As with geographic and corporate names, generally consult these rules only if the heading is not already established.
LCRI 24.1. As with geographic names, LCRI lists names that are ambiguous which are to be considered corporate. These include: cemeteries, concentration camps, ships, stores (retail). Note also that plans, programs, and projects are considered corporate.
Some punctuation notes: note that if a heading includes quotation marks, they should be retained. You will notice this a lot with conference names.
Note also the spacing examples (scrunch them up unless the initials are 2 letters, as with Ph. D); also: how to standardize use of hyphen.
Abbreviations: if abbreviated in the source, abbreviate in the heading. (but for English language names, “Dept.” is always abbreviated, even if not abbreviated on the source. (This is in the RI for Appendix B, which is technically in conflict with AACR2.)
Headings formerly 151s now 110s. The change in policy took place in 1996. These are supposed to be converted from 151s to 110s, so if the authority record tags as 151 notify Dan.:
· Airports (Probably why John F. Kennedy International Airport is still 151)
· Cemeteries <note that these are always qualified by the specific locality even if the cemetery is national in scope; this is different from other corporate names>
· Concentration camps. Note that there are rather detailed guidelines for concentration camps.
24.1A. The name is determined by items issued by the body in its language. (form found in references is NOT the primary determinant for the established form). Unless there are special rules, the name of the body is entered directly (rather than subordinately to higher bodies)
LCRI 24.1B. Systematic romanization is always used for corporate headings.
LCRI24.2. LCRI gives more guidance than does AACR2 about when a name is a variant or a name change (24.1C1)
24.2B./LCRI. The chief source must be used for the form of the name. As the RI points out, the chief source is used even if another source, such as the verso, has more information.
24.2C/LCRI. Variant spellings due to orthographic reform are NOT considered name changes. (But Dan would need to update the authority record if no reference has been made.)
24.2D/LCRI 24.2D. Variant forms on chief source. Rule is to “use the name that is presented formally” i.e. not included as part of the title. If more than one form is presented formally (usually both in full form and initials), and neither is predominant, AACR2 says to use the initials or briefer form unless there is a conflict, in which case use reference sources or “official form” <often appear with the copyright symbol>; the LCRI, however, says to use the fuller form, which is a lot less convoluted. (Initials as established form are a real problem because they often conflict, so LCRI contradicts the rule.)
LCRI “When a corporate name must be established for an item not issued by the corporate body, treat the item being cataloged as a reference source. If the item provides both the body's full form of name and its initials, choose the full form for use in the heading (even if the initials appear prominently and the full form does not).”
Basically, the RI is saying avoid using initials as the established form!
LCRI 24.3A. Corp. name appears in different languages on the chief source. If the body has an official language, use it. If it has more than one official language, and one is English, use the English. If neither of the languages is English, use the language used predominantly on items issued by the body. If the official language of the body is not known (e.g. non governmental bodies), use the form in the offical language of the country where the body is located, if the country has a single official language. (Israel has 2 official languages. Or 3?) In that case, prefer in this order: English, French, German, Spanish, Russian. If none of these languages appear, use the first language in alphabetical order. <I suspect there might be special rules for Israel publications where corp. names appear in multiple languages on the chief source.> Use English for international bodies if the name appears in English if it appears formally, on chief sources of its publications.
LCRI 24.3E. Note that if “a name or phrase represents a body exercising all the powers (or group of powers) of the government,” the form used is the name of the government (e.g. the name of the country, or other locality that functions as a government. Thus, Comune di Alba is est. as Alba (Italy) not as Comune di Alba)
24.3G1. Local churches. If variant forms are found on the chief source, use the predominant form. If there is none, the order of preference is:
Additions to name of church see 24.10.
24.4B. LCRI 24.4B. The rule is that if the name doesn’t convey the idea of a corporate body, it should be qualified by some designation in English, e.g. (Firm). Note that in the cases covered by the rule/RI here, the qualifier is added even when there is no conflict. The RI says that a firm consisting only of surnames (McKim, Mead & White) adequately conveys the corporate idea and does not need (Firm), but if the surnames are preceded by forename initials, (Firm) should be used: B. Morgan and D. Morgan (Firm)
LCRI: anytime an initialism is used as the est. form (and you’ve already seen how the RIs go out of their way to avoid this happening), you must qualify it. But note that an intialism used as a reference is not qualified; this allows an initialism reference to point to many different est. corporate names. (Try searching ACT)
Note there are other RIs for qualifying art galleries, consulting firms, sports teams, and musical groups.
