Video Glossary
(Draft)

To: Documentation Group
From: Steven Arakawa
Date: (creation date/ 10/26/2005 12:04 PM revision date)

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z

AMIM Archival Moving Image Materials: a Cataloging Manual. The guidelines in AMIM are used by LC for cataloging its moving image materials; the guidelines should NOT be used by PCC libraries cataloging non-archival videos; copy cataloging using LC cataloging should be avoided. (But the AMIM glossary will be cited for authoritative definitions of video terms)
anamorphic "A wide-screen process in which the filmed images have been optically compressed or “squeezed” in width but not in height. A frequent aspect ratio is 2.35:1." (AMIM)
aspect ratio "The width of the screen image in relation to its height. The older 35 mm. standard aspect ratio was 1.33:1 or four to three. The early television industry adopted this ratio. Some common aspect ratios for wide-screen films are 1.66:1, 1.85:1, and 2.35:1. "(AMIM)
Beta Betamax, a 1/2 in. videocassette format introduced by Sony in 1975
CED Capacitance electronic disc. Grooved, plastic videodisc, 12" in diameter, data recorded in pits at the bottom of the grooves & read by an electronic stylus. Trade name RCA Selectavision (ceased production ca. 1984)
closed-captioned   Captions added to the program for the hearing impaired and for other purposes. Indicated by symbol resembling a TV set with a tail or "CC." The cataloging note was changed in 1995 from "Closed-captioned for the hearing impaired" to "Closed-captioned" in order to indicate the broader scope.
container "Housing for an item, a group of items, or part of any item, that is physically separable from the material being housed (e.g., a box for a disk or videocassette, a sleeve for a sound or videodisc). See also Physical carrier." AACR2 (But "container" is the cassette in 7.0B1)
DVD

"A digital optical videodisc format that can store much more video, audio, and computer data than the common CD. Like a CD, it is ca. 4 3/4 in. (12 cm.) in diameter. DVD has replaced the 12 in. optical videodisc (laserdisc). DVD-ROM (read only memory) contains data that has been placed on the disc at the time of manufacture. Recordable variations include DVD-R (recordable, write once), DVD-RAM (random access memory, rewritable), DVD-RW (rewritable). " (AMIM)

DVS   "Descriptive Video Service provides a description of the setting and action of a film for those who cannot see using the second audio track of the video. The symbol for these shows sound waves coming from a speaker [or a large D]." (Nancy Olson. Cataloging of Audiovisual Materials.) See also: DVS FAQ at WGBH.
frame "Video usage: The set of lines that hold the information of one complete picture scanned from top to bottom. Each frame consists of two fields, one for the odd lines interlaced together and one for the even lines." (AMIM)
intertitles "Titles within the main body of a moving image, such as dialogue, continuity, and informational titles. Intertitles are mainly found in silent films." (AMIM)
laserdisc

"A laser optical (reflective) videorecording system that uses an analog technique called PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) to represent video information on a grooveless, smooth, round plastic disc.

"Laserdiscs exist in three sizes: 12, 8 and 4 3/4 inch diameters. The 12 inch disc is the most common size and is typically used for movies. The disc or its packaging usually bear the term or trademark: LD (LASER DISC), LASER VIDEODISC or LaserVision.

"The 8 and 4 3/4 inch discs are uncommon and typically used for music videos or other short video programs. The disc or its packaging usually bear the term or trademark: CDV (CD VIDEO), LD (LASER DISC) or VSD (VIDEO SINGLE DISC)." (OCLC Bib. Formats and Standards)

Use videodisc in 300

letterbox (LBX) "The process of formatting a wide-screen film onto video in which the entire width of the image is visible and there are blank bands above and below the image in order to accommodate the different aspect ratios of wide-screen film and the television screen. "(AMIM)
NTSC (color system) "The current standard color system used in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Japan, and a few other countries. The system has 525 horizontal lines and is named for the National Television Systems Committee." (AMIM)
nonanamorphic widescreen "A film process that achieves the wide-screen effect without optically compressing the image or requiring the use of special projection techniques. The image is wider than in the earlier standard aspect ratio of 1.33:1. Typical aspect ratios are 1.66:1 and 1.85:1." (AMIM)
optical videodisc See laserdisc
PAL (color system) "The current standard color system used in most Western European countries (excluding France), parts of Africa, parts of Asia (including China and India, excluding Japan), parts of South America, and in Australia and New Zealand. The system was developed in Germany. It has 625 horizontal lines. PAL is an acronym for Phase Alternation Line " (AMIM)
pan-and-scan "The process of formatting a wide-screen film onto video by selecting the area of the film frame to show in order to accommodate the different aspect ratios of wide-screen film and television. During the process, the transferred area of the film must be continuously selected, and scenes encompassing the entire width of the film are often panned or followed from one side to the other." (AMIM) On some videos, called "full frame."
physical carrier "A physical medium in which data, sound, images, etc., are stored. For certain categories of material, the physical carrier consists of a storage medium (e.g., tape, film) sometimes encased in a plastic, metal, etc., housing (e.g., cassette, cartridge) that is an integral part of the item. See also Container." (AACR2)
producer "The person who bears the administrative and financial responsibility for a moving image work. In practice, the role of a producer may be much wider and can include artistic involvement." (AMIM)
production company "The name of the company under whose financial, technical, and organizational management a moving image work is made. In a broad sense, the production company is responsible for the overall creation of the work." (AMIM)
S-VHS "Super-VHS. A 1/2 in. analog videocassette format using cobalt modified ferric oxide tape. It has improved picture quality compared with standard VHS. S-VHS-C uses a mini-cassette." (AMIM)
SECAM (color system) "The current standard color system used in France, Eastern Europe (including Russia), most of French-speaking Africa, and several Middle Eastern countries. The system was developed in France. It has 625 horizontal lines. SECAM stands for Séquential Couleur à Mémoire." (AMIM)
U-matic "A 3/4 in. analog videocassette format developed by Sony. The “u” refers to the u-shape of its tape threading path. Generally for semi-professional (educational and industrial) use. "(AMIM)
VHD "Video High Density. A grooveless, plastic videodisc format, approximately 10 in. in diameter." (AMIM)
videocartridge "A permanently encased videotape that sometimes has the ends joined together in a loop to provide continuous viewing." (AMIM)
videocassette "A permanently encased videotape that winds and rewinds from reel-to-reel." (AMIM)
videodisc "A flat disc of plastic or other material on which video signals are recorded. Videodiscs range in diameter from 3 in. to 12 in. and include the ca. 4 3/4 in. (12 cm.) DVD and video CD. " (AMIM)
videoreel "A videotape wound on a hub or other storage device that is designed to be played back on a system having its own take-up mechanism. This term is used for videotape that is not permanently encased."(AMIM)
wide-screen film "A motion picture with an aspect ratio greater than the older 35 mm. standard of four to three, or 1.33:1. Wide-screen films may have aspect ratios from 1.65:1 up to 2.55:1. " (AMIM)

 

SEE ALSO:

All Movie Guide Glossary

Filmland: the dictionary

Glossary of Film Terms (J. Schlemowitz)

IMDB Film Glossary

Glossarist: Film glossaries and dictionaries

 

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