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Yale University Library Metadata Services

Cataloging Online Books
Electronic Editions

Introduction

Scope

Separate cataloging guidelines are provided for electronic resources depending upon (1) mode of access, (2) mode of issuance, and (3) edition. The primary focus of this document is on online books. This document applies if all of the following conditions are met:

  1. The resource is a remote access electronic resource.
  2. The resource is issued as a monograph. It is not updated.
  3. The resource is cataloged as an electronic edition, not a reproduction.

These guidelines may be used for original cataloging and for updating copy.

Remote Access vs. Direct Access

Remote access electronic resources are accessed over a computer network such as the Internet. Direct access electronic resources have a physical carrier (AACR2 Appendix D, Glossary). See, for example, This I Believe, Selections, Volume 1, available online (a remote access electronic resource) and on CD (a direct access electronic resource). A bibliographic record should be created for each format. Guidelines for cataloging CD-ROMs and other direct access electronic resources are available here.

Monographs vs. Integrating Resources

Some monographs in print format become integrating resources when issued online because they are continually or frequently updated and updates are integrated into the whole. Compare, for example, Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy (a monograph) and Britannica Online (an integrating resource). Guidelines for cataloging online integrating resources are available here here.

Electronic Edition vs. Reproduction Style Cataloging

In this document, electronic edition means an online book that is "born digital" or an online book that is a new edition of a print publication. An online book may always be cataloged as an electronic edition.

If an online book is a reproduction of another format in which the title page and the pagination of the original are preserved and copy for the source is available, the cataloger has the option to catalog the book as a reproduction.

The Adventures of Don Juan would be cataloged as an electronic edition, while Advanced Signal Processing Handbook may be cataloged as a reproduction or an electronic edition. Guidelines for cataloging online books as reproductions are available here.

For electronic editions, some data elements, especially those related to content, may be derived from bibliographic records for other formats or editions.

References

For additional guidance, consult AACR2 Chapter 9 (Electronic Resources), in conjunction with the AACR2 chapter(s) appropriate for the type of material being cataloged. In all cases, consult AACR2 Chapter 1 for general descriptive rules.

Sources of Information

For online resources, the chief source of information is the resource itself (AACR2 9.0B1). Prefer formally presented evidence from the home page, title screen, HTML header, etc. If no information is available from the resource itself, it is acceptable to use information from the publisher, creator, etc. Information issued by the publisher is one of the prescribed sources of information, so it does not need to be bracketed (AACR2 9.0B2).

Fixed Fields

Leader

Voyager windowLeader

Supply a value for Type of Record that reflects the predominant content of the resource. Online books should be coded a (Language material) even when they include search software and hyperlinks. Since online resources are considered published (AACR2 9.4B2), do not use codes for manuscript material. For example, an online dissertation is coded a (Language material) rather than t (Manuscript language material).

Copy Cataloging Policy: Accept the leader coding as given on cataloging copy. The Type of Record and Bibliographic Level codes should not be updated. When searching, prefer a record with the codes used in current cataloging, all things being equal.

008

Voyager window008

The value supplied for Type of Record in the leader triggers the type of 008. For online books, that type is Book.

Provide values for publication information, Form of Item, Language, Modified Record Code, and Cataloging Source. Obtain publication information as instructed in 260 - Publication Area. Form of Item should always be coded s (Electronic). Code other bytes appropriately.

007

Voyager window007

Create an 007 to describe the physical medium of the resource.

Click the 007 button, select the Computer File tab, and click New. Specific Material Designation is always coded r (Remote). Dimension is always coded n (Not applicable). Code other bytes appropriately. Image Bit Depth, File Format, Quality Assurance Target(s), Antecedent/Source, Level of Compression, and Reformatting Quality may be coded u (Unknown) with no further investigation unless information is readily available.

Copy Cataloging Policy: Always create an 007 for c (Computer file) if not found on cataloging copy.