24.4C/LCRI 24.4C. Here the rules cover situations where the heading is in conflict. If there is no conflict, no qualifier would need to be added, as long as the name conveys the idea of a corporate entity, if the corporate body is nongovernmental. Note that if there is a conflict, both your heading and the previously established heading would need to be qualified <i.e. NACO update required>; if your heading conflicts with a reference for an old heading, the reference would have to be updated <i.e. NACO update>
Governmental bodies entered directly (under their own names) must be qualified even in cases where there is no conflict unless the name of the government is already part of the name. <exceptions are institutions: schools, libraries, laboratories, hospitals, archives, museums, prisons, etc; e.g. Smithsonian Institution, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Attica Prison; RI doesn’t explain what exactly an institution is; all of those listed administer buildings or some kind of physical plant; examples for non-institutions don’t>
If the body is nongovernment or one of the governmental institution exceptions, you can still qualify “if the addition assists in the understanding of the nature or purpose of the body.”
A new heading for any governmental body entered under its own name will require an authority record for the reference from the government body, even in those situations where the name of the government is incorporated in the name of the body, and even if the name is not qualified, so it must be referred to Dan.
LCRI 24.4C. If a corporate body is qualified by place name, the record must be updated if the place name changes. The qualifier is always the most current form of the place name.
24.4C2. If a the body is national, state, or provincial in character, qualify by the country, state, or province located (if there is a conflict), otherwise, per 24.4C3, qualify by the local place.
LCRI 24.4C5. If the corporate name A. is qualified by corporate name B., generally don’t add any of the qualifiers used in the established form corporate name B. Cp. this with the RI for 24.4C 2c.: geographic names used as qualifier retain the first order name (country, state, province) but not subsequent qualifiers (township, etc.)
24.5C. LCRI 24.5C. Terms of incorporation. In headings the term indicating incorporation is not included in the est. form of the name unless it’s an integral part of the name or it is needed to make clear that the name is corporate.
LCRI defines “integral” to meaning any situation where the term appears other than the end. Remember that even if it is at the end, you would include it if the name does not connote a corporate name, e.g. extrapolating from the RI for 24.4B, if on the chief source it was: B. Morgan and D. Morgan Inc., it would be est. as B. Morgan and D. Morgan Inc. rather than B. Morgan and D. Morgan (Firm); if on the chief source it was CAST Inc. it would be so established rather than CAST (Group); if Hospital Maintenance Consultants Inc., then the qualifier (Firm) is not needed.
LCRI 24.6. Additions to governments.
LCRI 24.7. Conferences, congresses, meetings.
As with the RIs for geographic names and strictly corporate names, LC gives a list of names that should be tagged as 111s. Includes sporting events, tournaments.
Note that in 1996 policy changed so all events are tagged as 111 (previously they could be 111 or 150).
Check out the web page exercises for examples. (URLS are at the end of this document)
LCRI 24.7A. Consider the date to be part of the conference name if the conference name is an initialism and is not ongoing: 111 2_ GAGTECH ‘92
24.7B./LCRI 24.7B. Additions.
<Name of conference>.|n(<number of conference> :|d<date of conference :|cplace conference was held>
IMPORTANT: If a conference is ongoing, the authority record does not include the qualifier information; you must enter that specific information in your 111 or 711 (or, rarely, the 611). The place can be either the institution where the conference was held or the place where the conference was held. The RI says to take the place info. from the chief source, preferring the institution name as found on the chief source if both institution and place are there. (In other words, the institution doesn’t have to match the est. form of the institution; nor does the institution name have to be established if it hasn’t been; if the place name is used, it must be in established form or established)
111:2_: |a Jerusalem Conference on International Terrorism |d (1979) <this conference only occurred once, so the date was included in the authority record>
111:2 : |a International Conference on Jewish Studies |n (6th : |d 1999 : |cMoscow, Russia) <this is ongoing; est. form is: 111 2_ International Conference on Jewish Studies.>
711/3:2 : |a International Symposium on Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism in Man |n (10th : |d 2000 : |c Tel-Aviv, Israel) <likewise>
111:2 : |a NGITS'99 |d (1999 : |c Zikhron Ya_ a_ kov, Israel)
Note that the year is repeated in subfield d even if the date is part of the name. <LCRI 24.8B> Note that the first delimiter is placed before the parenthesis.
