confused with Microsoft Windows (Computer file) n 88027331, which is in NAF & searched on Orbis using Staff Title>

C3. Names of databases are also established in NAF as uniform titles (130); retrieved in Orbis with Staff Title.

ADABAS n9l-80700

Former (obsolete) policy for names of databases was to qualify by (Data base). <yes, 2 words>

As indicated in the previous section, use the free-floating subdivision --Databases for works discussing or consisting of one or more databases.

C4. Use the free floating subdivision --Data processing for works discussing the use of computers.

C5. Information retrieval systems. Named information retrieval systems are in the subjects file.

Jamia (Information retrieval system) sh90-4822

BURK III (Information retrieval system) sh90-5253

Other examples of information retrieval systems found in SAF: LEXIS (Information Retrieval System), LCS (Information Retrieval System), JURIS (Information System); see list under the LCSH heading: Information storage and retrieval systems.

C6. Subdivision --Software. The free-floating subdivision is applied to works cataloged as software, not to works cataloged as books with accompanying software. The free-floating subdivision --Juvenile software may also be used, based on the coding for the Audience in either 008 or 006.

Per SCM H 2070 (Software and works about software):

If the primary content of the CD-ROM (or diskette) is a software program:

a. Assign at least one heading to bring out the topic or genre of the software, e.g. Electronic spreadsheets--Software.

"b. Elements that are not brought out in subject headings. Do not assign subject headings to bring out the program language, the make or model of the computer, or the operating system, since access to these elements is provided in the descriptive cataloging data."

c. Do not assign the name of the computer program as a subject when cataloging the program itself. Assign only the appropriate topical headings, as instructed in a. above. However, assign the name of computer program A as a subject if you catalog a computer program B used to exploit computer program A.

If the primary content of the CD-ROM (or diskette) is about a software program:

a. Assign the name of the program. If a name authority record cannot be found for the program, search the LC online catalog and use the name (if title main entry) or name/title combination as found on any records for the program. If no record is found, search Orbis. If no record is found, use the name of the program as found on the item being cataloged.

b. Assign at least one heading to bring out topic/application. If the topic/application heading does not bring out the computer aspect implicitly, add the free-floating subdivision --Computer programs.

A Microsoft Office tutorial on CD-ROM:

630 0 0 ‡a Microsoft Office.
650   0 ‡a Business ‡v Computer programs.

But, a Microsoft Word tutorial on CD-ROM:

630 0 0 ‡a Microsoft Word.
650   0 ‡a Word processing.

Note that --Computer programs is not used as a form subdivision to indicate that the content of the CD-ROM is in electronic form.

245 0 4 ‡a The CD-ROM Judaic classics library ‡h [electronic resource].
650   0 ‡a Rabbinical literature.
650   0 ‡a Jewish law.
630 0 0 ‡a Bible. ‡p O.T. ‡v Commentaries.


D. Classification & Call Numbers

Per SCM F 710, software is classed in the same number in which a book about the software would be classed. (LC does not do full shelflisting so a book number isn't assigned; YUL policy requires full shelflisting; book number & date should be assigned.)

Use the format term CD as the last element of the call number. If "(LC)" is used, CD should be the last element of the call number before "(LC)." The format term CD can be used for CD-ROMs, digital audio discs, CD-RWs, etc.

852 0 1 ‡b sml ‡h F1236.5 ‡i D533 CD (LC) <serial>
852 0 0 ‡b sml ‡h TR647 ‡i .M367 2002 CD (LC) <monograph>


Processing (barcoding, marking, item record, etc.): SML/CCL ONLY

For SML, refer to the processing instructions at SML/CCL Procedures for Media.

General Overview of SML policy:

Overview of Cataloging Policy & Procedures:

Barcode placement:

Primary vs. accompanying material, marking, and item records:



Cataloging CD-ROMs & Other Direct Access Electronic Resources: Copy Cataloging


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