006

Voyager window006

Create an 006 to describe the format of the resource.

Click the 006 button, select the Computer File tab, and click New. For online books, Type of File should be coded d (Document). Code other bytes appropriately.

Copy Cataloging Policy: Always create an 006 for m (Computer file) if not found on cataloging copy.

Variable Fields

In the variable fields of the bibliographic record, follow the current established guidelines and procedures for monographic cataloging in all areas, with particular emphasis on the instructions below.

The examples are taken from existing records. Some fields have been modified. Only those fields relevant to the point being explained are included. Follow the link in the 856 field to examine the resource being described. The text <URL> is used in place of the URL that would appear in the record.

020 - ISBN

Record the ISBN for the online format in subfield a. Do not transcribe hyphens. If the item bears more than one ISBN, give the one for the online format only (AACR2 1.8B2, option not applied). If the same ISBN is used for the online format and another format, supply the ISBN in subfield a if important for access, e.g., if it appears in the URL for the resource.

020     ‡a 0684314517
245 0 0 ‡a Encyclopedia of clothing and fashion ‡h [electronic resource] / ‡c Valerie Steele, editor in chief.
856 4 0 ‡3 Online book ‡u <URL>

In the example above, the print ISBN is given, but it is not transcribed.

050 - Library of Congress Call Number

Supply an LC classification number for the item in subfield a. Do not add it to the MFHD. The call number will be reflected in the bibliographic record, but not in the OPAC. An item number (subfield b) is unnecessary.

050   4 ‡a T395.5.G7
100 1   ‡a Altick, Richard Daniel, ‡d 1915-
245 1 4 ‡a The shows of London ‡h [electronic resource] / ‡c Richard D. Altick.
856 4 0 ‡3 Online book ‡u <URL>

Copy Cataloging Policy: Leave the item number if found on cataloging copy.

245/246 - Title Area

Take title information from formally presented evidence (e.g., title page, table of contents page, home page, HTML header). If the information in these sources varies in degree of fullness, prefer the source that provides the most complete information. The source of title is always given in a note. See 500 - Source of Title Note.

Select the title that applies to the resource at the level selected for description, typically the page at the URL given in the 856 field.

Give the general material designation (GMD) electronic resource in subfield h, immediately after the title proper, i.e., following any alternative title or part number (subfield n) or name (subfield p) but preceding any parallel title(s) or other title information (subfield b) (AACR2 9.1C).

The GMD electronic resource is used for all formats of material accessed online, including images, audio, and video, as well as text (LCRI 1.1C).

245 0 4 ‡a The twelfth and last collection of papers. ‡n Vol. I, ‡p Relating to the present juncture of affairs in England and Scotland ... ‡h [electronic resource].
856 4 0 ‡3 Online book ‡u <URL>

245 1 0 ‡a Psaltērion ‡h [electronic resource] = ‡b Psalterium : juxta exemplar Alexandrinum.
856 4 0 ‡3 Online book ‡u <URL>

Copy Cataloging Policy: The GMD computer file may appear in records created before 2001. Leave the GMD as found on cataloging copy. The GMD will be updated, if necessary, when the record is processed by MARS.

Online resources frequently display more than one form of title. Create a 246 field for each variant title (AACR2 9.7B4, 21.30J2). Code the first indicator 1 for a note and an added entry. Explanatory text may be provided in subfield i. If the title displayed on the home page differs from the title in the HTML header, whichever one is not selected as title proper for the 245 field should generally be included in a 246 field.

245 0 4 ‡a The Royal Historical Society bibliography ‡h [electronic resource].
246 1   ‡i Title appears in HTML header as: ‡a Welcome to the RHS bibliography
246 3   ‡a RHS bibliography
856 4 0 ‡3 Online book ‡u <URL>

In the example above, Welcome to the RHS bibliography appears in the HTML header and on the home page, so it is transcribed as an alternate title. It is also transcribed without introductory wording (AACR2 1.1B1). In the latter case, an added entry (first indicator 3) is sufficient.

See Titles for Internet Resources: Primary Rules and Concepts for more information.

250 - Edition Area

Transcribe an edition statement, if the resource contains differences from other editions of the resource or is a named reissue of a resource. Take the presence of words such as edition, issue, version, release, and update as evidence that the statement is an edition statement (AACR2 9.2B2).

245 1 0 ‡a Oral history and postwar German-American relations ‡h [electronic resource] : ‡b resources in the United States / ‡c Robert P. Grathwol, Donita M. Moorhus, Douglas J. Wilson.
250     ‡a Hypertext version / ‡b by Raimund Lammersdorf.
856 4 0 ‡3 Online book ‡u <URL>

Do not treat an issue of a resource that incorporates minor changes (e.g., changes in "look and feel" or changes in navigation) or changes that apply to only part of a resource as a new edition (AACR2 9.2B4).

A new bibliographic record is required when a URL remains active but links to a different resource than that described in an existing record (LCRI 21.3B). The cataloger should create a new record, rather than modify the record for the resource previously at that location. If the resource previously at that location is not available at another URL, the record for it should be deleted.

256 - Computer File Characteristics

This field is obsolete. File characteristics are described in a note. See 516 - Type of Computer File Note.

Copy Cataloging Policy: Leave if found on cataloging copy.

260 - Publication Area

Consider all remote access electronic resources to be published (AACR2 9.4B2).

Explicit publication information may appear on the home page, table of contents page, or "about" page. Examples of phrases that are considered explicit statements of publication include created by, hosted by, etc. Give the name of the publisher in the 260 field, even if already given in the title area. Give the name of the distributor, if different (LCRI 1.4D4).

Online resources often include many pieces of intellectual content that have different copyright dates. If there is no publication date which applies to the resource as a whole and the resource has multiple copyright dates, transcribe only the latest copyright date (AACR2 9.4F4).

245 0 0 ‡a Encyclopedia of Chicago ‡h [electronic resource] / ‡c edited by James R. Grossman, Ann Durkin Keating, Janice L. Reiff ; cartographic editor, Michael P. Conzen.
260     ‡a Chicago : ‡b Chicago Historical Society, Newberry Library; ‡a Evanston, Ill. : ‡b Northwestern University, ‡c c2005.
856 4 0 ‡3 Online book ‡u <URL>

300 - Physical Description

Provide the extent of the item, if readily available, e.g., the number of pages of a PDF document (AACR2 9.5B3). Give other physical details about the resource, e.g., file type(s), if readily available and considered important (AACR2 9.5C3). If the item cannot be described in terms of extent or if its physical characteristics cannot be described succinctly, provide the physical description in a note. See 516 - Type of Computer File Note for an example.

245 1 0 ‡a Inventory and assessment of databases relevant for social science research on terrorism ‡h [electronic resource] : ‡b a report / ‡c authors, Alice R. Buchalter, Glenn E. Curtis.
300     ‡a 21 p. : ‡b PDF file.
856 4 0 ‡3 Online book ‡u <URL>

Copy Cataloging Copy: Accept the physical description as found on cataloging copy.

5XX - Notes

Give notes to

When creating original records derived from variant edition records, delete notes that do not apply to the online format.

Order of Notes

For original cataloging, follow the AACR2 prescribed order of notes. When creating original records derived from variant edition records, add or modify notes in the most expeditious manner. Do not expend time and effort in rearranging notes to fit a certain style or convention.

538 - System Requirements Note

Always specify the mode of access (AACR2 9.7B1c). Do not make notes about the make or the model of the computer, the amount of memory, or the operating system required. Do not make notes about software requirements or peripherals unless they are uncommon.

245 0 4 ‡a The Collins world atlas gazetteer ‡h [electronic resource].
538     ‡a Mode of access: World Wide Web.
856 4 0 ‡3 Online book ‡u <URL>

500 - Source of Title Note

Always specify the source of title and the date on which the resource was viewed for description (AACR2 9.7B3, 9.7B22). Combine these in a single note.

Use the term "home page" for the first, opening, or entry page of a Web site consisting of multiple individual Web pages.

245 0 0 ‡a Encyclopedia of Chicago ‡h [electronic resource] / ‡c edited by James R. Grossman, Ann Durkin Keating, Janice L. Reiff ; cartographic editor, Michael P. Conzen.
500     ‡a Title from home page (viewed May 11, 2005).
856 4 0 ‡3 Online book ‡u <URL>

Use the term "table of contents page" for a page that lists the contents of a resource.

245 1 0 ‡a Designing sociable robots ‡h [electronic resource] / ‡c Cynthia L. Breazeal.
500     ‡a Title from table of contents page (viewed Sept. 2, 2005).
856 4 0 ‡3 Online book ‡u <URL>

Use the term "HTML header" for the content of the title tag in the HTML header (<head><title> ... <title><head>), which displays in the browser title bar.

245 1 2 ‡a A Yale book of numbers ‡h [electronic resource] : ‡b historical statistics of the college and university, 1976-2000 / ‡c edited by Beverly Waters.
500     ‡a Title from HTML header (viewed Aug. 10, 2006).
856 4 0 ‡3 Online book ‡u <URL>

See Source of Title Note for Internet Resources for more information.

500/550 - Statements of Responsibility, Issuing Bodies, and Publishers Note

Make notes on statements of responsibility, issuing bodies, and publishers not recorded elsewhere in the description. Use the 550 field for information on issuing bodies. Otherwise, use the 500 field. See 7XX - Added Entries for instructions on creating added entries for name headings.

245 0 0 ‡a Deaf people in Hitler's Europe ‡h [electronic resource] / ‡c Donna F. Ryan and John S. Schuchman, editors.
500     ‡a "Published in association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum."
856 4 0 ‡3 Online book ‡u <URL>

516 - Type of Computer File Note

Make a note on the nature or scope of the resource unless supplied elsewhere in the description (AACR2 9.7B8). See 300 - Physical Description.

245 0 4 ‡a The Collins world atlas gazetteer ‡h [electronic resource].
516     ‡a Electronic images, text, and search engine.
856 4 0 ‡3 Online book ‡u <URL>

530 - Other Formats Note

Make a note if a resource is available in another physical format (AACR2 9.7B16). Notes on multiple formats may be combined in a single note. Search Orbis for information on the availability of other formats. Do not supply a note if Yale does not own the item in another format. If the title of the other format is different, create a linking entry with explanatory text in a 776 field instead of a note. See Title Added Entries and Linking Entries for instructions.

245 0 0 ‡ Encyclopedia of witchcraft ‡h [electronic resource] : ‡b the Western tradition / ‡c Richard M. Golden, editor.
530     ‡a Also available in print.
856 4 0 ‡3 Online book ‡u <URL>

245 0 4 ‡a The encyclopedia of world history ‡h [electronic resource] : ‡b ancient, medieval, and modern.
530     ‡a Also available in print and on CD-ROM.
856 4 0 ‡3 Online book ‡u <URL>

Copy Cataloging Policy: Delete any 530 fields for other formats found on cataloging copy if the resource is not available at Yale in the format(s) specified.

506/590 - Access Restrictions Note & Local Access Note

For licensed resources, indicate restrictions on access in a 506 field and the availability of local access in a 590 field.

245 1 0 ‡a Designing sociable robots ‡h [electronic resource] / ‡c Cynthia L. Breazeal.
506     ‡a Access restricted by licensing agreement.
590     ‡a Access is available to the Yale community.
856 4 0 ‡3 Online book ‡u <URL>

Do not make these notes for resources that are open access.