If the proceedings are for 2 meetings, and the work is it qualifies for entry under the name of the conference, LCRI says to enter under the first with an added entry for the second even if the meetings are consecutive. Three or more, don’t qualify.
LCRI 24.8 Festivals, celebrations. These are tagged as events, 111. (Don’t confuse events tagged as 111 with holidays tagged 150, even though holidays may have some term for festival or celebration in their name.)
24.10A. If the name of a local church does not convey the idea of a church, etc., add a general designation in English. See the example in LCRI 24.10B following.
LCRI 24.10B. “Add to the name of a local church, cathedral, monastery, convent, abbey, temple, mosque, synagogue, etc., the name of the place in which it is located.” Note that the AACR2 rule says don’t qualify if the place is evident from the name; the RI doesn’t make any exceptions; always qualify by place.
110 2 _ Beth El Synagogue (New Rochelle, N.Y.)
“If the name needs the addition of both a general designation and the name of a place, add the general designation first.”
110:20: |a Beth Hamedrash Hagadol (Synagogue : Leeds, England)
24.12A. A subordinate body (other than a government agency, covered under 24.18) is entered directly unless it falls into one of the 6 types under 24.13. Note that when this happens a reference must be made so you need to refer it to Dan.
24.13. Subordinate and related bodies entered subordinately. These are non-governmental types, and there are 6.
Type 1. Name contains a term implying that the body is part of another, e.g. Dept., Division, Section, Branch.
Type 2. Name that normally implies administrative subordination (Committee, Commission) if the name of the higher body is required for identification. The last exceptional example includes the name of the higher body in its name, so it doesn’t need to be entered subordinately. The LCRI gives lists of terms in English, French, and Spanish that are to be considered to imply admnistrative subordination. The equivalents in Hebrew would probably be considered the same.
Type 3. Name that is general in nature.. LCRI: “The Library of Congress interprets "a name that is general in nature" in the rule as follows: "general in nature" usually means that the name contains neither very distinctive elements (such as proper nouns or adjectives) nor subject words.” Note that if the name includes subject terms or a proper name, LC considers the name not general in nature and would enter directly, e.g. Carnegie Library, Fine Arts Museum.
Type 4. Name that does not convey the idea of a corporate body. Both AACR2 examples sound like processes rather than corporate bodies.
Type 5. Name of a university faculty, college, institute, laboratory, etc. that simply indicates a particular field of study. (LCRI or interest or activity). A type of academic institute that would be entered directly would be one that included a proper name: Kennedy Institute (entered directly, but is organizationally subordinate to Georgetown University)
Type 6. Name that includes the entire name of the higher or related body. It’s easy to miss this one. It has to be the entire name, not including any of the cataloger added qualifiers. <the examples are also under type 5 by the way>
So, Northwestern University School of Law becomes 110 2_ Northwestern University.|bSchool of Law <remember too that if the higher body is part of the name, it is not repeated if the name is entered subordinately> since the entire name of the higher body is Northwestern University (Evanston, Ill.).
BUT: 110 2_ Cambridge University Library is established as such because the higher body is University of Cambridge.
<the next part of the RI (the Jefferson Academy examples). The first example demonstrates that the type 6 would apply to the Research Council because even though the full name of Jefferson Academy is not part of the name, the full name of the body immediately above the Research Council, i.e. Conover Branch, is, and this the RI considers to be a sufficient fulfillment of the type 6 requirement.
