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SCM Geography

H980 Jerusalem, Gaza, West Bank, Palestine

"Assign the subject heading Palestine to works about the region on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea that in ancient times was called the Land of Canaan, later the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, and in modern times comprises the entire state of Israel, as well as the various disputed territories."

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SCM Special Topics

based on SRA MS-Word document, July 2003 (?)

H1225. Archaeological works.

There is  a standard subject heading combination used for archaeological sites. Refer to this memo when cataloging a work about a “dig.”

H1230. Archives/Archival resources . Cp. H2080. Sources.

For collections of documentary materials, use –Archives with the following exceptions which use --Sources

-Historical topic subjects

-Author/title subjects

Note that documentary material about a literary figure uses –Archives, but sources of inspiration uses –Sources.

H1250. Art and Fine Art.

Note that there are new free floating chronological subdivisions used under Art .

The old pattern:

1.      650 _0 Art, Israeli.

2.      650 _0 Art, Modern|y20th century|zIsrael.


1.      650 _0 Art, Israeli|y20th century.

  Note that this memo has patterns to be used  for:

  • More than one artist
  • Single artist

(Note that –Criticism and interpretation subdivision may be used; not the case for philosophers)

For books about the art collection of an individual, see in particular the pattern headings used for Owners (h.) <under “More than one artist”>. See also H1360 for catalogs of items (including those of a particular owner) for items that are not art collections.

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H1295 Bible.

Basic pattern headings for Bible—<subdivision>are under H1188 Sacred works & are also used for individual parts of the Bible.

For quick reference, note that the pattern headings for sacred works is also on the Princeton page at:

For the Bible pattern headings (H1188) see also the additional information on the Princeton page at:

Note that discussion of a topic in the Bible is in the form <topic> in the Bible. The phrase heading must be established. If the topic is restricted to a part of the Bible, then an additional heading for that part should be made. If the topic is not restricted to a part, an additional heading for Bible is not made. An example: The Lord is my shepherd : the theology of a caring God.

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Theology and Ethics

General theology is expressed as Bible—Theology or Bible. <Part>--Theology; general ethics is expressed as Ethics in the Bible.  BUT: for individual theological or ethical  topics,  use <topic>--Biblical teaching.  Examples:

  • Adultery—Biblical teaching.
  • Death—Biblical teaching.
  • Future life—Biblical teaching.
  • Marriage—Biblical teaching.

Many examples at the end of the SCM memo.

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H1300. Bible: Versions

This memo applies to books about translations of versions of the Bible (the translated text might not necessarily be in the original language); there are no instructions to use these subjects when cataloging editions of the versions themselves, although conceivably, extensive commentary might warrrant use of the subjects described in this memo.

H1322. Bibliographies about individual persons<Person>|vBibliography. If there is a topic orientation, LC says to make a 2nd subject for the topic with |vBibliography. Note that there are 2 more specific uses of Bibliography you might encounter: Bibliography of bibliographies and Bio-bibliography covered by H1325 and H1328.

H1330. Biography subdivision . Key point #1: LC says to use only if the book is “predominantly biographical and in narrative form,” i.e., not lit-crit with biographical information. (Note that for other forms, LC has such subdivisions as –Correspondence, --Diaries, and –Interviews). Take a look at definitions in this memo for Biography, Collective biography, Individual biography, and Partial biography for deciding on how to code the fixed field, as well.

Key point #2: Generally, --Biography is not used as a subdivision of the biographee’s name.  It used as a subdivision for the class of person. See the General rule pattern. Note that –Biography was once exceptionally used with personal name for literary authors, but that this practice was dropped in 1998.

Collective biography. You can use up to 4 subjects for personal names; if more, LC says to omit name headings.

For <class of persons>--Biography, note that LC says this subject is assigned primarily for the benefit of public library users. If you think the book being cataloged is unlikely to be used in even a very large public library, you aren’t obliged to go out of your way to assign a heading of this type. On the other hand, even if the title wouldn’t necessarily be owned by a public library, there might be classes of persons you would want to bring ot for the special collection, e.g. Cantors (Judaism); Rabbis. Bring out the geographical aspect if permitted: Rabbi’s spouses—Israel—Biography.  You will find many LC records that just assign the name of the biographee for biographies.

Note that LC also says to assign subjects by gender or ethnic group if you think this is a significant factor in the biography. Keep in mind that some classes of persons being with “Jewish”: Jewish musicians; Jewish lawyers, Jewish capitalists and financiers.

H1360. Catalogs. Cf. H1593 Exhibitions; and H1427 Collections of objects.

Pattern headings for private collections and museum collections. Remember that Catalog of exhibitions use the subdivision –Exhibitions.

H1365. Cemeteries. These are now considered corporate bodies (610); formerly they were tagged as 151. For a good example, see in Orbis: Friedhof Weisweiler : judische Kultur in Deutschland … <there is a subject Jewish cemeteries; not clear to me whether it is common practice to use when a specific cemetery is one of the subjects, but LC appears to be doing it in this case>

H1370. Civilization. Use Jews—Civilization. Note that major civilizations and major religious groups generally use Civilization as the entry element, e.g. Civilization, Buddhist.

There is a very useful set of definitions as far as LC practice goes under this memo:

 Civilization is related closely to other concepts such as culture, history, and social history, but places particular emphasis on cultural advances, including the arts, learning and scholarship, intellectual life, manners and customs, the development and growth of religion, advances in science and technology, etc.  Culture is a term used by social scientists to describe a people's whole way of life, whether simple or complex, consisting of learned ways of acting, feeling, and thinking.  History is the chronological account of specific events, emphasizing political, diplomatic, military, and economic developments. For instructions on use of the subdivision –History, see H 1647. Social history is the history of social problems, policies, movements, institutions, etc., treated collectively.”

Note that Social history is not used as a subdivision; use –Social conditions.

Note that Culture is not used as a subdivision; use either –Civilization or –Social life and customs.

H1425. Collected works and collections.

Don’t use –Collected works (Obsolete)

--Collections is only used now under (most likely) the subjects: Drama, Fiction, Literature, Poetry, and Treaties.

H1427. Collections of objects. Cp. H1360 Catalogs; these 2 memos go hand in hand. Limited number of  free floaters by object type. Don’t invent new subdivisions.

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H1435. Commentaries. This is related to rule 21.13 AACR2R. (Whether main entry is under the author of the work being commented on or under the author of the commentary.)

a.      If entered under author of original work.  Assign headings, if any, appropriate to the text of the original work.  If the commentary is 20% or more of the work being cataloged, assign also the name-title or uniform title heading appropriate to a commentary on the work.

b.      If entered under the author of the commentary.  Assign the name-title or uniform title heading appropriate to a commentary on the work, and any other headings appropriate to the text of the original work.

Note that –Commentaries is only used under titles of sacred works. Otherwise just the author/title or 630 is used without subdivision.

Special rules for sacred works:

  1. If the book is  a commentary on a commentary, subjects are assigned for both the original work that was commented on and the commentary being commented on.
  2. The subdivision –Commentaries is only used for sacred works. Note the example under c.: if the work isn’t a systematic commentary, then –Criticism, interpretation, etc. is more appropriate. For Hebraica, keep  in mind that there is a more specific subdivision: --Criticism, interpretation, etc., Jewish.

H1460. Congresses. Keep in mind point #3:

  “3.  Lectures published separately.  Omit the subdivision –Congresses when one or several lectures, originally delivered on the occasion of an individual congress, are later published under separate cover, and no longer identified with the original congress.”

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H1472. Controversial literature. “The form subdivision –Controversial literature is used under headings for individual religions, sects or denominations, under religious and monastic orders, and under sacred works, for works that argue against or express opposition toward those groups or works.  The practice of using the subdivision under headings for general religious and philosophical topics was discontinued in 1998. The form subdivision –Apologetic works is used under names of religions or denominations for works explaining the religion or denomination and defending it against criticism from the outside.” For cataloging Hebraica, probably –Apologetic works is the one that would be used more often.  Note that the subdivision can also be used under sacred works. I don’t think you can use –Controversial literature under personal names or Zionism, though I found a number of these records in Hebrew. (The change in policy is fairly recent, so this probably accounts for it.)

H1480. Correspondence of individual persons. Standard pattern is used: letter writer, addressee, class of persons or ethnic group, topics discussed. All would have |vCorrespondence. Maximum no. of writers is 3, “If there are more than three writers, do not designate any individual writer.” BUT: the maximum no. of addressees is 2; if more than 2, no headings are to be assigned for the addressee. Check out the examples in this memo. Hebrew letters a trifle ambiguous.

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H1540. Dictionaries. See also H2184. Terms and phrases. Note that the subdivision –Dictionaries and encyclopedias and –Dictionaries, indexes, etc. is OBSOLETE. Other terminological subdivisions are listed by LC here:

–Abbreviations         .

–Acronyms H1206.5  

–Concordances H1670        

–Dictionaries, Juvenile        

–Directories H1558


–Encyclopedias, Juvenile     

–Gazetteers H1630

–Glossaries, vocabularies, etc. H2184

–Language–Glossaries, etc.




–Terminology H2184

–Terms and phrases H2184

Use –Dictionaries subdivision for:

  1. Language dictionaries under names of languages: e.g. Yiddish language|vDictionaries.

For a Yiddish-Hebrew dictionary, use 2 subjects:

  • 650 _0 Yiddish language|vDictionaries|xHebrew.
  • 650 _0 Hebrew language|vDictionaries|xYiddish. 

Note that the in subfield x, “language” is dropped.

For more than one language (polyglot), see special instructions in this memo. Note that there are different rules depending on whether one language is given definitions in multiple languages, or if each language is given definitions in multiple languages.

2.      Subject dictionaries. It seems to me that even LC has not consistently followed the instructions in the memo. Per the memo, the cataloger is instructed to “Use the subdivision –Dictionaries as a form subdivision under subjects for works consisting of comprehensive, alphabetical lists of terms pertaining to those subjects, usually with definitions” but “For works consisting of explanatory articles arranged alphabetically or topically, use the subdivision –Encyclopedias under the subject.”  Consider the Oxford companions, where some titles use –Dictionaries, others –Encyclopedias, even though the one-volume, alphabetical arrangment of articles is followed consistently by Oxford University Press. It looks to me as if many subject dictionaries are closer to the definition of  encyclopedias rather than dictionaries and should have the subdivision –Encyclopedias. But in practice, if the title uses the term Dictionary or the equivalent in another language, the practice appears to be to use –Dictionaries as the subdivision, even if the book is an alphabetically arranged collection of articles. However, if the work is multipart (“encyclopedic” so to speak), even if the term Dictionary is used in the title, the practice appears to be to use –Encyclopedias, e.g. Dictionary of art publ. by Grove.

Note that if the subject dictionary is in a language other than English, an additional subdivision is added for the language:

  650 _0 Science|vDictionaries|xHebrew. <note that the language subdivision uses |x NOT |v>

On the other hand,  if the subject dictionary is in 2 languages, additional subjects are used to bring out the languages:

 For a Hebrew-English chemistry dictionary:

650 _0 Chemistry|vDictionaries. <note that no additional subdiv for English language>

650 _0 Hebrew language|vDictionaries|xEnglish.

650 _0 Chemistry|vDictionaries|xHebrew.

650 _0  English language|vDictionaries|xHebrew.

There are also instructions in this memo for handling polyglot subject dictionaries.

Note that the subdivision term used for books about dictionaries is –Lexicography.

Note the subdivision –Dictionaries, Juvenile. Same rules apply as for language dictionaries.

Note  the subject: Picture dictionaries.

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H1576. Early works. Use includes post-1800 editions of works originally published before 1800 unless the title has been re-worked.

Key exceptions:

When to omit the subdivision.  Do not use the subdivision in situations for which the passage of time is of little consequence, including the following:

          ·  under names of persons, corporate bodies (except for geographic names), or individual works (except sacred works)

          ·  historical works; chronologies

          ·  under headings with dates, or period subdivisions; under headings with period qualifiers, for example, Science, Ancient

          ·  works of belles lettres; works about belles lettres

If it should be necessary because of the special nature of the material to make an exception to any of the above categories, establish the particular heading-subdivision combination in the subject authority file.

Omit the subdivision when cataloging a commentary on an early work, when the commentary requires companion headings as described in H 1435, sec. 2.

H1592. Events. This memo distinguishes between types of events that are tagged as 150 (if no authority record, it must be est. via SACO) or 111 (if no authority record, must be est. via NACO). Try some of the exercises (#36) at the end of the NACO corporate name training exercises on my server file at:    <the questions>  <the answers>

Note that there may be records in LTLC that are using obsolete tagging; I suspect most of them have been updated by now.

H1593. Exhibitions. “Use the free-floating subdivision –Exhibitions under any type of heading, including names of persons, classes of persons, ethnic groups, corporate bodies, literary works, place names, disciplines, types of objects, etc., for works on exhibitions about these topics and for individual exhibition catalogs containing descriptions of the exhibition and/or lists of the objects exhibited.  For works on exhibitions of objects representing a discipline, use the heading for the objects rather than the discipline, if both headings exist.”

Special instructions for exhibitions about books.

(1) General.  Assign the heading Books–History–Exhibitions to works on exhibitions that illustrate the history of the book and book arts, including writing, printing, illustrating, collecting and preserving, etc., and to catalogs of individual bibliographical exhibitions of a general nature.

(2) Special subjects.  Use the free-floating subdivision –Bibliography–Exhibitions under any type of heading for works on exhibitions of books, periodicals, etc., about these topics and for individual exhibition catalogs containing descriptions of the exhibition and/or lists of the books displayed.

Do not assign the heading Books–History–Exhibitions to exhibitions of books on special topics.”

Bring out the name of the insitution if the institution owns the objects:

“Exhibitions held in institutions.  Assign the heading [name of institution]­Exhibitions if the objects exhibited are part of the institution's permanent collections.  In addition, assign the appropriate headings, as described in sec. 2, for the special subject matter of the exhibition.

Do not assign the heading [name of institution]–Exhibitions if the items displayed are not part of the institution's permanent collections.”

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H1595. Facsimiles. “Do not use –Facsimiles for a copy of a single work or a single example of the item in question.  Use the subdivision only for a work that contains several copied works or examples (except for manuscripts and maps, as described below).”

For a facsimile of a manuscript, whether a collection or a single manuscript, use:

          Manuscripts, <language>|vFacsimiles.

In addition, for a literary author, an additional subject:

          <Personal name>|vManuscripts|vFacsimiles.

Often facsimiles are of “early works to 1800.”  Generally the 2 “form subdivisions” are not combined in the same string. Use the form subdiv –Facsimiles with the Manuscript subject; use –Early works to 1800 with the topical subject.  The memo gives a typical example as:

650 #0 $a Astronomy $v Early works to 1800. 

650 #0 $a Manuscripts, Latin (Medieval and modern) $v Facsimiles.

(i.e., not 650 _0 Astronomy|vEarly works to 1800|vFacsimiles.

These instructions apply to a facsimile of a single manuscript. For a facsimile of a collection of  manuscripts, the rules are slightly different. Since I wasn’t able to find an example to verify usage,  just make a note that the pattern is going to be slightly different should you ever encounter this situation.

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H1600. Festschriften. Remember that the LCRI instructs to make a 700 for the honoree. In addition the SCM says to make a subject heading as well, but only if more than 20% is about the honoree.

H1627. Folklore. “The term folklore refers to those aspects of culture that are learned orally, by imitation, or by observation, including traditional beliefs, narratives (tales, legends, proverbs, etc.), folk medicine, and other aspects of the expressive performance and communication involved in oral tradition.  The subdivision –Social life and customs, in contrast, is broader and includes not only folklore, but also manners, customs, ceremonies, popular traditions, etc.”

“It should be noted that certain genre headings, such as Folk literature, Folk drama, Folk poetry, etc., are treated as literary form headings, while others, such as Tales, are treated as folklore headings.  Literary genre headings may be qualified only by the types of adjectives appropriate to those headings (usually language), even when they are assigned to folkloric works.  Conversely, folklore headings may be qualified only by adjectives designating ethnic groups, even when they are assigned to literary works.”

General rule.  Assign the appropriate combination of the following types of headings to folkloric works:

650 #0 $a [ethnic, national, or occupational group] $z [place] $x Folklore.

650 #0 $a [theme] $x Folklore.

650 #0 $a [heading(s) for specific folklore genre(s)] $z [place].

650 #0 $a Folklore $z [place].

651 #0 $a [place] $x Social life and customs.

650 #0 $a [other topics, as applicable]

Note:  The subdivision –Folkore is free-floating.

(1) Collections.  Assign to a collection of folklore texts, if possible, the first three categories of headings listed above.  Assign other headings as appropriate for the work.

(2) Works that discuss folklore.  Assign headings in the first three categories above to works limited to a specific genre, further subdividing the genre heading by –History and criticism (or by more specific subdivisions such as –Themes, motives or –Classification, if appropriate).

To works not limited to a specific genre, assign headings in the fourth and fifth categories instead of those in the third category.  Do not use the subdivision –History and criticism under these headings.

Detailed explanations in this memo cover:

  • Ethnic, national, or occupational group
  • Special themes <do not use –Folklore after topics that are “inherently folkloric”, e.g. Evil eye>
  • Headings for specific folklore genres, e.g. legends, proverbs

Note many useful examples at the end of the memo.  

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H1645. Guidebooks. “The subdivision –Guidebooks is used as a free-floating form subdivision for handbooks for travelers, sightseers, etc., containing information about routes, facilities and accommodations, items of interest, etc., that is, "how to get there and what to see and do" information.  The related subdivision –Tours is used as a free-floating subdivision for works providing planned itineraries.  For use of the subdivision –Description and travel, see H 1530.” Note that the old form was Guide-books.

“Use the subdivision only under subjects that have a connotation of place within them, thus allowing for the possibility of travel and viewing.  For example, the subdivision may not be used under a discipline such as Economics since it has no connotation of place.  It may, however be used under a heading such as Geology for field guides to particular places.

“Some works called "guides" may actually be representative of other forms of publications.  If the "guide" is simply a textbook on a topic, no form subdivision is needed (cf. H 2187).  If it is a reference work, the subdivision –Handbooks, manuals, etc. may be applicable (cf. H 1646).  If it is a work describing methods for gaining practical experience through first-hand observation, the subdivision –Field work may be appropriate.”

“Types of authorized headings.  Use –Guidebooks under the following types of headings:

  • Place names, and named geographic entities such as parks, archaeological sites, etc.  Types of lands, land uses, geographic features, etc., such as gardens, resorts, refuges, trails, rivers, etc.
  • Structures, buildings, institutions, including both named entities and types of the same.  Types of architecture.
  • Activities involving travel in the field, for example, agriculture, backpacking, bird watching, geology, hiking, mountaineering, viticulture, fishing, etc.
  • Art and antiquities, including specific art genres.
  • Classes of persons and ethnic groups followed by the subdivision –Travel (May Subd Geog).”

H1646. Handbooks, manuals, etc. “Use –Handbooks, manuals, etc. as a free-floating form subdivision under subject headings of all types for concise reference works in which facts and information pertaining to the topic are arranged for ready reference and consultation rather than for continuous reading and study.”

H1647. History. The key thing to remember is that, while the subdivision –History (and the form chronological subdivisions allowed with it) can generally be used, there are major exceptions:

a.      headings that are “inherently historical” do not get subdivision history

b.      literary, music, or film form headings get the subdivision –History and criticism

c.      art genre headings qualified by national, ethnic, or religious groups (e.g. Art, Israeli; Art, Jewish)

d.      Inverted headings beginning with Philosophy, e.g. Philosophy, Jewish.   The practice is to subdivide by century without interposing –History. Each chronological subdivision must be established. <Philosophy, Jewish has none as of now; Philosophy, Israeli would not have a chronological subdivision since it is still restricted to one chronological century for now.>

Remember that 651s will often have history subdivisions with specific, established chronological periods.

If a specific chronological history subdivision has not been established, use <topic>–History--<To 1500, 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th, or 21st >century

With regard to a. “inherently historical” headings that aren’t further subdivided by history: this would be any heading that implies or has dates, or already has the term “history” in it. Events are not subdivided by –History.

What is harder is that there is an extensive list of SUBDIVISIONS that are considered “inherently historical” which may not be subdivided by –History.  This includes any subdivision with “history” in it, e.g. –History of doctrines, but also such common subdivisions as: --Antiquities, --Art, --Civilization,  --Description and travel, --Economic conditions, --Foreign relations, --Genealogy, --Intellectual life, --Military relations, --Origin,  --Politics and government, --Portraits, --Religion, --Religious life and customs, --Social conditions, --Social life and customs.

H1678. Interviews. Collections of interviews, use Interviews--<place>.  If you can be more specific, use <class of persons>--Interviews or <ethnic group>--Interviews. Example: Israelis—Interviews. <personal name>--Interviews can also be used. LC doesn’t appear to specify a limit to the number of persons that could be used as subjects, but probably the same limit used for –Biography applies. A corporate name can also be subdivided by –Interviews.

LC also instructs to add additional subjects on the topic of the interview; note that the topical subject does not get the subdivision –Interviews.

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H1690. Juvenile materials.

“1.  Topical juvenile materials.  Assign LC juvenile subject headings and subdivisions to topical materials for juveniles up through age 15 or 9th grade.  Use the form subdivisions –Juvenile literature, –Juvenile films, –Juvenile sound recordings, and –Juvenile software as the final element in all subject headings assigned to topical juvenile materials unless special form headings or subdivisions have been established, for example, Children's encyclopedias and dictionaries; –Dictionaries, Juvenile; –Encyclopedias, Juvenile; –Juvenile humor.  With rare exceptions, if a work is assigned any juvenile heading, all headings assigned must reflect the juvenile nature of the work.” 

2. “Textbooks.  Assign the heading [topic]–Juvenile literature to textbooks for children up through age 15 or 9th grade.” Note that the subdivision –Textbooks is used primarily for books about textbooks. But a significant exception is that the subdivision is used under sacred works, religious education textbooks, and foreign language textbooks:

  • 630 00 Bible|vTextbooks.
  • 650 _0 Jewish religious education|vTextbooks for children.
  • 650 _0 Hebrew language|vTextbooks for foreign speakers.

3.Do not assign the subdivision –Juvenile literature to juvenile belles lettres, instead:

“Assign juvenile form headings and subdivisions to belles lettres for children, for example, Children's stories; Nursery rhymes; –Juvenile drama; –Juvenile fiction; –Juvenile poetry.  Where juvenile form headings do not exist and are not deemed appropriate to establish, assign adult headings, for example, Ghost stories; Detective and mystery stories.  Do not further subdivide these adult form headings by the juvenile form subdivisions –Juvenile drama, –Juvenile fiction, or –Juvenile poetry.

“Do not assign juvenile form headings to belles lettres for young adults.”

H1775. Literature. General. There is a handy list here of all the free floating lists and memos that are most likely to apply to literature:

Free floating:

  • H1110. Names of persons (includes literary authors)
  • H1155.2 Literature: groups of literary authors
  • H1155.6 Literature: literary works entered under author
  • H1155.8 Literature: literary works entered under title
  • H1156    Literatures

SCM memos:

  • H910 Place as a theme in art, literature, motion pictures, etc.
  • H1435 Commentaries on individual works
  • H1610 Fictitious characters
  • H1627 Folklore
  • H1690 Juvenile materials
  • H1780 Drama
  • H1790 Fiction
  • H1795 Legends and romances
  • H1800 Poetry
  • H1828 Literature from one place in multiple languages
  • H2220 Translations


  • nationality
  • form or genre
  • theme or topic
  • time period
  • special group of authors
  • translations
  • movements
  • language
  • locality where written                                         


  • American, Mexican, Swiss
  • poetry, short stories, one-act plays                                          
  • love, mystery, Napoleon, Korean War
  • 20th century, Renaissance
  • Jews, women, prisoners
  • from French into English
  • Romanticism, Surrealism
  • Basque, Yiddish, Catalan
  • New York City, Normandy, Southern States         

Most commonly found types of works:

  1. Collections of literary texts by several authors. LC says to use any of the concepts in the table above. Subdivisions are used for time periods, translations, and locality. “Form or genre is normally combined with nationality or language in a phrase heading, for example, American poetry.  Themes or topics may be expressed as [topic]-[subdivision], for example, Cats–Literary collections; or as a phrase, for example, Detective and mystery stories. Groups of authors may be expressed as subdivisions or as phrases, e.g. American fiction–Women authors; Soldiers' writings, Canadian.”

  2. Collections of literary texts by one author. “Nationality or language is expressed only if combined with genre or theme in a phrase heading, for example, Sonnets, American; Love stories, French.  Translations are shown by subdivision under the name of the author, for example, Poe, Edgar Allan, 1809- 1849–Translations into French.  Other concepts from [the table] above, are not expressed..” <note that this applies to collections, not to a single work.>

  3. Single literary text. “Individual poems or plays are assigned headings for theme and for highly specific forms, for example, Christmas–Poetry; Monodramas.  Individual works of fiction are assigned headings for persons, historical events or periods, and animals, for example, Washington, George, 1732-1799–Fiction; Dunkerque (France), Battle of, 1940- –Fiction; Horses–Fiction.  Other concepts from sec. 2, above, are not normally expressed.”

  4. Discussions of several authors. “Any of the concepts from sec. 2, above, may be expressed.  Subdivisions must be added to literary form headings to show that the work is about literature, not a collection of texts; the most common of these subdivisions is –History and criticism.  Themes or topics are usually expressed as [topic] in literature, [topic]–In literature, or [topic] and literature.”

  5. Discussion of one author. “The major subject heading assigned is the name of the author discussed, with subdivisions as appropriate from the pattern lists of free-floating subdivisions.  Theme or topic may also be expressed.  Other concepts from [table] above, are not normally expressed.  Biographical works follow provisions for biography given in H 1330.”

  6. Discussion of single literary text: “The major subject heading assigned is the uniform title for the work, usually as an author-title subject entry.  Subdivisions may be assigned from the appropriate pattern list.  Theme or topic may also be expressed.  Form headings or subdivisions that were assigned to the literary text are converted to the appropriate topical equivalent.  Other concepts from [table] above, are not normally expressed.”

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H1790. Literature. Fiction. A lot of this pretty much applies by analogy to H1780 Drama and H1800 Poetry as well.  CAUTION: there are different rules for assigning form subjects to collections by multiple authors, collections by a single author, collections of children’s literature, and these rules vary from one genre to another, so each section should probably be reviewed the first time you handle collections in the various genres.


LC instructs: “Assign topical and form headings, especially to single plays or to collections by one author, only as they come readily to mind after a superficial review of the work being cataloged.”

 “Do not attempt to discern topics which have not been made explicit by the author or publisher, or which could be interpreted as representing value judgments.

H1780 Drama has this additional stricture which could probably apply as well to fiction and poetry. Hold the malaise!: “Do not assign topical headings to single plays which deal with vague and general topics, such as fate, mankind, belief, malaise, etc.”

For works on particular themes, LC instructs to assign the form/nationality subject headings with further subdivision –History and criticism, and then  the appropriate topical subjects, often expressed with the phrase … in literature.

Note that works about persons, families, corporate bodies, places, and sacred works do not use … in literature; instead the subdivision –In literature is used (e.g. Bible—In literature). Note that 2 topics are assigned for works on fictional characters. See H1610.

The expanded assignment of subject headings for fiction is probably not followed by most research libraries unless the books are in special collections. I’m aware of no stated policy on this locally.

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H1885. Manuscripts. This memo applies  to

1.  the cataloging of manuscripts

2. the cataloging of facsimiles of manuscripts, and

3. cataloging of books about manuscripts. 

Focus on 2.-3., and don’t confuse rules that may only apply to 1. with 2.-3. In this very lengthy memo, each of the points below is expanded upon considerably.

“General rule.  When cataloging an individual manuscript, or a work that discusses an individual manuscript (whether accompanied by the original text or not), bring out as many of the aspects listed below as possible, depending upon the nature of the work and the information available.

  • Topical information
  • Category of religious work, for example, missals
  • Liturgical use by specific religion or denomination
  • Manuscript heading; or facsimile heading for the manuscript
  • Facsimile heading for literary works
  • Illuminations present
  • Name of work (i.e. author/title or uniform title heading)
  • Name of manuscript; or repository designation
  • Institution where housed; and/or private collection
  • Name of artist(s) discussed

Exception:  When cataloging a work that consists of the complete text of a manuscript with no commentary whatsoever, generally bring out only the first six of the aspects listed above.  If, however, a facsimile edition of a manuscript is issued in order to highlight its artwork, or if selections from the manuscript are issued separately for the same purpose, bring out all of the aspects listed above.  For example, if the illuminations from a particular manuscript are separately published, bring out all of the aspects listed.

“If the manuscript being cataloged (with or without commentary) was completed before 1800, use the subdivision –Early works to 1800, for example, Military engineering–Early works to 1800.”

“If the manuscript (or selection from a manuscript) being cataloged was issued to highlight its artwork, designate the theme of the art, when appropriate, by assigning headings of the type [topic] in art, [name of person, deity, or legendary figure]–Art, or [name of corporate body or place]–In art.”

“Note:  Do not use –Manuscripts as a form subdivision except in the case of facsimile editions of literary works ….  Under most conditions, –Manuscripts is used under topical headings for works that discuss collections of manuscripts on those topics.”

H1910. Miscellanea. Note #3: the subdivision is also used “under headings of any type for works on a topic written in a question and answer format..” (as well as for compilations of miscellaneous facts and “general special” situations.

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H1916. Museums. For works about a specific museum, assign the name of the museum (not, generally, the type of museum).  If the work is a catalog of the museum’s holdings, subdivide by –Catalogs (unless it is an exhibition catalog of the museum’s holdings; in that case use –Exhibitions). Use other subjects to bring out the holdings of the museum. For catalogs and exhibitions of art, see the examples under H1250 Art and Fine Art.

H1917. Music of ethnic, national, and religious groups.

The est. heading is Jews—Music, not Jewish music. Insert place before –Music if relevant, e.g. Jews—United States—Music. Headings of this type are not assigned for ethnic group when the ethnic group covered is in its own country; in that case, only the music genre is used, qualified by language and subdivided by place: Folk songs, Hebrew|zIsrael.

Assign also heading for genre/type/style, qualified by language if appropriate: Synagogue music;  Songs, Hebrew. Subdivide by place.

H1928. Personal narratives. Use this subdivision only under names of events and wars. It should be qualified by national/ethnic background of the narrator:

World War, 1939-1945 |v Personal narratives, Jewish

Note that there are pattern headings used for personal narratives; review memo before assigning.

H1929. Philosophy. Do not use the subdivision –Philosophy under names of philosophers. Also, don’t use –Criticism and interpretation. Books about the general philosophy of a philosopher use personal name subject with no subdivision. However, for particular areas in philosophy, a philosopher subject can have subdivisions like –Views on <topic> and –Contributions in <topic>.  Example: Maimonides, Moses, 1135-1204 for Views on and Contributions in. National and ethnic groups: Philosophy, Jewish. Philosophy, Israeli.

H1935. Pictorial works. Assign if the book is all or mostly pictures; memo also explains how to handle if not mostly pictures but quite a lot.

CAUTION: this subdivision is not used under classes of persons or ethnic groups, or individual persons, if the individual identity aspect is stressed; instead use –Portraits. Note that persons, classes of persons, and ethnic groups can also take the subdivision: --Caricatures and cartoons

The subdivision –Art is only used under names of individual persons who lived before 1400; use –Portraits for those who come after 1400.

<topic> in art and <place>--In art may also be more appropriate than –Pictorial works depending on the circumstances. Note: 650 phrase headings of the type “<place> in art” are obsolete; use instead: 651 _0 <place>|xIn art.

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H1969. Quotations and maxims. CAUTION: The est. form is, exceptionally, Jews—Quotations, NOT Jews—Quotations, maxims, etc. BUT: est. form is Judaism—Quotations, maxims, etc.. “The subdivision –Quotations is used under classes of persons, ethnic groups, and names of individual persons and families for collections or discussions of quotations by or about the group, person, or family.  It is also used under the uniform titles of individual sacred works for collections or discussions of quotations from or about these works.  The subdivision –Quotations, maxims, etc., is used under names of places and under topical headings for collections or discussions of quotations, maxims, etc., on these subjects.  These subdivisions are coded as $v subfields for collections of quotations or as $x subfields for discussions of quotations.”

H1997. Religion. Note that –Religion is generally used after ethnic groups, but Jews—Religion is not authorized; use: Judaism.

Note that: “For works describing an individual religion or denomination or presenting the history of that religion in a place, assign a heading or a subdivision for the religion instead of a heading of the type [place]–Religion.“ e.g. Judaism—Israel.

Subdivision –Religion is used after names of individual persons, with the exception of theologians. Singer, Isaac Bashevis, |d 1904- |x Religion.

Two lists of free floating subdivisions of particular interest for religion in Hebraica cataloging are:

H1185. Religions

H1188 Sacred works. Note the subdivision:

--Criticism, interpretation, etc., Jewish.

H1998. Religious aspects. Remember: --Religious aspects is not free-floating. Each topic subdivided by –Religious aspects must have its own authority record. (On the other hand, note that –Moral and ethical aspects IS free floating)

--Religious aspect is not used under topics that are inherently religious topics.

To bring out the geographic aspect, a second subject must be used.

Note that the correct subdivision to be used under classes of persons is: --Religious life.

--Religious aspects may be further subdivided by the name of the religion. Here too the additional subdivision must be established for each topic as it comes up. But note that  the authority record will be in the form –Religious aspects –Buddhism, Christianity, etc. The existence of such an authority record allows you to assign –Religious aspects—Judaism under that topic. Note that an authority record with the form <topic> –Religious aspects –Baptists, Catholic Church, etc. does not authorize subdivision –Judaism, since an authority record in that form only authorizes subdivision by denomination. Check out Food—Religious aspects--<and subdivisions> in LTLC. When this is done,  assign a second subject in the form <name of the religion> with “appropriate subdivisions,” e.g. Judaism—Doctrines. <it looks like this instruction wasn’t always followed.>

Note that if –Moral and ethical aspects is used as the subdivision of a topic, and the work also includes the standpoint of a particular religion, a 2nd topic with subdivision –Religious aspects--<name of religion or denomination> is assigned. Note that this second topic must have an authority record.

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H2015.5. Religious life. “The headings Religious life, Christian life, and Jewish way of life, and the subdivision –Religious life under classes of persons are assigned to general works that describe personal religious and devotional life, or offer practical advice on developing behavior based on religious precepts.” And: “Assign the heading Jewish way of life to general works that describe Jewish religious and devotional life, or offer practical advice on developing behavior based on Jewish precepts.”

For classes of person: “Assign the free-floating subdivision –Religious life under classes of persons to works describing the religious life of these persons or offering them advice on how to practice their religion in their daily lives.”  Example: Children—Religious life.

For classes of persons belonging to a religion (usually the name of the religion is part of the topic, --Religious life is also used. Example: Jewish women—Religious life.

The heading Spiritual life applies to works “recommending religious practices by which individuals may attain the proper relationship to God or may attain their religious objectives.” There is also the heading: Spiritual life—Judaism.

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H2016. Religious life and customs. Used under names of places. It is not further subdivided by –History. It is usually used in conjunction with a second subject to bring out the name of the religion/denomination with the subdivision –Customs and practices:

However, I see no evidence that this combination has been widely used with Judaism.

H2032. Sermons.

Note that the est. Judaism heading is Jewish sermons. This heading is then further qualified by language as instructed:

a. “General collections.  Assign a phrase heading of the type [religion] sermons to collections of sermons from a religion other than Christianity by two or more authors not limited to one language, for example, Buddhist sermons; Jewish sermons.” <NOTE THAT USE OF Jewish sermons WITHOUT FURTHER QUALIFICATION WILL BE QUITE RARE, since it is applied only under the restricted circumstances highlighted.>

b. “By language.  Establish a phrase heading with language qualifier for individual sermons or collections of sermons of a particular religion in one language, for example, Buddhist sermons, Korean; Islamic sermons, Indonesian.” This is the subject you need to assign for a collection of sermons by a single author in a single language.  Note that Jewish sermons in English use either Jewish sermons, American or Jewish sermons, English. Haven’t figured out how to do Jewish Canadian/Australian/etc. sermons, or this does not yet have literary warrant, or Jewish sermons, English covers.

  • Jewish sermons, American.
  • Jewish sermons, Hebrew.
  • Jewish sermons, Yiddish.     

If the sermons have a theme, a topical subject in the form [topic]—Religious aspects—Judaism—Sermons is used, but I couldn’t find any examples in LTLC. But note also that there are specific subjects used for specific occasions or audiences:

  • Childrens’ sermons, Jewish

Festival day sermons, Jewish <and see also more specific festival day sermons listed under this heading, e.g.>

  • High holiday sermons
  • Passover sermons
  • Yom Kippur sermons
  • Occasional sermons, Jewish <and see also more specific occasions listed under this heading, for example:>
  • Bar mitzvah sermons
  • Funeral sermons, Jewish
  • Synagogue dedication sermons
  • Wedding sermons, Jewish

Finally: “Assigning an array of headings.  To individual sermons or collections of sermons, assign an array of headings to bring out the religion, denomination, language, topic, and occasion of the sermons. “

Note that for study of sermons, use –History and criticism, but for methods of writing and delivering sermons use: Jewish preaching.

H2055. Social conditions. “General rule.  Use the free-floating subdivision –Social conditions under names of regions, countries, cities, etc.; under names of ethnic groups; and under classes of persons, including occupational groups.  Use the subdivision for works discussing the social history or sociology of a place, ethnic group, or class of persons, including such subtopics of sociology as social problems, stability, change, interaction, adjustment, structure, social institutions, etc.  For the sociological conditions within institutions, use the subdivision –Sociological aspects under headings for types of institutions.”

“Do not further subdivide –Social conditions by –History.”

Note use of free floating chronological subdivisions to further subdivide –Social conditions, below under:     


H2057. Social life and customs.

“Places.  Use the free-floating subdivision –Social life and customs under regions, countries, cities, etc., to works on the customs and habits of people in these places.

“Do not subdivide headings of the type [place]–Social life and customs by –History.

“Further subdivide headings of the type [place]–Social life and customs by established chronological subdivisions or by the free-floating century subdivisions listed under –Social life and customs in H 1140: –16th, [17th, 18th, 19th, 20th, or 21st] century. Assign century subdivisions only when they do not conflict with established subdivisions for specific time periods. Establish new subdivisions for other significant periods, usually covering forty years or more, under headings of the type [place]–Social life and customs where there is sufficient material to warrant it.”

“a.  General.  Use the free-floating subdivision –Social life and customs under classes of persons and ethnic groups, including Indians, to works on the ways of living, customs, etc., of these classes or groups.

“Do not subdivide headings of this type by –History.

“Further subdivide headings of the type [class of persons]–Social life and customs and [ethnic group]–Social life and customs by the free-floating century subdivisions listed under –Social life and customs in H 1100 and H 1103: –16th, [17th, 18th, 19th, 20th, or 21st] century. Do not establish other chronological subdivisions under this type of heading.”

The subdivision has so far not been used in Hebraica cataloging but has been used extensively in roman and cyrillic cataloging. [DSL 6/29/05: see, e.g.: Masaot shel Rabi Binyamin (1698)]

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H2110. Study and teaching.

Note the specific topics: Jewish religious education, Jewish religious education of  adults,  … of children, … of girls, … of handicapped children, … of preschool children, … of teenagers, … of young people.

The subdivision –Study and teaching may be qualified (if the qualiers are established in the free-floating list) by level of study, e.g. –Study and teaching (Higher) and then further subdivided by place:

  • 650 _0 Judaism|xStudy and teaching (Secondary)|zIsrael.
  • 630 00 Bible|xStudy and teaching. <as of now, Bible—Study and teaching may be further subdivided by denomination but not by religion; note that prior to 1991 the subdivision used was –Study; note that –Study and teaching applies to “how to study and teach”; a study of the Bible would use –Commentaries or –Criticism, interpretation, etc., Jewish>  
  • 650 _0 Hebrew language|xStudy and teaching|xForeign speakers.

Note that methods/technique aspect of Jewish religious education is brought out by:

Jewish religious education—Teaching methods.

Note that Jewish studies is brought out by: Jews—Study and teaching.

Note also: Jewish day schools, Jewish religious schools.


H2220. Translations. –Translations <several languages> and –Translations into <single language> used under collections of literary genres, e.g. Hebrew poetry—Translations into English; English poetry—Translations into Hebrew. Use also under the names of individual authors: 600/1:10: |a Sholem Aleichem, |d 1859-1916 |x Translations into Hebrew.  Remember: this applies to collections; do not use if the translation is of a single work. Somewhat counterintuitively, the subdivision –Translations and Translations into does not use $v.

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Keep in mind: where some subdivisions are further subdivided by free floating chronological subdivisions, the free floating chronological subdivisions are overriden if a more specific chronological subdivision has been established.

H1100. Classes of persons, e.g. Jewish artists. Note in particular that certain subdivisions under the name of  classes of persons are further subdivided by free-floating chronlogical subdivisions for for 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th and 21st century:  

  • Economic conditions
  • History
  • Intellectual life
  • Social conditions
  • Social life and customs

H1103. Ethnic groups.Note in particular that certain subdivisions under the name of the ethnic group are further subdivided by free-floating chronlogical subdivisions for for 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th and 21st century:

  • Economic conditions
  • History
  • Intellectual life
  • Politics and government
  • Social conditions
  • Social life and customs

H1105. Corporate bodies.

H1110. Names of persons. <note that there is a separate list for literary authors>

H1140. Names of places. Note in particular that certain subdivisions under place are further subdivided by free-floating chronological subdivisions for 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th and 21st century:

  • Civilization
  • Economic conditions
  • History
  • History, Military
  • Intellectual life
  • Politics and government
  • Religion
  • Social conditions
  • Social life and customs

H1155.2 Literary authors, e.g. subdivisions that could be used under Oz, Amos when the author is used as a subject

H1156. Literature, e.g. Hebrew literature, Hebrew poetry

H1185. Religion

H1188. Sacred works

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This file last modified 10/19/06