Historically important dates for sound
° LPs were first available in 1948
° pre-recorded reel-to-reel tapes were first available in 1954
° pre-recorded audio cassettes were first available in 1965
° audio compact discs were first available in Japan in October 1982, in Europe in February 1983, and in the US in March 1983.
Dates for any of these types of recordings cannot be considered publication dates. A later date from the container or accompanying material may be useful in determining a publication date.
There are several different bibliographic "events" for sound recordings, each of which implies a date:
° original capture date
° release as a recording
° release in a new recording medium (e.g., 78 rpm later re-released on compact disc)
° copyrights of graphic design or accompanying textual material
Sources for dates on sound recordings:
° the label 2
° the container 3
° the accompanying textual material
When there is no ℗ date on a recording,
a © date before 1971 should be considered the copyright date, but with
a © date after 1970, a date of publication must be estimated.
When no date is found on the item, there are several means of estimating a date:
1. Use the recording date, keeping in mind that LPs probably were released within a year of the recording date, but CDs may not be released for years.
2. Use manufacturer's file or discographies, with the caveat that not all record companies release their recordings in numeric order.
3. With contemporary music, dates of composition can help place the earliest a recording could have been made, and therefore, released.
See also Tips on Dating the Undated LP by Wendy Sistrunk, UMKC
Dates on compact discs
CDs were first available in Japan in October 1982, in Europe in February 1983, and in the US in March 1983. You cannot consider dates earlier than these to be a release date for a CD.
" You rarely find a date of publication.
" Copyright date (since 1971):
℗ is copyright of sound
© is copyright of printed material
" If you have a © date, use it to surmise a publication date. Never use a © date (e.g., c2002) for a CD.
On disc: ℗ & © 1993
260 New York, NY : b GRP Records, c p1993.
AACR2 1.4F5 Optional Addition
Give the latest date of copyright following the publication date if the copyright date is different.
On disc: p1975
On insert: p1975 and c1997; Recorded July 16, 1975; Remastered 1997
260 c , p1975.
You have come up a publication date for the CD, surmised from the copyright date of the printed material accompanying the disc. Because the publication date is cataloger supplied (i.e., not stated on the item as a publication date), it appears in brackets. Date of copyright (p1975) is allowed under optional addition.
On disc: p1977; no other date anywhere (disc, container, insert).
The date "1992" was surmised from the date the bibliographic record was input on OCLC. The date is given in brackets, because it is supplied by the cataloger.
260 c [1992?], p1977.
The date "1992" was found on the web and the question mark was removed.
260 c , p1977.
Use a dash to indicate a decade.
260 c [199-], p1977.
Use a dash followed by a question mark for a probably decade.
260 c [199-?], p1977.
Saunders, Sharon. Audio-Visual Cataloging Forum: Sound Recordings, 2003; presented at the 2003 NELA conference.
Koth, Michelle. Cataloging Sound Recordings, c1998; presented at the 1994 OLAC conference.
Smiraglia, Richard. Music Cataloging: The Bibliographic Control of Printed and Recorded Music in Libraries. Englewood, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited, 1989.
Weitz, Jay, in MOUG Newsletter, no. 57, p. 11.
Weitz, Jay. Sound Recordings Cataloging Workshop Examples; presented at the 1996 OLAC Conference.