856 - Electronic Location and Access

Create an 856 field to provide access to the resource. Code the first indicator 4 to specify that the access method is HTTP. Code the second indicator 0 (zero) to specify that the URL provides direct access to the resource described in the body of the record. Enter Online book in subfield 3 for the link text. In subfield u, copy and paste the URL as it appears on the screen. If the URL changes from session to session, copy the link location by moving the cursor above the link text, right-clicking on the mouse, and selecting copy link location. If the publisher provides a URL for bookmarking or linking, use that. After saving the record, switch to the OPAC and test the link.

245 1 0 ‡a Designing sociable robots ‡h [electronic resource] / ‡c Cynthia L. Breazeal.
856 4 0 ‡3 Online book ‡u <URL>

Access Points

When creating original records derived from variant edition records, check subject (6XX), name (1XX/7XX), title (7XX), and series (4XX/830) headings against the authority file for currency and accuracy.

6XX - Subjects

Do not assign a heading for the form of a resource, e.g., Electronic information resources, as a topical subject heading unless the resource is about the form.

The use of the 655 field to bring out form aspects of electronic resources is obsolete.

Copy Cataloging Policy: Delete any 655 fields found on cataloging copy that are for electronic formats or local headings.

Do not assign form subdivisions, e.g., --Electronic information resources, merely to indicate that a resource is online.

Do not assign the subdivision --Databases under subjects for remote access electronic resources that are essentially textual in nature, even if they are searchable (SCM H 1520). This restriction applies to online resources that have the structure of and present themselves as reference-type works, e.g., directories, bibliographies, catalogs, dictionaries, encyclopedias, etc.

7XX - Added Entries

Name Added Entries

Make an added entry for a prominently named corporate body, unless it functions solely as a publisher, distributor, or manufacturer (AACR2 21.30E1). The added entry should be justified in a note. See 500/550 - Statements of Responsibility, Issuing Bodies, and Publishers Note.

245 0 0 ‡a Deaf people in Hitler's Europe ‡h [electronic resource] / ‡c Donna F. Ryan and John S. Schuchman, editors.
260     ‡a Washington, D.C. : ‡b Gallaudet University Press, ‡c 2002.
500     ‡a Inspired by an international conference held June 21-24, 1998 in Washington, DC under the auspices of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and the History and Government Dept. at Gallaudet University.
710 2   ‡a United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
856 4 0 ‡3 Online book ‡u <URL>

Title Added Entries and Linking Entries

Create an additional physical form entry for an item available in another format if important for access, e.g., if the title is a common word or if the print and online formats have different titles. Code the first indicator 0 to display a note. Do not create an additional 530 note. Code the second indicator 8 to suppress generation of a display constant. Instead provide explanatory text in subfield i as shown. Provide control numbers from the records for the other format(s) in separate occurrences of subfield w.

245 0 4 ‡a The Oxford companion to medicine ‡h [electronic resource] / ‡c edited by Stephen Lock, John Last, and George M. Dunea ; emeritus editors, John Walton, Paul B. Beeson, Jeremiah A. Barondess.
776 0 8 ‡a Also available in print as: ‡t The Oxford illustrated companion to medicine ‡w (DNLM)101091891 ‡w (LC)NPN2257
856 4 0 ‡3 Online book ‡u <URL>

MFHD

In the MFHD, create an 852 field with first indicator 8 and second indicator 0 (zero). Enter the location code yulint for Yale Internet Resource in subfield b. Do not provide a call number in subfield h; simply enter None. Add Online resource as a public note in subfield z.

852 8 0 ‡b yulint ‡h None ‡z Online resource

This template should be used for all online resources.

Item Record

Do not create an item record for the resource.

ExportQ

Upon completion of cataloging, close the holdings record. Export the bibliographic record to OCLC, RLIN, and MARS by clicking Send in the ExportQ window with the bibliographic record open.

Related Documents

Source of Title Note for Internet Resources
Fixed Field Coding in Records for Online Resources
Cataloging Online Books (Reproductions)
Cataloging Online Integrating Resources

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