Music Cataloging at Yale MARC Tagging

Format Integration Changes to Dates in the Fixed Field

See also Date of publication, distribution (‡c)

D/CODE DATE TYPE AND DATES IN THE FIXED FIELD : FORMAT INTEGRATION
b No dates given, B.C. date involved.

e
s
Single Date:
Detailed date. (New code that replaces d for nonserial items.)
Single known date/probable date.

i
k
m
p
r
t
Multiple Dates:
Inclusive dates of collection. (Valid for use with collections.)
Range of years and bulk of collection. (Valid for use with collections.)
Multiple dates.
Date of distribution/release/issue and production/recording session when different.
Reprint/reissue date and original date.
Publication date and copyright date. (New code that replaces c for nonserial items.)

n
q
Unknown Dates:
Dates unknown.
Questionable date. (New usage conventions.)

c

d
u
Serial Publication Status:
Serial item currently published. Code c was also used for nonserial items. (Code "c" used to be used for publication/copyright date. Use "t" for this situation. Use "c" exclusively for serial items.)
Serial item ceased publication. Code "d" was also used for nonserials. Now use it exclusively for serial items.
Serial item status unknown.

b
r
e
s
p
t
q
n
Single items or multi-part items complete in 1 year:
B.C. Date
Reprint/original date
Detailed date
Single date
Distribution/production date
Publication date and copyright date
Questionable date
Unknown date

b
i
k
r
m
t
n
Collections or multi-part items complete in more than 1 year:
B.C. Date
Inclusive date
Range of dates
Reprint/original date
Initial/terminal date
Publication date and copyright date
Unknown date


Probable dates/unknown dates/missing digits

When a date is probable (for example, the date in 260 has a question mark and there is no other indication of a known date), enter missing digit(s) as u in Dates. (This convention has been the practice for serials, use it for monographs as well.)

Dates with missing digits (e.g., 19uu, 199u):  use "s", not "q", in D/CODE.

For example, for a single date that is probable, enter any missing digit as u in the first four positions of Dates, leave the last 4 positions blank, and use code s in D/CODE:

CURRENT PRACTICE:       FORMER PRACTICE              
260 ‡c [197-?] Dates: 197u,    D/CODE: s Dates: 1970,1979 D/CODE: q
260 ‡c [19--?] Dates: 19uu,    D/CODE: s Dates: 1900,1997 D/CODE: q


Use the following guidelines for monographs

D/CODE USE FOR:
q a span of dates associated with a single item of uncertain dates
m multiple certain dates needed for a single item
k single or multiple dates associated with a collection (bulk dates)
i single or multiple dates associated with a collection (inclusive dates)
[blank] not applicable (for example, B.C. dates, no day for a technical report)


Unknown dates

If the date is totally unknown, you may infer the millennium (e.g., 1uuu in the first 4 positions of Dates).

For A.D. dates, right justify the year and use zeros (e.g., "946 A.D.," use 0946 in the first 4 positions of Dates).

For incomplete multi-part nonserials, use 9999 in the second four positions of Dates to indicate that the year is not yet available.

Code for the date you have. Do not use q in D/CODE for dates with missing digits.


Examples for applying code u in Dates:

The following examples illustrate which D/CODE code to apply when u is used in Dates for nonserial items:

Multi-part item for which the earliest volume is not held:
260 Boston : ‡b Macmillan, ‡c -[1981]
Dates: uuuu,1981 D/CODE: m

Multi-part item for which the publication date of the last volume is uncertain:
260 New York : ‡b Dover, ‡c 1943-[197-?]
Dates: 1943,197u D/CODE: m

Naturally occurring object:
No 260 field in the record
Dates: uuuu,uuuu D/CODE: n

No date given in 260 (pre-AACR2):
260 New York, ‡b Dover ‡c [n.d.]
Dates: uuuu,uuuu D/CODE: n

Decade is unknown for both earliest and latest date:
260 Amsterdam : ‡b Elsevier, ‡c [19th century and early 20th century]
Dates: 18uu,19uu D/CODE: q

No date given in 260 (pre-AACR2):
260 New York ‡c [n.d.]
500 Previously published in 1963.
Dates: uuuu,1963 D/CODE: r

Original date of publication is unknown:
260 New York : ‡b Macmillan, ‡c 1966.
500 Reprinted from Green Howard's Gazette.
Dates: 1966,uuuu D/CODE: r

Single item, complete in one year:
260 New York : ‡b S.R.A., ‡c [198-]
Dates: 198u, D/CODE: s

Probable decade for publication date:
260 Berlin : ‡b Springer, ‡c [198-?], c1979.
Dates: 198u,1979 D/CODE: t


Questionable date

The exact date for a single date item is unknown, but a range of years for the date can be specified (e.g., between 1824 and 1846). Give the earliest possible date in the first four positions of Dates and the latest possible date in the last four positions of Dates.

Examples for applying code q in D/CODE:


260 New York : ‡b Hippocrene Books, ‡c [between 1963 and 1966]
Dates: 1963,1966 D/CODE: q

Decade is unknown for both earliest and latest date:
260 Amsterdam : ‡b Elsevier, ‡c [19th and early 20th century]
Dates: 18uu,19uu D/CODE: q

260 [Yerushalayim : ‡b E. Fisher, ‡c 744 [i.e. 1983 or 1984]
Dates: 1983,1984 D/CODE: q


Publication/copyright date

Code t is a new code that takes the place of code c in nonserial records. Use it when the dates are the publication date and copyright date.

Examples for applying code t in D/CODE:

260 London : ‡b Macmillan, ‡c 1982, c1949.
Dates: 1982,1949 D/CODE: t

260 Rio de Janeiro : ‡b Delta, ‡c [198-?], c1979.
Dates: 198u,1979 D/CODE: t


Detailed date

Code e takes the place of code d in nonserial records. Optionally, use when the date in second four positions in Dates contains the month and possibly the day (MMDD).

Examples for applying code e in D/CODE:


260 Washington, D.C. : ‡b Department of Commerce, ‡c [1983]
500 June 15, 1983.
Dates: 1983,0615 D/CODE: e

Day of month is unknown:
260 U.S. : ‡b Triangle Film Corp., ‡c Nov. 1976.
Dates: 1976,11 D/CODE: e


Modified from OCLC Technical Bulletin no. 212 by Mickey Koth Yale University Music Library
©Yale University Library Last revised May 7, 2003.