<the 2nd example demonstrates the exception. Thomas Foundation is entered directly (and note that the entire phrase is established) because, per 24.14, if Thomas Foundation is entered subordinately, the intermediate body, Conover Branch, would be eliminated because, unlike Research Council, Thomas Foundation is not a generic name. The intervening body is only included if the subordinate body to be established has a generic name that could be a subdivison of another intermediate body. Since the 24.14 rule has effectively made the full name of the body immediately above “disappear”, type 6 cannot then be applied, so the name is entered directly! Ya gotta be a cataloger …>
There are some more exceptions for the application of type 6 having to do with bodies that include U.S./United States in the name, names where the superior body is in a different language, and German universities.
Per the LCRI, type 6 is not applied if the subordinate body’s name minus the higher body’s name does not convey the idea of a corporate body.
Per the LCRI, type 6 also applies to conferences where the name of the conference minus the higher body would simply be a generic term like Conference or Symposium. If the name minus the higher body would be more than generic, than the name of the conference is established directly.
110 2 _ American Academy of Advertising.|bConference <note that tag is 110>
111 2_ Miami University Conference on Sentence Combining and the Teaching of Writing <note that the tag is 111>
24.14. Direct or indirect subheading. Skip intervening elements of hierarchy “unless the name of the subordinate or related body has been, or is likely to be, used by another body under the name of the higher or related body. In that case, interpose the name of the lowest element in the hierarchy that will distinguish between the bodies.” A reference for the immediately superior body is required, so Dan would have to establish. The RI is at 24.19 (not 24.14), since it is meant to cover both governmental and nongovernmental bodies. See comments at 24.19.
24.15. Note that there are special rules for Joint Committees, since they don’t fit into the subordinate/nonsubordinate axis.
LCRI 24.17. United Nations is considered a government body.
LCRI 24.18. Government agencies entered subordinately. If the subordinate body contains the name of the higher body as an element of its name, omit when the higher body’s name is part of the hierarchy.
As the RI points out, there is no equivalent to 24.13 type 6 for government bodies, so if the entire name of the higher body is included in the subordinate body’s name, and the name is not one of the types requiring subordination under 24.18, then the name would be entered directly unless to do so would create a name beginning with a term indicating that the body is part of another or implying administrative subordination, e.g. Dept.
Types of government names entered subordinately:
Type 1. Name contains a term that implies the body is part of another (Dept., Division, Section, Branch and equivalents in other languages) What terms are used in Israel?
Type 2. Name implies administrative subordination. Again, LCRI provides a list of terms in English, French & Spanish that imply administrative subordination. Probably want to consider the equivalents in Hebrew as falling into type 2.
Type 3. Name that is general in nature. The RI defines 2 types of general names.
Type 4. An agency name that does not convey the idea of a corporate body and does not contain the name of the government.. All the AACR2 examples sound like topics.
Type 5. An agency that is a ministry or similar major executive agency, i.e. one that has no other agency above it. (In some cases research might be needed to see if there are no agencies above.) LCRI says to restrict application to national ministries.
110 1_ United States.|bNational Air and Space Administration.
Type 7. Courts. 110 1_ |a Israel. |b Bet ha-mishpa t ha- elyon.
Type 8. A principal service of the armed forces of the government:
110:1_: |a Israel. |b Tseva haganah le-Yi sra el
Type 9. Head of state or government: 110:1_: |a Israel. |b Mi_ srad rosh ha-memshalah
<assuming the prime minister is the head of state>
LCRI 24.19. The RI is written to cover both 24.14 and 24.19, i.e. both governmental and non-governmental bodies.
LC notes the more obvious aspects of the rule, namely: if the last element is a common sounding name or performs a function common to many higher bodies, then the intervening body must be included; if the last element is performing a function unique to the higher body, the intervening body should be excluded.
If the subordinate body doesn’t fall into the obvious categories, then the cataloger needs to decide whether the name could be subordinate to another corporate body, if so, then the immediately intervening body would be required.
Special rules. These cover, among other things: courts, armed forces, embassies, delegations, religious bodies and officials. Primarily for Catholic Church. Nothing specific for Israel or Judaism.
Reminder: the corporate name quiz is at:
the answers are at: