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Association for Library Collections and Technical Services
(A division of the American Library Association)
Cataloging and Classification Section

Committee on Cataloging: Description and Access

Task Force on the Harmonization of ISBD(ER) and AACR2

Final Report (Penultimate Draft)

Drafted 23 January 1999; revised 14 June 1999, with additional material

Executive Summary




  1. Introduction
  2. The Task Force on the Harmonization of ISBD(ER) and AACR2 was charged with the detailed review of the ISBD(ER): International Standard Bibliographic Description for Electronic Resources (1997), with noting areas in which Part 1 of AACR2, and Chapter 9 and Appendix D (Glossary), in particular, were not in conformance with the ISBD(ER), and, if necessary, with proposing rule revisions to harmonize AACR2 with the ISBD(ER).

    Recognizing the rapid changes in computer technology and the dynamic evolution of new forms of computer files — most notably interactive multimedia, optical discs, and remote electronic files on the Internet — the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) Sections on Cataloguing and on Information Technology initiated, in 1994, a revision to the International Standard Bibliographic Description for Computer Files (ISBD(CF)) published in 1990. Following extensive consultation and worldwide review, a final version of the ISBD(ER) was approved by the IFLA sponsors and submitted to K.G. Saur for publication in late August, 1997.

    With the emergence of this revised international standard for electronic resources, national cataloguing agencies have undertaken to review and update their rules for descriptive cataloguing. In this vein, the American Library Association, Committee on Cataloging: Description and Access (CC:DA) undertook a review of the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, striking a Task Force to consider opportunities for, and implications of, harmonizing ISBD(ER) with AACR2.


  3. Task Force Workplan and Review Methodology
  4. At its first meeting on January 11, 1998, the Task Force on the Harmonization of ISBD(ER) and AACR2 (hereafter referred to as the TFH) established a closed LISTSERV for discussion among members of the TFH, and a web site for posting documents and encouraging broader consultation within the bibliographic community. Members targeted the ALA Annual Conference in Washington, D.C., in June, 1998, for obtaining a copy of ISBD(ER), and for ranking and assigning priority to a list of key rules in AACR2R potentially impacted by ISBD(ER). The TFH encountered significant delays in obtaining copies of ISBD(ER); copies ordered directly from Saur took several months to arrive, and no copies were available for purchase at either ALA mid-winter or Annual conferences. While the TFH proceeded with its workplan at its meeting at the ALA Annual Conference in Washington, D.C., it was not until September that each member of the TFH had a copy of ISDB(ER) in hand. Problems with obtaining the text did hamper the work of some members of the TFH. To ensure broader familiarity with, and consultation on, the international standard for electronic resources, the TFH recommends that CC:DA encourage Bowker (the distributor for Saur products in North America) to make the publication more readily available to the North American cataloguing community.

    At its June 28, 1998, meeting, the TFH identified the following components of ISBD(ER) for particular review and harmonization with AACR2R:

    0.5Sources of information
    Area 2Edition area
    Area 3
    Appendix C
    Type and Extent of Resource area AND
    Recommended General Material Designation, Resource Designations and Specific Material Designations with their Definitions
    Area 4Publication, Distribution, etc., area
    Area 5Physical Description area
    Area 7Note area
    02Definitions (for consideration relative to Appendix D, Glossary, of AACR2R)

    Responsibility for each of the components was assumed by a team of 2-3 members, with recommendations and proposals being posted to the LISTSERV for general discussion by the TFH as a whole. Where appropriate, working documents or drafts were also mounted on the TFH web site. In its deliberations, the TFH was mindful of the recommendations for changing rules in Chapter 9 of AACR2R emanating from the Final Report of the Task Force on Metadata and the Cataloging Rules, as well as deliberations ongoing with the CC:DA Task Force on Rule 0.24, and discussions resulting from the OCLC Intercat project and the application of the Olson guidelines, Cataloging Internet resources (1995; 1996).

    The TFH met again at ALA Mid-winter in Philadelphia to discuss the first draft of a final report which had been made available to CC:DA members as an Executive Summary mounted on the CC:DA Web site, and as a full report in print at the January 30, 1999, CC:DA meeting. At the February 1, 1999, meeting of CC:DA the TFH presented its draft and spoke to changes which had been proposed at the January 31, 1999, Task Force meeting. CC:DA also discussed responses to 4JSC/ALA/27 - Harmonization of AACR2 with ISBD(ER) from each of the constituent bodies to JSC (i.e., from BL; LC; CCC; ACOC), referring to the TFH relevant questions/issues raised by the respondents. The Task Force requested, and was given, approval to continue its work, and was advised to particularly consider responses to 4JSC/ALA/27 in the TFH deliberations. This penultimate draft of the final report incorporates discussions which were held online among Task Force members between February and May, 1999, and attempts to address, where appropriate, constituent responses to/comments on 4JSC/ALA/27. The Task Force will welcome feedback from CC:DA to add to its own discussions to be held at ALA Annual in New Orleans on June 27, 1999.


  5. Outline and Review
  6. For many of the components listed above, in the full report, the relevant rule(s) as currently recorded in AACR2R are accompanied by the corresponding section from ISBD(ER) and followed by a proposed option or actual AACR2R rule revision for harmonizing the texts. Where there was particular discussion or debate among members of the TFH concerning proposed revisions, this is noted in the report. Proposed changes only are given in the executive summary which follows. The nature of the change is described in square brackets following the AACR2R rule number, and the actual change highlighted for ready identification. Proposed new rules are indicated clearly as such.




Chapter 1. General Rules for Description


    1.4C8. [Rev. wording] Do not record a place of publication, distribution, etc., for unpublished items (e.g., manuscripts, art originals, naturally occurring objects that have not been packaged for commercial distribution, unedited or unpublished film or video materials, stock shots, nonprocessed sound recordings, unpublished computer files). Do not record a place of publication, distribution, etc., for unpublished collections (including those containing published items but not published as collections). Do not give s.l. in either case.

    1.4D9. [Rev. wording] Do not record the name of a publisher, distributor, etc., for unpublished items (e.g., manuscripts, art originals, naturally occurring objects that have not been packaged for commercial distribution, unedited or unpublished film or video materials, stock shots, nonprocessed sound recordings, unpublished computer files). Do not record the name of a publisher, distributor, etc., for unpublished collections (including those containing published items but not published as collections). Do not give s.n. in either case.

    1.4D6. [See added example] Optionally, give the name and, when appropriate, the place of a distributor when the first named entity is a publisher.

    Stockholm : Grammofon AB BIS ; New York : Distributed by Qualiton Imports

    Washington, D.C. : U.S. Bureau of the Census ; Rosslyn : Distributed by DUALabs

    1.4F9. [Rev. wording] Do not record a date for naturally occurring objects that have not been packaged for commercial distribution. For other unpublished items (e.g., manuscripts, art originals, unedited or unpublished film or video materials, stock shots, nonprocessed sound recordings, unpublished computer files), give the date of production (creation, inscription, manufacture, recording, etc.).



Area 2. Edition Area


  1. Definition of Edition

    9.2B1. [Rev. wording and added example] Transcribe a statement relating to an edition of an electronic resource that contains differences from other editions of that resource, or to a named reissue of a resource, as instructed in 1.2B. For direct or remote electronic resources, consider an edition to consist of all copies produced from substantially the same master file. For some titles different editions may be issued sequentially (in order to revise, expand, or update the content), or simultaneously (in order to accommodate different audiences or purposes). If there are multiple edition statements relating to the whole as well as to parts of the resource, only transcribe edition statement(s) relating to the whole resource in the edition area. Edition statements relating to parts may be given in a note.

    Rev. ed.
    NORC test ed.
    Level 3.4
    Rev. ed. 10/2/82
    3rd update
    Version 5.20
    [Version] 1.1
    Prelim. release 0.5
    Interactive ed.
    School ed.
    Give the source of the edition statement in a note (see 9.7B7) if it is different from the source of the title proper.

    9.2B2. [Rev. wording] In case of doubt about whether a statement is an edition statement, take the presence of the word edition (or its equivalent in other languages) as evidence that the statement is an edition statement, and transcribe it as such. The presence of related words such as version, level, release, or update (or their equivalents in other languages) may or may not indicate a new edition. Consider the item to be a new edition if there are significant changes in the intellectual or artistic content of the data or programming (e.g., significant additions or deletions to content; upgrades in programming language; operating system changes; etc.).

    9.2B3. [Rev. wording and added example] Optional addition. If the electronic resource lacks an edition statement, do not create one for the edition area unless the changes from previous editions are significant. Supply a suitable brief statement in the language and script of the title proper and enclose it in square brackets.

    [Version 7, Rev. version]
    [Windows 95 ed.]

    9.2B4. [Rev. wording] Do not treat an issue of an electronic resource that incorporates minor changes as a new edition. Such minor changes include corrections of misspellings of data, changes in the arrangement of the contents, changes in system-related formats, changes in the physical characteristics (e.g., character code, blocking factors, recording density), changes in the type and/or size of the physical carrier (e.g., disk vs. cassette; 14 cm. disk vs. 9 cm. disk), and changes in the printer or output formats or the display medium. If desired, give the details of such changes in a note (see 9.7B7).

    9.7B7. Edition and history. [See added examples] Give the source of the edition statement if it is different from that of the title proper.

    Ed. statement from container label
    Make notes relating to the edition being described or to the history of the item.
    Updated version of 1982 program
    Program first issued in 1981
    Frequently updated; Last update: 2/18/97
    Updated weekly
    Give details of minor changes such as those listed in 9.2B4 if they are considered to be important.
    Mnemonic tags substituted for numeric tags
    Monochrome version recoded for colour
    Cite other works upon which the item depends for its content.
    Based on: Historiae / Thucydides ; edited by H.S. Jones and J.E. Powell. Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1967-1970
    Give the following dates and details about them if they are considered to be important to the understanding of the content, use, or nature of the file:
    the date(s) covered by the content of a file
    the date(s) when data were collected
    the date(s) of accompanying material not described separately if they differ from those of the file being described
    New England sermons, 1790-1909 Data collected May-Aug. 1981 Manual dated 1983 Includes supplementary file dated 1981

  2. Multiple Edition Statements

    9.2B8. [New] If an item consists of multiple physical carriers and has multiple edition statements, transcribe only the statements which are associated with the item as a whole. Optionally, if no statement applies to the entire item, transcribe such edition statements in a note (see 9.7B7).

    9.2B9. [New] If a remote access electronic resource is frequently updated, omit the edition statement and give the information in a note instead (see 9.7B7).

    9.7B7. Edition and history. [See added examples] Give the source of the edition statement if it is different from that of the title proper.

    Ed. statement from container label
    Make notes relating to the edition being described or to the history of the item.
    Updated version of 1982 program
    Program first issued in 1981
    Frequently updated; Last update: 2/18/97
    Updated weekly
    Give details of minor changes such as those listed in 9.2B4 if they are considered to be important.
    Mnemonic tags substituted for numeric tags
    Monochrome version recoded for colour
    Cite other works upon which the item depends for its content.
    Based on: Historiae / Thucydides ; edited by H.S. Jones and J.E. Powell. Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1967-1970
    Give the following dates and details about them if they are considered to be important to the understanding of the content, use, or nature of the file:
    the date(s) covered by the content of a file
    the date(s) when data were collected
    the date(s) of accompanying material not described separately if they differ from those of the file being described
    New England sermons, 1790-1909 Data collected May-Aug. 1981 Manual dated 1983 Includes supplementary file dated 1981

Area 3. File Characteristics Area


Preamble to draft: This draft “in progress” brings together stipulations in area 3 of the ISBD(ER), the responses from JSC constituent members to JSC/ALA27 and subsequent CC:DA discussion (1 February, 1999) as summarized by Brian Schottlaender, and comments submitted by Task Force (TF) members. The TF favoured using the expanded list of designations in the ISBD(ER) as a starting point and also suggested several changes. Proposed changes are highlighted, below.

    9.3. RESOURCE CHARACTERISTICS AREA
    (BL proposes "TYPE AND EXTENT OF RESOURCE AREA")

      Contents
      9.3A. Preliminary rule
      9.3B. Resource characteristics
      (BL: Type and extent of resource)

      9.3A. Preliminary rule

      9.3A1. Punctuation [Rev. wording]

      For instructions on the use of spaces before and after prescribed punctuation, see 1.0C.
      Precede this area by a full stop, space, dash, space.
      Enclose each statement of extent in parentheses.
      Precede a statement of the number of records, statements, etc., by a colon when that statement follows a statement of the number of files.

      9.3B Resource characteristics (BL: Type and extent of resource)

      9.3B1. Designation (BL: Type of resource). [Rev. wording] Name the type of remote access electronic resource being catalogued. Use one of the following terms:

      electronic data
      electronic program(s)
      electronic data and program(s)

      Comment: The revised wording making use of these terms mandatory for remote access resources. There seems to be no point in making it optional.

      Optionally, name the type of direct access electronic resource being catalogued.

      Optionally, if a more detailed designation is desired for either a remote access or direct access electronic resource, use one of the following terms:

      For electronic data:

        electronic font data

        electronic image data

          electronic remote-sensing image data (*)
          (* question - should this term be here or under representational data?)

        electronic numeric data

          electronic census data
          electronic survey data

        electronic representational data

          electronic map data
          electronic remote-sensing data (**)
          (** - see question at * above)

        electronic sound data

        electronic text data

          electronic bibliographic database(s)
          electronic document(s) (e.g., letters, articles)
          electronic journal(s)
          electronic newsletter(s)

      For electronic programs:

        electronic application program(s)
          electronic CAD program(s)
          electronic database program(s)
          electronic desktop publishing program(s)
          electronic game(s)
          electronic spreadsheet program(s)
          electronic word processor program(s)

        electronic system program(s)

          electronic operating system program(s)
          electronic programming language program(s)
          electronic retrieval program(s)

      For electronic data and program(s). Combine particular types of data and program(s) from the above lists, e.g.

        electronic census data and spreadsheet program
        electronic image data and retrieval program

      Additionally, use the following terms alone or in conjunction with the above list of terms as appropriate.

        electronic interactive multimedia
        electronic online service(s)

      If more detail is desired but none of the above terms is appropriate, supply a brief term beginning with "electronic." Prefer a term that is currently well established, in use by both the producers and users of the particular resource, and is mutually exclusive of other terms used as designations. Do not enclose a supplied term in square brackets.

      [Rev wording] Optionally, if the general material designation is used, omit "electronic" from the type of resource designation.

      Comment. The provisos for adding terms come from the ISBD(ER) and are to serve as guidance in place of an uncontrolled list. Otherwise, we will need to think of an agency/body that would monitor terms or else requite that only the terms given are the ones to be used.

      9.3B2. Number of records, statements, etc. [Rev. wording] If a resource designation is given and if the information is readily available, give the number or approximate number of files that make up the content (use file or files preceded by an arabic numeral) and/or the following details. If the resource is in a compressed form, omit this statement.

          [or BL revised wording] (BL: 9.3B2. Extent of electronic resource. If the type of resource is given and the information is readily available, give the number or approximate number of files that make up the extent (use file or files preceded by an arabic numeral) and/or these other details. If the resource is in a compressed form, omit the statement of extent.)

          Comment. Here is where the use of the term "file(s)" as given is appropriate; the instruction for compressed resources is also added.

      1. Data. [Wording of examples revised] Give the number or approximate number of records (use records) and/or bytes (give the term in either abbreviated or full form).

          Electronic data (1 file : 350 records)
          Electronic data (550 records)
          Electronic data (1 file : 600 records, 240,000 bytes)
          Electronic text data (2 files : 2.5 gb)
          Electronic numeric data (1 file : 1.2 megabytes)

            Comment. We have retained the first 3 examples from Chapter 9 and changed the other 2 to show a more detailed designation and in the case of the 4th example, the designation of 2 rather than 1 file.

      2. Programs. [Wording of examples revised] Give the number or approximate number of statements (use statements) and/or bytes (give the term in abbreviated or full form).

          Electronic program (1 file : 200 statements)
          Electronic program (2150 statements)

      3. Multipart files. [Wording of examples revised] Give the number or approximate number of records and/or bytes, or statements and/or bytes, in each part according to a) and b) above.

          Electronic data (3 files : 100, 460, 550 records)
          Electronic programs (2 files : 4300, 1250 bytes)
          Electronic data (2 files : ca. 330 records each)
          Electronic data (2 files : 800, 1250 records) and programs (3 files : 7260, 3490, 5076 bytes)
          Electronic data (2 files : 3.5, 2 megabytes)

      If such numbering cannot be given succinctly, omit the information from this area. If desired, give it in a note (see 9.7B8).



Area 4. Publication, Distribution, etc., Area


  1. Definition of "Published"

    9.4B2. [New rule] For direct and remote access electronic resources, publishing, distributing, etc., activities include all types of publication, production, distribution, issuing, and release activities. Consider all direct and remote access electronic resources to be published.

      [NOTE: 1.4B1 may obviate the need for the first sentence of this proposed new rule.]

    9.4C1. [Rev. wording] Give the place of publication, distribution, etc., of an electronic resource as instructed in 1.4C.

    9.4C2. [New rule; present 9.4C2 deleted] In the case that no publisher, distributor, etc., is named in the item, give as the place of publication, distribution, etc., the place from which the item was issued, distributed, or released. 9.4D1. [Rev. wording with added example] Give the name of the publisher, etc., and optionally the distributor, of an electronic resource, as instructed in 1.4D.

    London : Psion

    Newton Upper Falls, Mass. ; Ipswich : Practicorp
    (Cataloguing agency in the United Kingdom)

    Prague : [s.n.]

    [S.l.] : Bruce & James Program Publishers ; [New York : Distributed by Simon & Schuster]

    Bellevue, Wash. : Temporal Acuity Products ; Owatonna, Minn. : Distributed exclusively by Musictronic

    [Honolulu, Hawaii] : M.R. Ogden

    9.4D2. [Delete]

    9.4F1. [Rev. wording] Give the date of publication, distribution, etc., of an electronic resource, as instructed in 1.4F.

    Ann Arbor : University of Michigan, Institute of Social Research, 1968

    Chicago : University of Chicago, 1961-1962

    Richmond, Va. : Rhiannon Software, c1985

    [United States : s.n., 198-]

    9.4F2. [Delete]

    9.4F3. [Renumber as 9.4F2]


  2. Edition Statements and Dates for Dynamic Resources

    9.2B9. [New] If an item is only available by remote access, do not transcribe an edition statement, but give an appropriate note (see 9.7B7 and 9.7B20).

    9.4F3. [Rev. wording] Give any other useful dates (e.g., dates of collection of data) in a note (see 9.7B7 and 9.7B9). If the publication date of a remote access item frequently changes in conjunction with changes in content, give the date on which the resource was described in a note (see 9.7B20).

    9.7B7. Edition and history. [See added examples] Give the source of the edition statement if it is different from that of the title proper.

    Ed. statement from container label
    Make notes relating to the edition being described or to the history of the item.
    Updated version of 1982 program
    Program first issued in 1981
    Frequently updated; Last update: 2/18/97
    Updated weekly
    Give details of minor changes such as those listed in 9.2B4 if they are considered to be important.
    Mnemonic tags substituted for numeric tags
    Monochrome version recoded for colour
    Cite other works upon which the item depends for its content.
    Based on: Historiae / Thucydides ; edited by H.S. Jones and J.E. Powell. Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1967-1970
    Give the following dates and details about them if they are considered to be important to the understanding of the content, use, or nature of the file:
    the date(s) covered by the content of a file
    the date(s) when data were collected
    the date(s) of accompanying material not described separately if they differ from those of the file being described
    New England sermons, 1790-1909 Data collected May-Aug. 1981 Manual dated 1983 Includes supplementary file dated 1981

    9.7B20. Copy being described, library's holdings, and restrictions on use. [Rev. wording and added examples] Make these notes as instructed in 1.7B20. If desired, give a locally assigned file or data set name. If desired, give the date when the content of the file was copied from, or transferred to, another source. For a remote access item whose content changes frequently, give the date on which the resource was described.

      Local data set name: RBBIT.1
      Library's set lacks disk 7
      Copied June 1983
      File closed until Jan. 1990
      Restricted to scholarly use
      Description based on version dated: Oct. 4, 1997 13:22:11
      Description of resource as of: May 19, 1996


  3. Multiple Copyright Dates

    9.4F4. [New] If an item has multiple copyright dates which apply to various aspects of the production (e.g., programming, sound production, graphics, documentation, etc.) and there is no publication, distribution, etc., date which applies to the item as a whole, transcribe only the latest copyright date.

    Optionally, transcribe the other dates in a note (see 9.7B7) or in a contents note (see 9.7B18).




Area 5. Physical Description Area


  1. Physical Description Area

    Footnote 3 [Rev. wording] Do not give a physical description for an electronic resource that is available only by remote access. See 9.7B1c and 9.7B10.

    9.5A2. Items with different types and/or sizes of carrier [New] When the item is available in different types of carriers (e.g., cassette and disk) and/or different sizes of carriers (e.g., 9 cm. and 14 cm. disks), or in a different output medium or display format (e.g., a direct access resource reproduced on optical disc and floppy disk), apply whichever of the following two methods is appropriate to the item being described:

    1. Give within the same bibliographic record a separate physical description for each different physical carrier. Give each physical description on a separate line.
        1 electronic optical disc ; sd., col. ; 12 cm.
        3 electronic disks : sd., col. ; 9 cm.
        1 user guide (225 p.) ; 23 cm.
      Optionally, give within the same bibliographic record the extent of each different physical carrier as the first element of the physical description (do this if no further physical description of each physical carrier is desired).
        1 electronic optical disc, 3 electronic disks, 1 user guide (225 p.)

    2. Give a separate bibliographic record for each different physical carrier.

      NOTE: TF proposed this alternatively as a new rule under extent of item, i.e., as new rule 9.5B3.



  2. Specific Material Designation

    9.5B1. [Rev. examples] Record the number of physical units of the carrier by giving the number of them in arabic numerals and one of the following terms as appropriate: 4

      electronic chip cartridge(s)
      electronic disk(s)
      electronic optical disc(s)
      electronic tape cassette(s)
      electronic tape reel(s)

      1 electronic disk
      2 electronic tape cassettes
      1 electronic tape reel

    Footnote 4 [Rev. wording] The following rules apply to the terms:

    1. Use electronic disk for magnetically encoded electronic disks.
    2. Use electronic optical disc for optically encoded electronic discs.

    [Rev. wording and footnote wording] When new physical carriers are developed for which none of these terms is appropriate, give the specific name of the physical carrier as concisely as possible, preferably qualified by electronic. 5

      1 electronic card

    Footnote 5 [New] If the general material designation is used, electronic may be omitted from the supplied term and other specific material designations (e.g. . -- 2 optical discs).

    [Rev. wording and examples] If the information is readily available and if desired, indicate the specific type of physical medium. The following optical-disc formats may be recorded as appropriate: CD-I, CD-ROM, Photo CD.

      [DELETE THE FIRST 3 EXAMPLES]
      1 electronic optical disc (CD-ROM)
      2 electronic optical discs (Photo CD)
      1 electronic optical disc (CD-I)


  3. Format Characteristics

    9.5C1. [Rev. wording as proposed by BL] If the resource is specified to have sound or is known to produce sound, give sd. If it is specified or known to display in two or more colours, give col.

      1 electronic chip cartridge : sd.
      1 electronic disk : col.
      1 electronic disk cartridge : sd., col.
    Give details of the requirements for the production of sound or the display of colour in a note (see 9.7B1b).

    9.5C2. [Rev. wording] Optionally, give other physical characteristics (e.g., recording density; sectoring; etc.), if readily available and if they are considered to be important:

      number of sides used
      recording density (e.g., number of bytes per inch (bpi), single, double)
      sectoring
        1 electronic disk : sd., col., single sided, single density, soft sectored
        2 electronic tape reels : 6,250 bpi

    Noted in TF Discussion: There was some debate over whether or not delete 9.5C2 from AACR2, particularly given the exclusion of physical characteristics other than sound and colour from ISBD(ER). Some TF members felt that the stipulations in the existing 9.5C2 were no longer meaningful or useful, or had some value but in limited circumstances. The TF agreed that to make provisions only for sound and colour might prove a constraint in the volatile world of emerging electronic resources. The proposed rewording of 9.5C2 opens up the interpretation of the rule, and provides the opportunity for cataloguers to record other necessary physical details as they judge appropriate and meaningful.


  4. Dimensions

    9.5D1. [Additional option of metric dimensions and deletion of subsection e)] Give the dimensions of the physical carrier as instructed below.

    1. Disks/Discs. Give the diameter of the disk/disc in inches, to the next 1/4 inch up.
        1 electronic disk : col. ; 5 1/4 in.
        1 electronic optical disc : col. ; 4 3/4 in.

      Optionally, give the diameter of the disk/disc in terms of centimetres rounded up to the next whole centimetre.

        1 electronic disk : col. ; 14 cm.
        1 electronic optical disc : col. ; 12 cm.

    2. Cartridges. Give, in inches to the next 1/4 inch up, the length of the side of the cartridge that is to be inserted into the machine.
        1 electronic chip cartridge ; 3 2 in.

      Optionally, give the length of the side of the cartridge that is to be inserted into the machine in terms of centimetres rounded up to the next whole centimetre.

        1 electronic chip cartridge ; 9 cm.

    3. Cassettes. Give the length and height of the face of the cassette in inches, to the next 1/8 inch up.
        1 electronic tape cassette ; 3 7/8 x 2 1/2 in.

      Optionally, give the length and height of the face of the cassette in terms of centimetres rounded up to the next whole centimetre.

        1 electronic tape cassette ; 10 X 7 cm.

    4. Reels. Give the diameter of the tape reel in inches, to the next inch up.
        1 electronic tape reel ; 9 in.

      Optionally, give the diameter of the tape reel in terms of centimetres rounded up to the next whole centimetre.

        1 electronic tape reel ; 27 cm.

    5. Other carriers. Give the appropriate dimensions of other physical carriers in terms of centimetres rounded up to the next whole centimetre.
        1 computer card ; 9 x 6 cm.

    9.5D2. [added metric example] If the item consists of more than one physical carrier and they differ in size, give the smallest or smaller and the largest or larger size, separated by a hyphen.

      3 electronic disks ; 3 2 X 5 3 in.
      3 electronic disks ; 9-14 cm. (If metric option applied)

    Noted in the Task Force Discussion:

    Issue # 1: ISBD(ER) specifies the use of "cm" rather than "cm." AACR2R uses "cm." The TF does not recommend changing AACR2R from "cm." to "cm" as that would require changes to all instances of "cm." throughout AACR2R.

    Issue # 2: The TFH agreed that it would be helpful and internationally-inclusive to permit catalogers the option of using either metric or Imperial measurements. The inclusion of Optionally with corresponding metric examples reflects this consensus.


  5. Accompanying Material

    9.5E1. [Rev. wording in examples: Change "computer disk(s)" to "electronic disk(s)", and "computer cassette" to "electronic tape cassette" in examples.]




Area 7. Note Area


    9.7B. Notes [No change]

    Make notes as set out in the following subrules and in the order given there. However, give a particular note first when it has been decided that note is of primary importance.

    9.7B1. [Reordered and revised wording] System requirements, mode of access, and nature and scope

    1. System requirements. Make a note on the system requirements of the resource if the information is readily available. If the resource is available only via direct access, always specify the system requirements. Begin the note with System requirements:. Give the following characteristics in the order in which they are listed below. Precede each characteristic, other than the first, by a semicolon.

          the make and model of the computer(s) on which the resource is designed to run
          the amount of memory required
          the name of the operating system
          the software requirements (including the programming language)
          the kind and characteristics of any required or recommended peripherals
          [added example] the type of any required or recommended hardware modifications

        System requirements: 48K RAM; Apple Disk II with controller; col. monitor
        (File requires colour monitor for display)

        System requirements: Apple family; 48K RAM; DOS 3.3

        System requirements: IBM PC; 64K; colour card; 2 disk drives

        System requirements: Commodore Super PET SP9000; 64K; Commodore BASIC, version 4.0; dual disk drive

        DTystem requirements: Apple II, II+, or IIe; 48K; DOS 3.3; Applesoft BASIC; some programs require game paddles

        System requirements: IBM PC or 100% compatible; 128K; DOS 1.1 to DOS 2.1

        System requirements: RTI Series 500 CD-ROM DataDrive

        System requirements: IBM PC AT or XT; CD-ROM player and drive

        [added example]
        System requirements: 486/33MHz PC, Macintosh, or Power Macintosh; 8MB RAM; Windows 3.1 (or higher) or System 7.0.1 (or higher); JAVA capable Web Browser; VGA

    2. Mode of access. If a resource is available only by remote access, always specify the mode of access. Begin the note with Mode of access:.

        Online access via AUSINET

        Mode of access: Electronic mail using ARPA

        [added examples]
        Mode of access: World Wide Web. URL: http://www.un.org

        Mode of access: Internet via ftp://ftp.nevada.edu

    3. Nature and scope. Make notes on the nature and scope of the file unless it is apparent from the rest of the description.

        Game

        Word processor

        Combined time series analysis and graph plotting system

        Spread sheet, with word processing and graphic capabilities

    9.7B2. Language and script. [Rev. wording and added examples] Give the language(s) and/or script(s) of the spoken or written content of a resource unless this is apparent from the rest of the description.

      In German
      Greek language transcribed in medieval manuscript tradition
      [added examples]
      Screen text and audio in English and French
      Alphabetical lists of names in Luxembourgish, French and German

    Record the programming language as part of the system requirements note (see 9.7B1b).

    9.7B4. Variations in title. [added examples]

      Title on manual: Compu-math decimals
      Also known as: MAXLIK
      [added examples]
      At head of title: The all new, all purpose, Joy of cooking
      HTML title: American Birding Association home page
      Title on original spine: General Jubal A. Early
      Also known as: Dictionary of art online

    9.7B5 Parallel titles and other title information. [add examples]

      Subtitle on container: Life & work of explorer Thor Heyerdahl
      HTML title: NRCan resources atlas : welcome! = NRCan atlas des ressources : bienvenue!
      File name: DUB.1
      "Personal finances and other applications"--Second title screen

    9.7B6. Statements of responsibility. [Rev. wording and added examples] Make notes on variant names of persons or bodies named in statements of responsibility if they are considered to be important for identification. Give statements of responsibility not recorded in the title and statement of responsibility area. Make notes on persons or bodies connected with a work, or significant persons or bodies connected with previous editions and not already named in the description. These may include persons or corporate bodies responsible for technical and/or artistic production, administrative and consulting functions of the work, performers, and those connected with related versions, if significant for identification.

      Data collected in collaboration with Christiane Klapisch, École pratique des hautes études, Paris
      Additional contributors to program: Eric Rosenfeld, Debra Spencer
      Simulation rev. and reprogrammed by John Smith for use in an online time-sharing environment
      Systems designer, Henry Letow ; sound, LF Acoustics
      User's guide by John Unger Zussman
      [added examples]
      "By Robert Winter with the Voyager Company"--Instruction sheet
      Terry Jones (voice of the parrot)
      "Photographs are by Peter Haaker and Web page organization and graphics by Terry Tillman"--Ack.
      Program initially developed by Richard Strauss, Jean Foss and Mabel Kinzie and ported to HTML by Bill Looney, Jason Mitchell and Mabel Kinzie
      Website developed by Catherine Vouchila
      Text scanned (OCR) by James Crawford and Joshua McKim; images scanned by Carlene Hempel; text encoded by Carlene Hempel and Natalia Smith
      Hosted by the University of Edinburgh Dept. of Geography

    9.7B7. Edition and history. [See added examples] Give the source of the edition statement if it is different from that of the title proper.

      Ed. statement from container label

    Make notes relating to the edition being described or to the history of the item.

      Updated version of 1982 program
      Program first issued in 1981
      Frequently updated; Last update: 2/18/97
      Updated weekly

    Give details of minor changes such as those listed in 9.2B4 if they are considered to be important.

      Mnemonic tags substituted for numeric tags
      Monochrome version recoded for colour

    Cite other works upon which the item depends for its content.

      Based on: Historiae / Thucydides ; edited by H.S. Jones and J.E. Powell. Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1967-1970

    Give the following dates and details about them if they are considered to be important to the understanding of the content, use, or nature of the file:

        the date(s) covered by the content of a file
        the date(s) when data were collected
        the date(s) of accompanying material not described separately if they differ from those of the file being described

      New England sermons, 1790-1909
      Data collected May-Aug. 1981
      Manual dated 1983
      Includes supplementary file dated 1981
      [added examples]
      Re-published on the Internet, November, 1997
      Issued in part in print as: Protected areas of the world : a view of national systems. Gland, Switzerland : UICN, c1991-c1992; and in part latest ed. of: United Nations list of national parks and protected areas
      Electronic reprint. Originally published in: Journal of wildlife management, vol. 20, no. 2 (1956), p. 111-113.

    9.7B8. File characteristics. [Rev. wording] Give important additional information relating to the type and extent of the resource that has not been included in the type and extent of resource area.

      [examples as currently given]
      [no change to remainder of rule]

    9.7B9. Publication, distribution, etc., area.

      [add example to two currently listed]
      Made available through the FirstSearch service by OCLC

    9.7B11. Accompanying material.

      [add example to two currently listed]
      Set accompanied by one user's guide, teacher's and parents' guide title: Using primary sources / by James A. Peroco. Each disc is accompanied by a teacher's guide

    9.7B16. Other formats.

      [add examples to two currently listed]
      Database also on CD-ROM; included in: Arctic and antarctic regions (National Information Services Corp.)

      The database and associated documentation are available in a MAC version and in Four PC-compatible formats: tab-delimited ASCII file; SPSS portable file; Excel file; SAS formatted file

      Also available online in French as: Plants vasculaires et liches en péril au Canada

    9.7B17. Summary.

      [add examples to four currently listed]
      Summary: Utility program, featuring a screen saver with video clips from the tv show, Wallpaper, and sound effects

      Summary: Includes full text HTML versions in English or Greek and Latin classics, plus links to other related sites, some with texts also in the original languages. Online index available

    9.7B20. Copy being described, library's holdings, and restrictions on use.

      [add examples to five currently listed]
      Description based on lists dated: Oct. 1997; title from title screen (viewed on Sept. 10, 1998)

      Description based on: 2nd Internet ed.; title from title screen (viewed on Sept. 16, 1998

      Resource copied April 1999 from local area network

      Restricted to users at subscribing institutions




Appendix D. Glossary


From ISBD(ER): 0.2 – Definitions

Below are three separate lists of glossary terms for incorporation into AACR2R.


  1. Simple Glossary Term Changes

    This list includes new/additional Glossary terms — derived from, or based on, ISBD(ER) Definitions, 0.2, (pp. 4-15) — that can be incorporated into AACR2R, as well as proposed revisions to existing AACR2R Glossary terms. An asterisk denotes that a term may need modification in the future, based on work that other groups are doing (for e.g., 0.24 Task Force, CONSER AACR Task Force, other CC:DA Task Forces, etc.).


    Access. (Electronic resources). [New] A method of obtaining data resources and programs. See also Direct access, Remote access.

    Accompanying material. [Rev. wording -- Cf . p. 615 AACR2R] Any material accompanying the main part(s) of the item being described, and intended to be used with it.

    Accompanying material statement. [New] A brief description of accompanying material.

    CD-I (Compact Disc-Interactive). [New] A compact disc format develop by Philips and Sony that stores electronic resources, including sound, text, still images, and full-motion video in optical form, used with a CD-I player.

    CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read-Only Memory). [New] A compact disc format that stores electronic resources, including sound, text, still images, and full-motion video in optical form, used with a CD-ROM player.

    Colour (Electronic resources). [New] Two or more colours in which a program is encoded or a monitor displays. Programs encoded to display colour require a colour monitor and, in the case of some computers, a colour card or board.

    Common title (Electronic resources). [New] That part of a title which is carried by a group of related items in addition to their different section titles. The common title serves to indicate this relationship and together with the section title identifies a given item. The common title can also be common to a main item and its supplement(s) and to a main series and its sub-series in cases where the supplement(s)/sub-series has (have) dependent title(s).

    Compression. [New] A means of compacting information for more efficient transmission or storage, used in such areas as data communication, database management systems, and facsimile transmission.

    Computer. [New] A machine that receives, stores, manipulates, and communicates information and/or instructions. Computers can be broadly categorized into three groups: (1) mainframe computers, (2) minicomputers, (3) microcomputers, also called "home computers", "personal computers", and "business computers".

    Computer file. [Rev. reference wording] See Electronic resource.

    Container. [Rev. wording] Any housing for an item, a group of items, or part of an item, that is physically separable from the material being housed. (For electronic resources, a box or folder for a set of disks/discs is a container, a cassette or cartridge is not.) See also Physical carrier.

    Data set name. [Rev. wording for reference] See File name (Electronic resources)

    Dependent title. [New] A title which by itself is insufficient to identify an item and which requires the addition of the common title, or the title of the main item or the title of the main series. Examples are section titles and some titles of subseries.*

    Dependent title designation. [New] Word or lettering or numbering, or a combination of these, which alone or in conjunction with a dependent title serves to distinguish one of two or more related serials having a common title. See also Subseries designation.*

    Direct access (Electronic resources) [Rev. wording] The use of electronic resources via carriers (e.g., disks, tape cassettes, chip cartridges) designed to be inserted into a computer or its auxiliary equipment by the user. See also Remote access (Electronic resources).

    Directory. [New] A list of files with associated file names that can be viewed and ordered in various ways (e.g. alphabetically or by date, size, or as icons in a graphical user interface). Also called a catalogue.

    Disk. [New] A removable, flexible disk used for storage of electronic resources in magnetic form, read and written to by electron-magnetic impulse. Examples of magnetic disk formats are: floppy disk (also called "diskettes"), and hard disks.

    Documentation (Electronic resources). [New] Information issued by the publisher, creator, etc., with the resource, normally in the form of manuals or guides (sometimes electronic) describing how to initiate, operate, and maintain electronic resources and computer systems.

    Edition (Electronic resources). [Rev. wording] All the copies of a resource produced from substantially the same master copy, published or issued by a particular agency or group of agencies. An edition may be identified by an edition statement in the resource, or may be inferred by the cataloguer by the presence of significant differences in the content, or by information provided by the publisher. See also Version. *

    Edition statement. [New] A word or phrase, or a group of characters, indicating that an item belongs to an edition. *

    Electronic resource. [New; wording as approved by LC, CCC, BL, ACOC] Material (data and/or program(s)) encoded for manipulation by computer or by a peripheral device attached to a computer (e.g., CD-ROM player). Includes both directly accessed material (e.g., computer disks, computer optical discs) and remotely accessed materials (e.g., online service, computer bulletin boards, discussion groups/lists, World Wide Web sites). See also Direct access (Electronic resources), Remote access (Electronic resources).

    File name (Electronic resources). [Rev. wording] A name, usually consisting of a maximum number of alphanumeric characters that are used to identify either computer data resource or a computer program. Also known as a data set name.

    Hard disk. [New] A non-flexible magnetic disk, in a solid container, used to read and write electronic resources; hard disks can be either fixed or removable.

    Hardware. [New] The physical components of a computer, including electronic or mechanical equipment used in the operation of a computer system.

    Home page. [New] The main or opening screen of a hypertext document for a World Wide Web site. Home pages are a subset of "Web pages" that present information on systems, services, and products, and, in addition, provide links in the form of words, URLs, etc., to other related documents and Web sites. See also URL, Web page, World Wide Web site.

    Internet. [New] A large network made up of a number of smaller networks that are connected to each other, using the Internet Protocol (IP) and other similar protocols. The Internet provides such services as file transfer, electronic mail, remote login, and news, among others. See also World Wide Web.

    Listing. [New] A printout or display of the text of a program or the contents of a resource.

    Local access. [New] See Direct access (Electronic resources).

    Main series. [New] A numbered series which contains one or more subseries. *

    Menu. [New] A list of available options that are built into a file.

    Multilevel description. [New] A method of bibliographic description based on the division of descriptive information into two or more levels. The first level contains information common to the whole or main item. The second and subsequent levels contain information relating to the individual unit.*

    Optical disc. [New] A removable, non-flexible disc, used for storage of electronic resources in optical form, read and written to by laser technology. See also CD-I (Compact-Disc Interactive), CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read-Only Memory), Photo CD (Photo Compact Disc).

    Parallel edition statement. [New] The edition statement in another language and/or script.

    Parallel title. [Rev. wording] The title proper (or the title of an individual work given an item with no collective title proper) in another language and/or script; or a title in another language and/or script presented as an equivalent of the title proper. Parallel titles also occur in conjunction with the title(s) proper in series/subseries statements.

    Peripheral. [New] An accessory connected to a computer system that is usually used to conduct input-output operations (e.g. a printer, joystick).

    Photo CD (Photo Compact Disc). [New] A compact disc format developed by Kodak that stores digitised 35 mm slides or negatives. A multi-session CD-ROM drive is required to read images that are added after the original set.

    Physical carrier. [Rev. wording] The physical medium on or in which data, sound, images, programs, etc. may be stored. For certain categories of material, the physical carrier consists of a storage medium (e.g. tape, film) sometimes encased in a plastic, metal, etc., housing (e.g. cassette, cartridge) that is an integral part of the item. See also Container.

    Prescribed punctuation. [New] Punctuation supplied by the bibliographic agency to precede or enclose the information in each element (except the first element of area 1) or area of the bibliographic description.

    Prescribed source of information. [New] The source or sources from which information is taken for entry in each element or area of the bibliographic description.

    Producer. [Rev. wording; cf. P. 621 of AACR2R] The person or corporate body with the financial and/or administrative responsibility for the physical processes whereby an electronic resource is brought into existence. Specific responsibilities may relate in varying degrees to the creative and technical aspects of a particular work, including collecting data and converting data into a computerized form.

    Publication (Remote electronic resource). [New] In the context of applying rules for remote electronic resources, all remote electronic resources are considered to be published. A formal statement of publication that includes place, publisher, and date is given in the bibliographic record when such information is available. If no place or publisher information is available in the item, the abbreviations "s.l." and "s.n." are given as appropriate. *

    Record. [New] A group of words, numbers or symbols, or a combination thereof, identified as a unit from the bibliographic entry in a library catalogue, a case in a survey, a student test score.

    Remote access (Electronic resources). [New] A method of using an electronic resource when there is no physical carrier to be handled by the user. The resources are stored on large storage devices maintained mechanically or by a computer technician, including hard disks on microcomputers. See also Direct access (Electronic resources).

    Section title. [New] The title specific to a section which serves to distinguish one part of a group of related series having a common title. The section title is dependent on the common title for identification of a series whether distinctive or not. *

    Series statement. [New] The main elements identifying a series, including any numbering of the separate items within the series. Also includes a statement that an item forms part of a multi-part resource. See also Subseries statement.*

    Statement of responsibility. [Rev. wording; cf. p. 623 of AACR2R] Name(s), phrase(s), or group(s) of characters relating to the identification and/or function of any persons or corporate bodies responsible for or contributing tithe creation of realization of the intellectual or artistic content of a work. Statements of responsibility may occur in conjunction with titles (e.g. the title proper, parallel title, titles of individual works contained in the item, titles in series/subseries statements) or in conjunction with edition statements.*

    Subseries. [Rev. wording; cf. p. 623 of AACR2R] A series which appears as part of a numbered series (main series). The subseries may or may not have a title dependent on that of the main series. See also Common title, Dependent title, Section (Serials).*

    Subseries designation. [New] Word or lettering or numbering, or a combination of these, following the title of the main series, which can stand alone or in conjunction with the title of the sub-series. *

    Subseries statement. [New] The main elements identifying a subseries, including any numbering of the separate items within the subseries. In the case of a subseries the title of which is dependent on the title of the main series, the subseries statement includes both series, and may include a subseries designation. See also Series statement, Section (Serials).*

    TEI header (Text Encoding Initiative header). [New] Descriptive and declarative information making up an "electronic title page" that is attached to a TEI-conformant electronic text. The header consists of four principal components: a file description, encoding description, profile description and revision description.

    Terminal. [New] An input-output device consisting of a keyboard and a monitor or screen, which is used to send or receive information or instructions.

    Title. [Rev. wording; cf. p. 615 of AACR2R] A word or phrase, or a group of characters, usually appearing in an item, naming the item or the work (or any one of a group of individual works) contained in it. An item will usually contain several titles (e.g. on the item itself or on the front or the spine of the container), and these titles may be identical or may differ from one another.* See also Alternative title, Binder's title, Caption title, Cover title, Half title, Parallel title, Running title, Spine title, Supplied title, Title proper, Uniform title.

    Title proper. [Rev. wording; cf. p. 624 of AACR2R] The chief title of an item, i.e., the title of an item in the form in which it appears in the prescribed sources of information for the title and statement of responsibility area. The title proper includes any alternative title but excludes parallel titles and other title information. For items containing several individual works, the title proper is the collective title. Items containing several individual works and lacking a collective title are considered not to have a title proper. A series or subseries also has its own title proper. Certain titles proper are made up of multiple titles, called common title and dependent title(s). *

    URL (Uniform Resource Locator). [New] An address system for locating an electronic resource on a computer network. A URL consists of a service identifier followed by a specified protocol that is used to obtain a desired resource (e.g. http://www.ieee.org).

    Version (Electronic resources). [New] A related term for edition. Versions may indicate major or minor changes and, as such, may not constitute a reliable guide to indicate a new edition. See also Edition (Electronic resources).

    Web page. [New] One of the pages of a hypertext document in a World Wide Web site. Web pages, including the subset "home pages", refer to the huge collection of documents that make up the World Wide Web. (See also Home page, World Wide Web.). *

    World Wide Web. [New] An Internet service that links documents through the use of hypertext technology. Links in the form of words, URL, etc., serve to find and access documents stored on the Internet. See also URL, Internet. *

    World Wide Web site. [New] A location, identified in the form of a URL, on the World Wide Web that stores Web pages for access and use. See also URL, Web page, World Wide Web. *


  2. More Complex Glossary Term Changes

    For each of the terms in the following list, the ISBD(ER) text is in conflict with existing AACR2R text, or poses problems with cross references in the index. (See ISBD(ER) 0.2 Definitions on pp. 4-15, and AACR2R Glossary (Appendix D) for differing texts of the actual term definitions.)


    Disk. A removable, flexible disk used for storage of electronic resources in magnetic form, read and written to by electron-magnetic impulse. Examples of magnetic disk formats are: floppy disk (also called "diskettes"), and hard disks.

    Optical disc. A removable, non-flexible disc, used for storage of electronic resources in optical form, read and written to by laser technology. See also CD-I (Compact-Disc Interactive), CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read-Only Memory), Photo CD (Photo Compact Disc).

    International Standard Book Number (ISBN).

    International Standard Serial Number (ISSN).

    Interactive videodisc. A videodisc controlled by a computer.
    NOTE: This will cause problems in the index. The term and definition are ok by themselves, but both Chapters 9 and 7 are involved.

    Key title.

    Monographic item.

    Multipart resource. Cf. Multipart item. NOTE: ISBD(ER) uses hyphen, i.e., "Multi-part resource".

    Other title information.


  3. Specific Material Designations that Logically Belong in the AACR2R Glossary See ISBD(ER) pp. 92-97 for text.


    Application program
    Bibliographic database
    CAD program
    Census data
    Chip cartridge
    Data
    Database program
    Desktop publishing program
    Disk
    Document
    Font data
    Game
    Image data
    Interactive multimedia
    Journal
    Map data
    Newsletter
    Numeric data
    Online service
    Operating system
    Optical disc
    Program
    Programming language
    Representational data
    Retrieval program
    Sound data
    Survey data
    System program
    Tape cassette
    Tape reel
    Text data
    Utility program
    Word processor program



Members of the Task Force

John C. Attig
Matthew Beacom
Ann Sandberg-Fox
Lynne C. Howarth (Chair)
Laurel Jizba
Mary L. Larsgaard
Patricia Vanderberg
Matthew Wise


Copyright © 1999 by the American Library Association.
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