Types of Compositions for Use in Music Uniform Titles

A Manual for Use with AACR2 Chapter 25

2nd, Updated Edition, June 1997
Revised 2002

Final Report of the MLA Working Group on Types of Compositions

Ann Caldwell, Chair, Jeffrey Earnest, Lynn Gullickson, Michelle Koth


Table of Contents

Introduction to the 2nd, updated edition   ||   Preface to the 1st edition
Additions and changes to this list, all of which have been incorporated into this document, are also listed by year in separate documents:
2000 || 2001 || 2002 || 2003 || 2004 || 2005 || 2006 || 2007 || 2008 || 2009 || 2010 || 2011 || 2012 || 2013
Principles of the list   ||   Diacritics   ||   Use of "double," "triple," etc. in titles of musical works
Submitting terms for consideration
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Z |


Introduction to the 2nd, updated edition

The Bibliographic Control Committee of the Music Library Association decided, following its annual meeting in 1995, to revitalize the Working Group on Types of Compositions. During this meeting a number of music catalogers expressed interest in having a number of terms added to the list as well as having it available electronically via the World Wide Web. The former members of the working group agreed to pick up where they left off in 1992 and to update the list.

The list's popularity was evidenced by the number of copies distributed through the MLA Clearinghouse and by its publication in MLAJ, the Music Library Association of Japan's newsletter (v. 16, no. 3). The present updated list replaces the 1992 edition in its entirety.

The Working Group hopes the music cataloging community continues to find this a useful addition to its collection of working tools.

Since 2002, the list has been maintained and updated chiefly by A. Ralph Papakhian (Indiana University), Chuck Herrold (Carnegie Library), Mark Scharff (Washington University in St. Louis), Michelle Koth (Yale University), Morris Levy (Northwestern University), and Phyllis Jones (Oberlin College). Sue Stancu (Indiana University), currently active, and Terry Simpkins (Middlebury College), previously involved, have also contributed to the maintenance of the list. The music catalogers at the Library of Congress have helped greatly in determining the treatment of new terms.

We acknowledge the hard work and dedication our colleague and friend, Ralph Papakhian (1948-2010), who was a strong advocate for the creation of this list.

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Preface to the 1st edition

The question of what constitutes the name of a "type of musical composition" (referred to in this preface as a "generic title") became especially important to music catalogers with the advent of AACR2 and its provision that (except when necessary to resolve conflicts) distinctive titles would not be qualified by medium, numeral, or key, and that generic titles (with one exception) would be indicated in the plural. It was consequently very necessary to be able to distinguish between generic and distinctive titles. Uniform titles could no longer be constructed without first knowing with which kind of title one was dealing.

Many titles are obviously types of composition, e.g., names of musical forms or genres (sonata, symphony, concerto), tempo designations (adagio, allegro), and standard combinations of instruments (trio, quartet). And conversely, many truly distinctive titles are obviously so, e.g., "Nozze di Figaro," "Appalachian Spring." But, it is just as obvious that many titles are ambiguous and difficult to categorize. Included in this third category are titles that look like generic titles, but that are not defined in reference sources as types of musical compositions, e.g., piece or divertissement. Some of these terms may be treated as types of composition if they are so used by enough composers; others may not. Deciding what language to use further complicates the decision. If a type of composition has cognates in English, French, German, and Italian, the accepted English form (even if adopted from another of these languages) is used, regardless of how the composer spelled it. For instance "symphony" is used, not symphonie, Sinfonie, or sinfonia; thus, the cataloger must know if the term is generic in order to know what language to use. For those types of compositions without cognates in the four languages, one must ascertain what language the composer originally used and the plural in that language. For instance, the cataloger would use "piece" for works of an American composer and "Fantasien" for works of a German composer (assuming those were the terms originally used by the composers)

Music catalogers have been dealing with these incongruities for quite some time. Some specific problems have been addressed by the Library of Congress through rule interpretations and music cataloging decisions, but LC has not made a thorough-going attack on the problem. For instance, "composition" and "piece" were deemed types of compositions because they were definitely not distinctive and were used by many composers. "Composition," having cognates in the four languages, is used in the English form and plural, but "piece," not having cognates in all four languages, is not.

The Bibliographic Control Committee of the Music Library Association decided to provide some guidance to music catalogers, thus attempting to eliminate the necessity of each cataloger making his or her own decision on each kind of title, a practice that has resulted in a multitude of solutions, much inaction, and a great deal of inconsistency. The Committee charged its Subcommittee on Descriptive Cataloging (Jennifer Bowen, Chair) to develop a list of terms that might be considered types of composition and to develop a research methodology of determining the status of these terms. A working group of four people (the editors of this publication) was formed to coordinate a group of volunteers from the membership of MLA who researched the use of these titles in music reference sources, Library of Congress documentation (AACR2, Library of Congress Rule Interpretations, and Music Cataloging Decisions), the Library of Congress Name Authority File, and LC MARC cataloging. The working group then checked and refined this research, using the above tools (in particular the Terminorum Musicae Index Septem Linguis Redactus), the result of which was the list of generic and distinctive titles that was published in the November 1989 issue of the Music Cataloging Bulletin. The decision was then made to expand the list with new terms and to created an extensive alphabetical list that would include explanations of the use of certain terms, scope notes, all distinctive terms that might be considered generic, and cognates of the generic titles in six major European languages (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, and Russian), as well as selected terms in other languages. What you have before you is the result of this process.

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Principles of the list

The following list of terms that are either "types of compositions" or "distinctive titles" (AACR2 Rev. 25.27A1, footnote 10) includes equivalent terms in English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish, and in some cases, Czech, Dutch, Hungarian, Latin, and Polish. The list is not exhaustive.

Terms identified as "types" and their plurals are listed in boldface type, followed by the designation "Type" and language. These terms should be used in the plural if a composer has written more than one composition of that type. If a term is followed by a note beginning "use..." and has no plural listed, it is a cognate of another term, and the cataloger should refer to that term to determine its usage.

Terms that are "distinctive" are given only in the singular, followed by the designation "Distinctive" in boldface type and language.

Many terms include a brief explanation of their usage. It is essential to read this information before constructing a uniform title.

When available, LCCNs and LCNAF numbers are included as illustrations of the use of the terms. Users of this list are cautioned against making decisions based solely on these examples.

The list must be used in conjunction with accepted cataloging tools: Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, 2nd ed., Rev. (AACR2) and Library of Congress Rule Interpretations (LCRIs). Throughout this list there are many references to elements contained in these tools. To facilitate use of the list, excerpts from the most frequently cited are included below.

Neither this list, nor the excerpts below, are substitutes for cataloging tools.

1. LCRI 25.27A

All modifiers other than medium or numeral make the phrase a distinctive title--no matter how common sounding it is.

2. LCRI 25.27A1, footnote 10

When a composer uses a word which is normally the name of a type of composition as the title of a work which is definitely not a work of the type designated by the word, do not consider the title to be the name of a type of composition.

3. LCRI 25.29A (Liturgical titles)

Give Latin liturgical titles (e.g., "Gloria," "Salve," "Te Deum") in the singular. Exception: Use "Magnificats" and "Requiems" when appropriate. Apply 25.30B1, and do not normally include a statement of medium of performance.

4. 25.30A1 (Combination terms)

Combination terms ("Theme and variations," "Prelude and fugue") do not appear on this list and are addressed in 25.30A1: if the initial title element consists solely of the name of a type, or of two or more types, make additions to it as instructed in 25.30B-25.30E (use the original language). From the Music Cataloging Bulletin v. 13, no. 9, 4th question under LC correspondence: All titles consisting of the names of two or more types of compositions do not qualify as cognate forms to be converted to the accepted English forms of name in accordance with 25.29A1 which limits such conversions to titles consisting solely of the name of one type of composition. Such titles will, however, require a statement of medium of performance in accordance with 25.30B1.

5. 25.29A1 (Cognates)

If the initial title element resulting from the application of 25.27 and 25.28 consists solely of the name of one type of composition, use the accepted English form of name if there are cognate forms in English, French, German, and Italian, or if the same name is used in all these languages. Give the name in the plural (this may be a non-English plural form, e.g., divertimenti) unless the composer wrote only one work of the type.

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Diacritics

Several diacritics are not available as text, only as images, in Web format. When a term includes a diacritic that is not available, the affected letters in the term will be linked to its image in this section of the document.

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Use of "double," "triple," etc. in titles of musical works

" ... it would be a mistake to try to draw any hard and fast conclusions about the treatment of words like "double," "triple," etc. in titles of musical works, since they may have various meanings. In the case of "double concertos," etc., we felt the need for a Music Cataloging Decision because in the past honest differences of opinion had led to inconsistent results. Those who feel that "Double concerto" should not be treated as distinctive argue that "double" implies medium of performance and hence should be omitted from the initial title element under 25.28A, while the majority feel that this is stretching the meaning of "statement of medium of performance" too far. These differences of opinion still exist, but now that we have agreed on a policy and stated it in an MCD we may expect to have more consistency... Titles like "Double quartet" present a rather different situation. Ordinarily a double concerto is indeed a type of concerto, but a double quartet is not a quartet but an octet. Therefore we have never hesitated to treat such titles as distinctive. On the other hand, we seem to have been consistent in treating "Double fugue" as the name of a type of composition... Obviously "double" has an entirely different meaning in this case, one which has no medium-of-performance implications at all. Hence none of us seem to have given serious consideration to treating "double fugue" as distinctive. These different uses of the words "double," "triple," etc., really have little relation to one another, and it would be a mistake, I believe, to try to make any general statement about the use of such words in uniform titles..."

Communication from Richard Hunter, Mar. 7, 1991; used with permission. This represents Richard Hunter's personal opinion and is not an official Library of Congress statement.

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Submitting terms for consideration

Do you have a term or title that is being treated inconsistently or about which you are uncertain? Feel free to submit new terms or titles for consideration to Michelle Koth by e-mail (michelle.koth@yale.edu) or US mail (Yale Music Library, PO Box 208240, New Haven, CT 06520-8240). Any supporting citations or documentation you can provide will be appreciated.


A

Abanera
(Italian); use habanera.

Abertura
(Spanish); use overture.

Adagietto/Adagiettos
TYPE (Italian) LCCN 85-755458

Adagio/Adagios
TYPE (Italian) LCNAF n 90716174

Agnus Dei
TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3); fifth item of Ordinary of Mass. LCNAF n 2001063695

Aire/Aires
TYPE (English)

Air/Airs
TYPE (English); a vocal or instrumental tune. LCCN 85754672

Al'bom
DISTINCTIVE (Russian)

Album
DISTINCTIVE (English, French, German)

Álbum
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)

Album leaf
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Albumblatt
DISTINCTIVE (German) LCNAF n 95009104

Albumblad
DISTINCTIVE LCCN 93701574

Albumleaf
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Allegretto/Allegrettos
TYPE (Italian) LCNAF n 88643389

Allegro/Allegros
TYPE (Italian) LCNAF n 90666998

Alleluia
DISTINCTIVE

Alleluja
DISTINCTIVE

Alleluya
DISTINCTIVE LCCN 95750144

Allemande/Allemandes
TYPE (French, German); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also almain, almaine, alman, almaygne, almayne. LCNAF n 99055792

Almain/Almains
TYPE (English); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also allemande, almaine, alman, almaygne, almayne. LCNAF no2007035041

Almaine/Almaines
TYPE (English); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also allemande, almaine, alman, almaygne, almayne. LCNAF no2010193480

Alman/Almans
TYPE (English); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also allemande, almain, almaine, almaygne, almayne. LCNAF no2011044718

Almaygne/Almaygnes
TYPE (French, German); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also allemande, almain, almaine, alman, almayne. LCNAF no 00062600

Almayne/Almaynes
TYPE (French, German); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also allemande, almain, almaine, alman, almaygne.

Andante/Andantes
TYPE (Italian) LCNAF n81-81233

Andantino/Andantinos
TYPE (Italian) LCNAF n86-867322

Anglaise/Anglaises
TYPE (English, French, German); a late Baroque dance movement in a harpsichord or orchestra suite; also used loosely to refer to any of the English dance types popular during the late 17th century; use for anglez, inglesa, inglese.

Anglez
(Russian); use anglaise.

Anthem/Anthems
TYPE (English); a choral setting (in English) of a religious or moral text; frequently used as a collective uniform title. Do not include medium of performance when the anthem is for chorus, with or without instrumental accompaniment, as it is the implied medium, LCCN 96-706257. Include medium of performance in all other cases. LCNAF n87-139957

Antifon
DISTINCTIVE (Russian)

Antifona
DISTINCTIVE (Italian)

Antífona
DISTINCTIVE (Hungarian, Spanish)

Antiphon
DISTINCTIVE (English, German) LCCN 82761300

Arabesca
(Italian, Spanish); use arabesque.

Arabesco
(Spanish); use arabesque.

Arabeska
(Russian); use arabesque.

Arabeske
(German); use arabesque.

Arabesque/Arabesques
TYPE (English, French); use for arabesca, arabesco, arabeska, Arabeske. LCNAF n81-82730

Aria/Arias
TYPE (English, French, Hungarian, Italian, Spanish); use for Arie, ariia. LCCN 90751615

Arie          
(German); use aria

Arieta
(Spanish); use arietta.

Arietta/Ariettas
TYPE (English, German, Italian, Russian); use for arieta, ariette. LCCN 85753723

Ariette
(French, German); use arietta.

Ariettina/Ariettinas
TYPE (English)

Ariia          
(Russian); use aria.

Arioso/Ariosos
TYPE (English); a piece in a songlike style; use for vocal and instrumental works and short arias so titled not part of a larger recitative. LCCN 87753030

Armonia
DISTINCTIVE (Italian) LCCN 96702694

Armonía
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)

Aubade/Aubades
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); a piece of morning music; counterpart of serenade or nocturne; use for Aube. Note: Poulenc's Aubade is considered to be distinctive. See LCRI 25.27A1, footnote 10. LCNAF n91-101570

Aube          
(Hungarian); use aubade.

Ave Maria
TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3); LCNAF no 98019175

Ayre/Ayres
TYPE (English); LCCN 95-704833

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B

Bagatela
(Spanish); use bagatelle.

Bagatell
(Hungarian); use bagatelle.

Bagatella
(Italian); use bagatelle.

Bagatelle/Bagatelles
TYPE (English, French, German); use for bagatela, bagatell, bagatella. LCNAF n81-133634

Balada/Baladas
TYPE (Russian, Spanish); vocal work; do not confuse with ballata; for instrumental baladas use ballade.

Ballad/Ballads
TYPE (English); type of folksong or art song in a folk style; when a vocal work, see song for treatment. LCNAF no2003051743

Ballada
(Hungarian, Russian); use ballade for instrumental works so named.

Ballade/Ballades
TYPE (English, French, German); vocal work; form fixe of 14th- to 15th-century France; also an instrumental piece in narrative style; when given as the title to art songs from the 19th and 20th centuries, see song for treatment (LCNAF n 98027855); do not confuse with the instrumental ballade. LCNAF nr2005007141

Ballade/Ballades
TYPE (English, French, German); an instrumental work (usually for piano) in a narrative style; do not confuse with the vocal ballade; use for instrumental works titled balada, ballada, ballata. LCNAF n 83131636

Ballata/Ballatas
TYPE (Italian); Italian dance song; do not confuse with balada; for instrumental ballatas use ballade. LCNAF n79-31582

Ballett/Balletts
TYPE (English); a late 16th-/early 17th-century English part-song using nonsense refrains. Use for works of English origin or influence.

Balletto/Balletti
TYPE (Italian); a 15th-century Italian dance; a late 16th-/early 17th-century Italian part-song using nonsense refrains; use for works of Italian origin or influence; a late 16th-century Italian instrumental dance. LCNAF n89-631472

Barcarola
(Spanish); use barcarolle.

Barcarole
(English, German); use barcarolle.

Barcaroletta
(English, Italian); use barcarollette.

Barcarolette
(English, French); use barcarollette.

Barcarolle/Barcarolles
TYPE (French); use for barcarola, barcarole, barcaruola, barkarola. LCNAF n79-68400

Barcarolletta
(English, Italian); use barcarollette.

Barcarollette/Barcarollettes
TYPE (English, French); use for barcaroletta, barcarolette, barcarolletta.

Barcaruola
(Italian); use barcarolle.

Barkarola
(Hungarian, Russian); use barcarolle.

Basdans
(Russian); use basse danse

Bassa danza
(Italian); use basse danse

Bassadanza
(Italian); use basse danse

Basse danse
TYPE (English, French, Spanish); the principal court dance during the late Middle Ages and Renaissance; use for bassa danza, bassadanza, basdans.

Beguine/Beguines
TYPE (English, German, Italian, Spanish); a social dance popular in Europe and American from the 1930s, with a rhythm similar to that of the bolero; use for béguine, bigin, biguine. LCNAF nr00-36825

Béguine
(French); use beguine.

Berceuse/Berceuses
TYPE (French); a quiet song in triple meter or a character piece for instruments. LCNAF n87-826083

Bicinium/Bicinia
TYPE (Latin); a two-voice work for voices, instruments, or keyboard. Generally used as a collective uniform title. LCCN 92-753341

Bigin     
(Spanish); use beguine.

Biguine
(Spanish); use beguine.

Blues
TYPE (English); use for works employing a 12-bar structure, using flattened 3rds and 7ths; also use when the title indicates a blues-type mood rather than a strict adherence to the 12-bar form. LCNAF n 2005089844

Boceto
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)

Bolero/Boleros
TYPE (English, German, Hungarian, Italian, Russian, Spanish) LCNAF n81-22437

Boléro
(French); use bolero.

Boree
(English); use bourrée.

Bossa nova
TYPE (English, French, German, Portuguese) LCNAF no98-40808

Bourrée/Bourrées
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); use for boree, burre. LCNAF n94-111318

Boutade
TYPE (French); 18th-century term for a dance or whole ballet in a fanciful and playful style; the name given to an improvised piece of instrumental music, which, if written down, would have been given the title caprice or fantaisie; use for butada. LCNAF no98-55664

Brano da concerto
DISTINCTIVE (Italian)

Burla/Burlas
TYPE (English, German, Italian); a humorous instrumental piece. LCNAF n 2010021375

Burlesca
(Italian, Spanish); use burlesque.

Burleska
(Russian); use burlesque.

Burleske
(German); use burlesque.

Burlesque/Burlesques
TYPE (English, French); use for burlesca, burleska, Burleske, burleszk. LCNAF n82-271068

Burleszk
(Hungarian); use burlesque.

Burre          
(Russian); use Bourrée.

Butada
(Russian); use Boutade.

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C

Cadence
(French); use cadenza when used as the title of an independent work.

Cadencia
(Spanish); use cadenza when used as the title of an independent work.

Cadenza/Cadenzas
TYPE (English, Italian); use as a type only when applied to the title of an independent work; not considered a type of composition when applied to cadenzas within concertos; use for Cadence, Cadencia, Kadenz. LCNAF n 8263348. Also used as a collective title for collections of a composer's cadenzas written to accompany three or more separate concertos, etc., by the same or other composers. LCCN 86751371

Canarie
(French); use canary.

Canario
(Italian, Spanish); use canary.

Canary/Canaries
TYPE (English); a form of dance and music popular in Europe from the mid-16th to mid-18th centuries; use for canarie, canario. LCNAF no 98001482

Canción/Canciónes
TYPE (Spanish); See song for treatment. Use for collections and works specifically titled by the composer, e.g., Revueltas, Silvestre, 1899-1940. [Canciónes, orchestra acc.]; Botto, Carlos, 1923-2004. [Canciónes, op. 4]. LCNAF n 2005015454; apply LCRI 25.27A1 footnote 10 to instrumental works. LCNAF no 97080154

Cançoneta
(Portuguese); use canzonetta.

Canon/Canons
TYPE (English, French, Spanish); use for canone, Kanon, kánon. LCNAF n90-604188

Canon doble
(Spanish); use double canon.

Canon double
(French); use double canon.

Canone
(Italian); use canon.

Canone doppio
(Italian); use double canon.

Cantabile/Cantabiles
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for Kantabile. LCNAF n81-24681

Cantata/Cantatas
TYPE (English, Italian); usually used as a collective uniform title; use for cantate, Kantate. LCNAF n81-14379; LCNAF n92-54003

Cantate
(French); use cantata (for collective uniform titles only)

Canticle/Canticles
TYPE (English); used as a type for vocal works only; use for cantico, cántico, Canticum, cantique, kantikum. LCNAF n79-121995

Cantico
(Italian); use canticle.

Cántico
(Spanish); use canticle.

Canticum
(German); use canticle.

Cantiga/Cantigas
TYPE (Spanish); a medieval Iberian monophonic song; generally used as a collective uniform title; use for kantiga.

Cantilena
DISTINCTIVE (Italian) LCCN 86-755421

Cantilène
DISTINCTIVE (French) LCCN 86-750118

Cantione
DISTINCTIVE (Italian)

Cantique
(French); use canticle.

Canto/Canti/Cantos
TYPE (English, Italian); use as a type when applied to vocal works, see song for treatment. Use for collections and works specifically titled by the composer, LCNAF no2003080633; apply LCRI 25.27A1 footnote 10 to instrumental works. LCNAF n 2007077432

Cantus
DISTINCTIVE (Latin) LCCN 86-751532

Canzon
(Italian); alternate spelling of canzona; use canzona.

Canzona/Canzonas
TYPE (English, Italian, Spanish); originally a Provençal troubadour song; later, a piece of 16th-century Italian secular music, 16th- to 17th-century instrumental work; in this usage, not a cognate of canzone; use canzona when a work of this type was originally titled canzone. LCNAF n87-110288

Canzone/Canzoni
TYPE (Italian); an 18th- and 19th-century song-like work for voice or instruments. In this usage, not a cognate of canzona. See song for treatment. Also, an alternate spelling of canzona above; use canzona for a work of this type.

Canzonet/Canzonets
TYPE (English); late 16th-century English part-song; use for works of English origin or influence. LCNAF n81-5621

Canzoneta
(Spanish); use canzonetta.

Canzonetta/Canzonettas
TYPE (English, Italian); late 16th-century Italian part-song; also used for solo songs and instrumental pieces of a songlike nature; use for cançoneta, canzoneta, canzonette, kantsonetta, Kanzonette. LCNAF n89-646645

Canzonette
(French, German); use canzonetta.

Capriccetto/Capriccetti
TYPE (English) LCNAF no98-46131

Capriccio/Capriccios
TYPE (English, German, Italian); use this form when it is the composer's original title; do not use caprice or capricho unless the composer specified it as the original title; use for capricio, kaprichchio. LCNAF n 86860139

Caprice/Caprices
TYPE (English, French, German); use this form when it is the composer's original title; do not use capriccio or capricho unless the composer specified it as the original title; use for kaprichch, Kaprice, kaprisa, Kaprize. LCNAF n81-22436

Capricette/Capricetten
TYPE (German) LCCN 79-771124

Capricho/Caprichos
TYPE (Spanish); use this form when it is the composer's original title; do not use capriccio or caprice unless the composer specified it as the original title. LCCN no 00062227

Capricio
(French); use capriccio.

Carmen/Carmina
TYPE (Latin); word used during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance to refer to various kinds of vocal music and to instrumental music derived from vocal chansons. LCNAF n 91037186

Carol/Carols
TYPE (English) LCNAF n87-130699

Casación
(Spanish); use cassation.

Cassation/Cassations
TYPE (English, French); use for casación, cassazione, Kassation, kassatsiia. LCCN 82-772616

Cassazione
(Italian); use cassation.

Catch/Catches
TYPE (English); an English round for 3 voices; generally used as a collective uniform title. LCCN 89-751455

Cavatina/Cavatinas
TYPE (English, Italian, Spanish); originally signified a short opera aria; now an aria-like vocal piece or a song-like instrumental work; use for independent works titled as such, not for individual cavatinas within operas; use for cavatine, kavatina, Kavatine. LCNAF n94-71214

Cavatine
(French); use cavatina.

Chacarera/Chacareras
TYPE (Spanish); Argentine couple dance. LCNAF nr2004007876

Chacona
(Spanish); use chaconne.

Chaconne/Chaconnes
TYPE (English, French, German); use for chacona, chacony, chakona, ciaccona, ciacona. LCNAF n 84162660

Chacony
(English); use chaconne.

Chakona
(Russian); use chaconne.

Chamber concerto
DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 83-752805

Chamber sonata
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Chamber symphony
DISTINCTIVE (English) LCNAF n 2003085983

Chanson/Chansons
TYPE (French); a term meaning song in all its uses; spanning a wide range of periods and genres from the troubadour/trouvère repertoires through the secular polyphony of the 14th to 16th centuries to the art song of the 19th and 20th centuries and folk and popular song of all eras. See song for treatment. Use for miscellaneous sets, e.g. Le Jeune, Claude. [Chansons. Selections] or specific collections, e.g., Ravel, Maurice. [Chansons. Nicolette], Janequin, Clément. [Chansons (1528). Réveillez vous, cueurs endormis]; apply LCRI 25.27A1 footnote 10 to instrumental works. LCNAF n92-188

Chant/Chants
TYPE (English, French); use as a type when applied to vocal works, see song for treatment. Use for collections and works specifically titled by the composer; apply LCRI 25.27A1 footnote 10 to instrumental works. LCCN n 2005025773

Chast'/Chasti
TYPE (Russian); for "movement"; Use for an independent work titled as such, not for individual movements of a larger work; see also movement, mouvement, movimento, movimiento, Satz, tétel.

Chœur
(French); use chorus.

Chor    
(German); use chorus.

Choral
(French, German); use chorale.

Choralbearbeitung/Choralbearbeitungen
TYPE (German); a vocal or instrumental composition based on a pre-existing sacred melody; do not apply 25.30B1a. LCNAF n2008018787

Chorale/Chorales
TYPE (English); use for Choral, coral, corale, khoral. LCNAF n87-810276

Chorale prelude/Chorale preludes
TYPE (English); use this form when it is the composer's original title; apply 25.30B1a: do not add a statement of medium of performance if the medium is implied by the title. Implied medium: organ; see also Choralvorspiel, prélude de choral. LCNAF n95-70817

Choralvorspiel/Choralvorspiele; Choral-Vorspiel/Choral-Vorspiele
TYPE (German); use this form when it is the composer's original title;apply 25.30B1a: do not add a statement of medium of performance if the medium is implied by the title. Implied medium: organ; see also chorale prelude, prélude de choral. LCNAF n88-642589

Chorinho/Chorinhos
TYPE (Spanish); various meanings in Brazilian popular music, generically denoting urban instrumental ensemble music, often with one group member as a soloist, consisted mostly of dances of European origin performed at popular festivities; use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also choro.

Choro/Choros
TYPE (Spanish); various meanings in Brazilian popular music, generically denoting urban instrumental ensemble music, often with one group member as a soloist, consisted mostly of dances of European origin performed at popular festivities; use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also chorinho.

Chorus/Choruses
TYPE (English); use for Chor, chœur, coro, khor. LCNAF n 84012213

Chotis
(Spanish); use ecossaise.

Church sonata
(English); use epistle sonata.

Ciaccona
(Italian); use chaconne.

Ciacona
(Italian); use chaconne.

Ciciliano
(Italian); use siciliana.

Composición
(Spanish); use composition.

Composition/Compositions
TYPE (English, French); usually used in reference to the process of creating a musical work: also used as a title for an independent work; use for composición, composizione, Komposition, kompozitsiia. LCNAF n88-667940

Composizione
(Italian); use composition.

Concert piece
DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 86-754853

Concertant
(French); use concertante.

Concertante/Concertantes
TYPE (English, Italian, Spanish); use for concertant, Konzertant. LCNAF n84-191693

Concertino/Concertinos
TYPE (Italian) LCNAF n88-643187

Concerto/Concertos
TYPE (English, French, Italian); use for concierto, kontsert, Konzert. LCNAF n87-801353

Concerto da camera
DISTINCTIVE (Italian) LCCN 89-755372

Concerto grosso/Concerti grossi
TYPE (Italian) LCNAF n87-803133

Concertone/Concertoni
TYPE (English); a rarely-used term meaning "large concerto," the form closely approximates the symphonie concertante; use for Konchertone, Konzertone.

Concertpiece
DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 89-751073

Concertstück
DISTINCTIVE (German) LCNAF n88-669977

Concierto
(Spanish); use concerto.

Conductus
TYPE (Latin); a medieval vocal work for one or more voices; usually used as a collective uniform title.

Conga/Congas
TYPE (English) Latin-American dance in 2/4 meter with a repeated two-measure rhythmic pattern. LCNAF no2012108109

Contradanza
(Italian, Spanish); use country dance.

Contredanse
(French); use country dance.

Coral
(Spanish); use chorale.

Corale
(Italian); use chorale.

Corant/Corants
TYPE (English); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also corrente, courante. LCCN 91-750145

Coro    
(Italian, Spanish); use chorus.

Corrente/Correnti
TYPE (Italian); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also corant, courante.

Country dance/Country dances
TYPE (English); use for contradanza, contredanse, kontrans, kontratánc, Kontretänze. LCNAF n85-205408

Cortège/Cortèges
Type (English, French) LCCN 96-703525

Courante/Courantes
TYPE (French); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also corant, corrente. LCCN 84-757437

Cracoviak
(French); use krakowiak.

Cracoviana
(Italian, Spanish); use krakowiak.

Cracovienne
(English, French); use krakowiak.

Credo
TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3); third item in the Ordinary of Mass.

Csárdás
(French); use czarda.

Cuadrilla
(Spanish); use quadrille.

Cuarteto
(Spanish); use quartet.

Cujawiak
(Spanish); use kujawiak.

Czardas/Czardas
TYPE (Hungarian); use for csárdás. LCNAF n81-79430

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D

Dal/Dalok
TYPE (Hungarian); use as a type only when applied to vocal works; see song for treatment; apply LCRI 25.27A1 footnote 10 when applied to instrumental works. LCNAF n91-35082

Dance/Dances
TYPE (English); use for danse, danza, tánc, tanets, taniec, Tanz. LCNAF n82-101545

Danse
(French); use dance.

Danza/Danzas
TYPE (Spanish); the particular genre of salon music for piano developed in Puerto Rico in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Do not translate to "dance" in the uniform title; for all others, use dance. LCNAF n88-632472

Danza
(Italian); when danza refers to the particular genre of salon music for piano developed in Puerto Rico in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, use Danza and do not translate to "dance" in the uniform title; for all others, use dance.

Danzón
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish); Cuban dance form; do not translate to "dance" in uniform title.

Darab/Darabok
TYPE (Hungarian); for "piece"; usually refers to a complete piece of music; use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also morceau, pala, p'esa, pezzo, piece, pièce, pieza, skladba, Stück, stuk, utwór. LCNAF n 85244066

Decet/Decets
TYPE (English); a work for ten players; use for decimette, decimino, dectet, detsimet, Dezett, dixtuor, tentet. LCNAF n 2010022354

Decimette
(English); use decet.

Decimino
(Italian); use decet.

Dectet
(English); use decet.

Detsimet
(Russian); use decet.

Dezett
(German); use decet.

Dialog
DISTINCTIVE (German, Russian) LCNAF n00-065837

Dialogo
DISTINCTIVE (Italian) LCCN 90-753421

Diálogo
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)

Dialogue
DISTINCTIVE (English, French) LCCN 93-723239

Diptych
DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 88-771082

Dirge   
DISTINCTIVE (English); a mournful song for burial or memorial rites or an instrumental piece expressive of similar sentiments. LCNAF n90-712561

Diversion
DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 84-759886

Divertimento/Divertimenti
TYPE (English, German, Hungarian, Italian, Spanish); use for divertisment, divertissement (instrumental works only). LCNAF n85-204057

Divertisment
(Russian); use divertimento (for instrumental works). Also a type of 17th- to 18th-century French musical-dramatic entertainment. When found in this context do not use divertimento.

Divertissement
(French); use divertimento (for instrumental works).

Division/Divisions
TYPE (English); a 17th-century English technique of improvised variation over a ground, written out for didactic or performance purposes; treatment as a type is not limited to 17th-century works; see also divisions on a ground. LCNAF n 2003080154

Divisions on a ground
TYPE (English); a 17th-century English technique of improvised variation over a ground, written out for didactic or performance purposes; use this form when the composer's original title includes the phrase "on a ground"; treatment as a type is not limited to 17th-century works; see also division. LCNAF no 98001401

Dixit Dominus
DISTINCTIVE (Latin) LCNAF n81-63055

Dixtuor
(French); use decet.

Doble canon
(Spanish); use double canon.

Doble fuga
(Spanish); use double fugue.

Doppelfuge
(German); use double fugue.

Doppelkanon
(German); use double canon.

Doppelquartett
DISTINCTIVE (German) LCCN 84-755180

Double concerto
DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 88-753679

Double canon/Double canons
TYPE (English, French); use for canon doble, canon double, canone doppio, doble canon, Doppelkanon, dvoĭnoia kanon. LCCN 2003570676

Double fugue/Double fugues
TYPE (English, French); use for doble fuga, Doppelfuge, dupla fúga, dvoĭnaia fuga, fuga doble, fuga doppia, kettős fúga. LCCN 88-751515

Double quartet/Double quartets
DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 89-753518

Doumka
(French); use dumka.

Duet/Duets
TYPE (English); use for dueto, Duett, duetto, duo, kettős. LCNAF n81-104396

Dueto
(Spanish); use duet.

Duett          
(German, Hungarian); use duet.

Duettino/Duettinos
TYPE (Italian); diminutive of duetto; a short and/or concise vocal or instrumental duet; use the plural form Duettini when it appears as 1) part of a heading including another type (e.g., Soli e duettini, guitars (2) (LCNAF no98-45667)) or as 2) a distinctive title for what are actually trios (n96-22971). LCNAF n97-58509

Duetto
(Italian); use duet.

Dumka/Dumkas
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); a type of Ukrainian folk music whose name was adopted in Slavonic countries in the 19th century as a term for a sung lament and later as an instrumental piece; use for doumka. LCNAF n 2005017012

Dumky
(English); plural form of dumka; use dumkas.

Duo          
(Italian); use duet.

Duo concertante
DISTINCTIVE for 20th-century works; TYPE for pre-20th-century works. Apply LCRI 25.28: for pre-20th-century works with titles such as duo concertant, quartetto concertant, etc, (but not titles naming a form, such as sinfonie concertante, rondeau concertante, etc.) consider the word "concertante" or its equivalent to be an adjective or epithet not part of the original title of the work and omit it from the uniform title. For treatment of duo, see duet.

Dupla fúga
(Hungarian); use double fugue.

Dvoĭnaia fuga
(Russian); use double fugue.

Dvoĭnoia kanon
(Russian); use double canon.

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E

Ecossaise/Ecossaises
TYPE (English, Hungarian); use for chotis, écossaise, escocesa, Schottische, scozzese. LCNAF n85-296650

Écossaise
(French); use Ecossaise.

Ejercicio/Ejercicios
TYPE (Spanish); treat as a type of composition when the term is used to mean "study," "etude," etc.; see also esercizio, exercice, exercise, Übung. LCCN 86752547

Ėksprompt
(Russian); use impromptu.

Ėkspromt
(Russian); use impromptu.

Elegia
(Italian); use elegy (for instrumental works only); distinctive title for non-instrumental works.

Élégie
(French); use elegy (for instrumental works only); distinctive title for non-instrumental works.

Elegie
(German); use elegy (for instrumental works only); distinctive title for non-instrumental works.

Elegiia
(Russian); use elegy (for instrumental works only); distinctive title for non-instrumental works.

Elegy/Elegies
TYPE (English); for instrumental works only; see MCB v. 17, no. 8, p. 9: "for non-instrumental works, treat composer's original title as distinctive." Use for elegia, Elegie, élégie, elegiia. LCNAF n82-3090

Entr'acte/Entr'actes
TYPE (French) LCNAF n79-88086

Entrada
(Spanish); use intrada.

Entwurf
DISTINCTIVE (German)

Epilog
DISTINCTIVE (German); use for independent pieces so named. For epilogues that are part of a larger work, follow rule 25.32.

Epilogo
DISTINCTIVE (Italian); use for independent pieces so named. For epilogues that are part of a larger work, follow rule 25.32.

Epílogo
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish); use for independent pieces so named. For epilogues that are part of a larger work, follow rule 25.32. LCNAF n 2011054975

Epilogue
DISTINCTIVE (English); use for independent epilogues. For epilogues that are part of a larger work, follow rule 25.32. LCNAF n 2004067054

Épilogue
DISTINCTIVE (French); use for independent epilogues. For epilogues that are part of a larger work, follow rule 25.32.

Episode
DISTINCTIVE (English, German) LCCN 91-751599

Épisode
DISTINCTIVE (French)

Episodio
DISTINCTIVE (Italian, Spanish)

Epistle sonata/Epistle sonatas
TYPE (English); an instrumental work intended for performance probably following the Epistle of the Mass; not the same as Sonata da chiesa; use for church sonata, Kirche Sonate, sonate all'epistola. LCNAF n 2011013186

Epizód
DISTINCTIVE (Hungarian) LCCN 86-750155

Escocesa
(Spanish); use ecossaise.

Esercizio/Esercizi
TYPE (Italian); treat as a type of composition when the term is used to mean "study," "etude," etc.; see also ejercicio, exercice, exercise, Übung. LCNAF n 2003077785

Ėskiz
DISTINCTIVE (Russian)

Esquisse
DISTINCTIVE (French) LCCN 91-750527

Estampida
(Provençal); use estampie.

Estampie/Estampies
TYPE (English, French, German); instrumental dance form originating in the 13th and 14th centuries; use for estampida, estampita, istampita, istanpitta, stampita. LCNAF n 2007007297

Estampita
(Spanish); use estampie.

Estudio/Estudios
TYPE (Spanish); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also ėtiud, etude, étude, Etüde, gyakorlat, studie, studio, study. LCNAF n91-124049

Ėtiud/Ėtiudy
TYPE (Russian); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also estudio, etude, étude, Etüde, gyakorlat, studie, studio, study. LCNAF n87-810719

Etude/Etudes
TYPE (English); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also estudio, ėtiud, étude, Etüde, gyakorlat, studie, studio, study. LCNAF n82-1180

Étude/Études
TYPE (French); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also estudio, ėtiud, etude, Etüde, gyakorlat, studie, studio, study.

Etüde/Etüden
TYPE (German); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also estudio, ėtiud, etude, étude, gyakorlat, studie, studio, study. LCNAF n87-119084

Exercice/Exercices
TYPE (French); treat as a type of composition when the term is used to mean "study," "etude," etc.; see also ejercicio, esercizio, exercise, Übung. LCNAF n 2002071239

Exercise/Exercises
TYPE (English); treat as a type of composition when the term is used to mean "study," "etude," etc.; see also ejercicio, esercizio, exercice, Übung. LCNAF n 2007009248

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F

Fancie
(English); use fancy.

Fancy/Fancies
TYPE (English); use for fancie, fansye, phancy, phansie. LCCN 85-753312

Fandango/Fandangos
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Russian) LCCN 86-755304; LCCN 97-708221

Fanfara
(Italian, Russian); use fanfare.

Fanfare/Fanfares
TYPE (English, French, German); use for fanfara, fanfarra, fanfarria. LCNAF n88-646761

Fanfarra
(Spanish); use fanfare.

Fanfarria
(Spanish); use fanfare.

Fansye
(English); use fancy.

Fantaisie/Fantaisies
TYPE (French); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also fantasia (English), fantasia (Italian), fantasía, Fantasie, fantasio, fantasy, Phantasie, phantasy. LCNAF n86-2051

Fantasia/Fantasias
TYPE (English); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also fantaisie, fantasia (Italian), fantasía, Fantasie, fantasio, fantasy, Phantasie, phantasy. LCNAF n91-43351

Fantasía/Fantasías
TYPE (Spanish); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also fantaisie, fantasia (Italian), Fantasie, fantasio, fantasy, Phantasie, phantasy. LCNAF n91-43351

Fantasia/Fantasie
TYPE (Italian); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also fantaisie, fantasia (English), fantasía, Fantasie, fantasio, fantasy, Phantasie, phantasy.

Fantasie/Fantasien
TYPE (German); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also fantaisie, fantasia (English), fantasia (Italian), fantasía, fantasio, fantasy, Phantasie, phantasy. LCNAF n81-22351

Fantasietta/Fantasiettas
TYPE (English, Italian)

Fantasio
TYPE (French); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also fantaisie, fantasia (Italian), fantasía, Fantasie, fantasy, Phantasie, phantasy. LCNAF n91-43351

Fantasy/Fantasies
TYPE (English); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also fantaisie, fantasia (English), fantasia (Italian), fantasía, Fantasie, fantasio, Phantasie, phantasy. LCNAF n91-43351

Feuilles d'album
DISTINCTIVE (French) LCCN 85-755495

Final
(English, French, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use finale.

Finale/Finales
TYPE (English, German, Italian); use for final. LCNAF n200266431, n2001078559

Florish
(English); use flourish.

Flourish/Flourishes
TYPE (English); use for florish. LCNAF n99-269806

Fokstrot
(Russian); use foxtrot.

Forlana
(German, Italian, Spanish, Russian); use forlane.

Forlane
TYPE (English, French); Italian folkdance; use for forlana, furlana.

Fox trot
(English); use foxtrot.

Fox-trot
(English, French, Spanish); use foxtrot.

Fox-trott
(Italian); use foxtrot.

Foxtrot/Foxtrots
TYPE (English); 20th-century American social dance in 4/4; use for fokstrot, fox trot, fox-trot, fox-trott, Foxtrott. LCNAF n 2004067678

Foxtrott
(German); use foxtrot.

Fuga          
(Italian, Russian, Spanish); use fugue.

Fuga doble
(Spanish); use double fugue.

Fuga doppia
(Italian); use double fugue.

Fugado
(Spanish); use fugato.

Fugato/Fugatos
TYPE (English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Russian); a fugue-like passage of a larger work that is not a fugue; or a fugue-like piece that in some way does not conform to the rigorous thematic and structural methodology of the fugue; use for fugado. LCCN 93-711231

Fuge          
(German); use fugue.

Fugetta
(Hungarian, Russian); use fughetta.

Fughetta/Fughettas
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); a short or light fugue; use for fugetta.

Fugue/Fugues
TYPE (English, French): use for fuga, Fuge. LCNAF n87-112259

Furiant/Furiants
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); an exuberant Bohemian folkdance. LCCN 94-771946

Furlana
(Spanish, Italian); use forlane.

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G

Gagliarda
(Italian); use galliard.

Gaillarde
(French, German); use galliard.

Gal'iarda
(Russian); use galliard.

Gallarda
(Spanish); use galliard.

Galliard/Galliards
TYPE (English); use for gagliarda, gaillarde, gal'iarda, gallarda. LCNAF n89-613610

Galop/Galops
TYPE (English, French, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for Galopp. LCCN 87-754637

Galopp
(German); use galop.

Gavot
(Russian); use gavotte.

Gavota
(Spanish); use gavotte.

Gavotta
(Italian); use gavotte.

Gavotte/Gavottes
TYPE (English, French, German); use for gavot, gavota, gavotta. LCNAF n89-653244

Gedichte/Gedichten
DISTINCTIVE (German) LCCN 84-760332; 95-704097

Gesang/Gesänge
TYPE (German); German song or choral work; see song for treatment. use for works of this type in German and only for sets specifically titled by the composer, e.g., Becker, Gunther. [Gesang]; Beethoven, Ludwig van. [Gesänge, op. 75]; Kreutzer, Conradin. [Gesänge, men's voices, op. 24] For miscellaneous collections use "song", e.g. [Songs. Selections] LCNAF n87-803379

Giga          
(Italian, Spanish); use gigue.

Gigue/Gigues
TYPE (English, French, German); use for giga, jig, Jiga, jigge, zhiga. LCNAF n85-133796

Gimno
(Russian); use hymn (for vocal works).

Glee/Glees
TYPE (English); an English part-song for three or more voices; usually used as a collective uniform title.

Gloria
TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3); second item of Ordinary of Mass. LCNAF n81-46728

Gradual/Graduals
TYPE (English, German, Spanish); an item of the Proper of the Mass; usually used as a collective uniform title. LCCN 85-752240

Graduale
TYPE (Italian)

Graduále
TYPE (Hungarian)

Graduel
TYPE (French)

Ground/Grounds
TYPE (English) LCCN 97-704067

Guajira/Guajiras
TYPE (Spanish); a Cuban narrative song form, usually in 6/8 alternating with 3/4; used as a type for vocal works; for other works, apply LCRI 25.27A1, footnote 10. LCNAF n2001-68424

Gyakorlat/Gyakorlatok
TYPE (Hungarian); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also estudio, ėtiud, etude, étude, Etüde, studie, studio, study. LCNAF no2010086114

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H

Habanera/Habaneras
TYPE (English, French, German, Spanish); use for abanera, khabanera, khavanez, havanaise. LCCN 95-751750

Halleluia
DISTINCTIVE

Halleluja
DISTINCTIVE

Hallelujah
DISTINCTIVE LCNAF n94-65886

Halleluya
DISTINCTIVE LCCN 88-752236

Halleluyah
DISTINCTIVE

Harmonie
(French, German); use harmony.

Harmony/Harmonies
TYPE (English); use for works for wind instruments or a small wind band (oboes, horns, bassoons, etc.); use for harmonie, Harmonie. LCCN 94-704205

Havanaise
(French); use habanera.

Himno
(Spanish); use hymn (for vocal works)

Homage
DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 84-755090

Hommage
DISTINCTIVE (French) LCCN 91-758186

Hornpipe/Hornpipes
TYPE (English) LCNAF n 2006001503

Hudba
(Czech); use music.

Humoresca
(Spanish); use humoresque.

Humoreske
(German); use humoresque.

Humoresque/Humoresques
TYPE (English, French); use for humoresca, Humoreske, humoreszk, iumoreska, umoresca. LCNAF n82-138256

Humoreszk
(Hungarian); use humoresque.

Hymn/Hymns
TYPE (English); for vocal works; usually used as a collective uniform title; use for gimno, himno, Hymne, inno. LCNAF n88-608072

Hymne
(German); use hymn (for vocal works)

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I

Idilio          
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)

Idillio
DISTINCTIVE (Italian)

Idyla          
DISTINCTIVE (Czech) LCNAF n83-56929

Idyll          
DISTINCTIVE (English, German) LCNAF n95-79255

Idylle
DISTINCTIVE (French)

Impromptu/Impromptus
TYPE (English, French, German, Hungarian, Spanish); use for ėksprompt, ėkspromt. LCNAF n 82106643

Improvisación
(Spanish); use improvisation.

Improvisation/Improvisations
TYPE (English, French, German); use for improvisación, improvizáció, improvizálás, improvizatsiia, improvvisazione, rőgtőnzés; the Italian "improvviso" and Spanish "improviso" are not cognates. LCNAF n82-053201

Improviso
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)

Improvizáció
(Hungarian); use improvisation.

Improvizálás
(Hungarian); use improvisation.

Improvizatsiia
(Russian); use improvisation.

Improvvisazione
(Italian); use improvisation.

Improvviso
DISTINCTIVE (Italian) LCNAF n92-62414

In nomine/In nomines
TYPE (Latin) LCNAF n84-21965

Induló
(Hungarian); use march.

Inglesa
(Spanish); use Anglaise.

Inglese
(Italian); use Anglaise.

Inno          
(Italian); use hymn (for vocal works).

Interlude/Interludes
TYPE (English, French); use for interludio, Interludium. LCNAF n82-215308

Interludio
(Italian, Spanish); use interlude.

Interludium
(German); use interlude.

Intermède/Intermèdes
TYPE (French); use when this is the title of a character piece; do not apply this treatment to an independent stage work whose title begins with or includes the word intermède; intermèdes that are performed between the acts of a stage work follow rule 25.32; use for intermedio, intermedium. LCNAF n 2001064780

Intermedio
(Italian, Spanish); use intermède.

Intermedium
(Italian); use intermède.

Intermetstso
(Russian); use intermezzo.

Intermezzo/Intermezzi
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); use for intermetstso, Zwischenakt. LCNAF n99-269788

Intonazione
(Italian); use intonation.

Intonation/Intonations
TYPE (English, French, German); originally an introductory toccata-like piece for keyboard that sets the pitch for a following sacred vocal composition; may also exist independently; use for intonazione. LCNAF n 2004077814

Intrada/Intradas
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian); use for entrada. LCNAF n00-065471

Introducción
(Spanish); use introduction.

Introduction/Introductions
TYPE (English, French); usually used as the first part of a larger work, although single works with the title do exist (e.g., Telemann, Georg Philipp. [Introduction, recorders (2), continuo, C major]); use for introducción, Introduktion, introduktsiia, introduzione. LCCN 88-750963

Introduktion
(German); use introduction.

Introduktsiia
(Russian); use introduction.

Introduzione
(Italian); use introduction.

Introit/Introits
TYPE (English, French, Latin); liturgical (see note 3); an item of the proper of the Mass; usually used as a collective uniform title; use for Introitus; LCNAF no96-53346; distinctive when an instrumental work. LCCN 84-758617

Introitus
(German, Latin); when a vocal work, use Introit.

Invención
(Spanish); use invention.

Invention/Inventions
TYPE (English, French, German); use for invención, invento, inventsiia, invenzione. LCNAF n81-134769

Invento
(Spanish); use invention.

Inventsiia
(Russian); use invention.

Invenzione
(Italian); use invention.

Istampita
(Italian); use estampie.

Istanpitta
(Italian); use estampie.

IUmoreska
(Russian); use humoresque.

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J

Jácara/Jácaras
TYPE (Portuguese, Spanish); a Spanish and Hispano-American dance and musical pattern used in 17th- and 18th-century stage productions, church villancicos, and instrumental variation pieces; use for xácara.

Jig          
(English); use gigue.

Jiga          
(Spanish); use gigue.

Jigge          
(English); use gigue.

Jota/Jotas
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); a lively dance in triple time from northern Spain; use for both instrumental and vocal works; use for khota. LCNAF n 2005000976

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K

Kadenz
(French); use cadenza when used as the title of an independent work.

Kadril'
(Russian); use quadrille.

Kamernaia simfoniia
DISTINCTIVE (Russian) LCCN n 98088075

Kamernaia sonata
DISTINCTIVE (Russian)

Kammerkonzert
DISTINCTIVE (German) LCCN 85-752917

Kammersinfonie
DISTINCTIVE (German) LCNAF n 92078929

Kammersonate
DISTINCTIVE (German) LCNAF n97-27427

Kammersymphonie
DISTINCTIVE (German) LCNAF n 81100999

Kanon
(German); use canon.

Kánon
(Hungarian); use canon.

Kantabile
(Russian); use cantabile.

Kantate
(German); use cantata (for collective uniform titles only).

Kantiga
(Russian); use cantiga.

Kantikum
(Russian); use canticle.

Kantilena
DISTINCTIVE (Russian)

Kantilene
DISTINCTIVE (German)

Kantsonetta
(Russian); use canzonetta.

Kanzonette
(German); use canzonetta.

Kaprice
(German); use caprice.

Kaprichch
(Russian); use caprice.

Kaprichchio
(Russian); use capriccio.

Kaprisa
(Russian); use caprice.

Kaprize
(German); use caprice.

Kassation
(German); use cassation.

Kassatsiia
(Russian); use cassation.

Kavatina
(Russian); use cavatina.

Kavatine
(German); use cavatina.

Kettős
(Hungarian); use duet.

Kettős fúga
(Hungarian); use double fugue.

Khabanera
(Russian); use habanera.

Khavanez
(Russian); use habanera.

Khor    
(Russian); use chorus.

Khoral
(Russian); use chorale.

Khota
(Russian); use jota.

Kirche Sonate
(German); use epistle sonata.

Klage
DISTINCTIVE (German) LCCN 92-752592

Komposition
(German); use composition.

Kompozitsiia
(Russian); use composition.

Konchertone
(German); use concertone.

Kontrans
(Russian); use country dance.

Kontratánc
(Hungarian); use country dance.

Kontretänze
(German); use country dance.

Kontsert
(Russian); use concerto.

Kontsertshtiuk
DISTINCTIVE (Russian)

Konzert
(German); use concerto.

Konzertant
(German); use concertante.

Konzertone
(German); use concertone.

Konzertstück
DISTINCTIVE (German) LCCN 90-751107

Krakoviák
(Hungarian); use krakowiak.

Krakoviak
(Russian); use krakowiak.

Krakowiak/Krakowiaks
TYPE (English, German, Polish); Polish folk dance characterized by syncopated rhythms in fast duple time; use for cracoviak, cracoviana, cracovienne, krakoviák, krakoviak. LCNAF n 82242544

Kujaviak
(English); use kujawiak.

Kujawiak/Kujawiaks
TYPE (English, Polish); Polish folk dance characterized by triple time with a displacement of the accent to the second or third beat of the bar, similar to but slower than the mazurka; use for cujawiak, kujaviak. LCNAF n2012057320

Kvartet
(Russian); use quartet.

Kvintet
(Russian); use quintet.

Kvodlibet
(Russian); use quodlibet.

Kyrie
TYPE (Greek); liturgical (see note 3); first item of Ordinary of Mass. LCNAF n87-809336

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L

Ladainha
DISTINCTIVE (Portuguese)

Laendler
(French); use Ländler.

Lament
DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 83-750118

Lamentáció
DISTINCTIVE (Hungarian)

Lamentación
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)

Lamentation
DISTINCTIVE (English) LCNAF n81-2364

Lamentazione
DISTINCTIVE (Italian)

Lamento
DISTINCTIVE (Italian, Spanish) LCCN 86-750914

Ländler/Ländler
TYPE (German); use for laendler, lendler. LCNAF n85-72639

Largetto
(Russian); use larghetto.

Larghetto/Larghettos
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for largetto. LCCN n 88640435

Largo/Largos
TYPE (Italian) LCCN 86-755262

Laulu/Laulut
TYPE (Finnish); use as a type only when applied to vocal works; see song for treatment; apply LCRI 25.27A1 footnote 10 when applied to instrumental works. LCNAF n90-721764

Lavolta
(English, French); use volta

Lección/Lecciónes
TYPE (Spanish)

Lectura/Lecturas
TYPE (Spanish)

Lecture/Lectures
TYPE (French)

Legend
DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 84-743090

Légende
DISTINCTIVE (French) LCNAF n85-195151

Lektion/Lektionen
TYPE (German)

Lendler
(Italian, Russian); use Ländler.

Lento
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Russian); LCNAF n00-69000

Lesson/Lessons
TYPE (English) LCNAF n80-127127

Lesung/Lesungen
TYPE (German)

Letanía
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)

Lezion/Lezioni
TYPE (Italian) LCNAF n87-819994

Lied/Lieder
TYPE (German); use as a type only when applied to vocal works; see song for treatment; apply LCRI 25.27A1 footnote 10 when applied to instrumental works. LCNAF n86-133944

Litanei
DISTINCTIVE (German)

Litania
DISTINCTIVE (Italian) LCCN 88-753724

Litanie
DISTINCTIVE (French) LCCN 85-751076

Litany
DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 94-773937

Lullaby/Lullabies; Lullabye/Lullabyes
TYPE (English); use the composer's original spelling. LCNAF n84-40821

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M

Madrigaal
(Dutch); use madrigal.

Madrigal/Madrigals
TYPE (English, French, German, Hungarian, Russian, Spanish); use for vocal works of this type; when an instrumental work is titled "Madrigal," treat this title as distinctive. Use for madrigaal, madrigale, madrygał. LCCN 87-753554

Madrigale
(Italian); use madrigal.

Madrygał
(Polish); use madrigal.

Maestoso
TYPE (Italian) LCNAF nr00-29108

Magnificat/Magnificats
TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3); use for magníficat, magnifikat. LCNAF n 81138464

Magníficat
(Spanish); use magnificat.

Magnifikat
(Russian); use magnificat.

Malagueña/Malagueñas
TYPE (Spanish); a type of instrumental piece, song, or dance in the flamenco style; use for malaguėn'ia. LCNAF n 2003083850

Malaguėn'ia
(Russian); use malagueña.

Mambo/Mambos
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish) LCCN 93-719181

March/Marches
TYPE (English); use for induló, marcha, marche, marcia, mars, Marsch, marsh, marsz. LCNAF n 88655339

Marcha
(Portuguese, Spanish); use march.

Marche
(French); use march.

Marcia
(Italian); use march.

Marcietta/Marciettas
TYPE (English); diminutive form of "marcia;" use for works in the form of a march.

Mars          
(Dutch); use march.

Marsch
(German); use march.

Marsh
(Russian); use march.

Marsz
(Polish); use march.

Mass/Masses
TYPE (English); use as the first word of a distinctive title so named by the composer (e.g., Hytrek, Theopane. [Mass in honor of Saint John the Evangelist]) or as a generic title with qualifiers when needed to distinguish between a composer's masses or produce a more logical arrangement (e.g., Haydn, Joseph. [Masses, H. XXII, 9, C major], Bruckner, Anton. [Masses, E minor]); use for messa, messe, misa, missa, mise, mša, msza. LCNAF n 82145601

Mazur
(Polish); use mazurka.

Mazurca
(Italian, Spanish); use mazurka.

Mazurek
(Italian, Polish); use mazurka.

Mazurka/Mazurkas
TYPE (Czech, English, French, German, Hungarian, Russian); use for mazur, mazurca, mazurek. LCCN 88-753972

Melodia
(Hungarian, Italian, Spanish); use melody.

Melodie
(Czech, Dutch, German); use melody.

Mélodie/Mélodies
TYPE (French); apply LCRI 25.29A; use for a French work for 1) solo voice and keyboard stringed instrument, in which case do not include the medium of performance in the uniform title (LCRI 25.29A), e.g., Chausson. Ernest [Mélodies, op. 2] or for 2) solo voice and accompaniment of other than a solo keyboard stringed instrument or without accompaniment, in which case indicate the medium of accompaniment or absence of accompaniment in the uniform title (25.30B10). See song for treatment. "Mélodies," in these cases, do not have the same meaning as the cognate in other languages. LCNAF n 93036347

Melodiia
(Russian); use melody.

Melodja
(Polish); use melody.

Melody/Melodies
TYPE (English); see LCRI 25.29A: considered a type distinct from the French "mélodie" (e.g., Cage, John. [Melodies, violin, keyboard instrument]). Use for melodia, melodie (use for the French "Mélodie" when medium of performance is other than specified in LCRI 25.29A), melodiia, melodja. LCNAF n 85058131

Menuet
(Russian); use minuet.

Menuett
(German, Hungarian); use minuet.

Menuetto
(Italian); use minuet.

Messa
(Italian); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Puccini, Giacomo. [Messa di Gloria]); use mass if a generic title is appropriate.

Messe
(French, German); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Gilles, Jean. [Messe des morts]); use mass if a generic title is appropriate.

Milonga/Milongas
TYPE (Spanish); a traditional song genre of Uruguay and Argentina; an Argentinian dance, forerunner of the tango; a piece of music for this dance; use for both vocal and instrumental works.

Miniatiura
DISTINCTIVE (Russian)

Miniatur
DISTINCTIVE (German)

Miniatűr/Miniatűrök
DISTINCTIVE (Hungarian) LCNAF n 94106913

Miniatura
DISTINCTIVE (Italian, Spanish) LCCN 86-750186

Miniatura/Miniatury
DISTINCTIVE (Polish) LCNAF n 85141670

Miniature
DISTINCTIVE (English, French) LCNAF n 86869720

Miniatuur
DISTINCTIVE (Dutch)

Minué
(Spanish); use minuet.

Minuet/Minuets
TYPE (English); use for menuet, Menuett, menuetto, minué, minuete, minuetto. LCNAF n 81022486

Minuete
(Portuguese, Spanish); use minuet.

Minuetto
(Italian); use minuet.

Misa          
(Spanish); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Sojo, Vicente Emilio. [Misa cromática]); use mass if a generic title is appropriate.

Mise          
(Hungarian); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title; use mass if a generic title is appropriate.

Miserere
TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3) LCNAF n 86130058

Missa
(Latin); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Frescobaldi, Girolamo. [Missa sopra l'arca della monica]); use mass if a generic title is appropriate.

Miuzet
(Russian); use musette.

Moderato/Moderatos
TYPE (Italian) LCNAF n 82224301

Modinha/Modinhas
TYPE (English, Portuguese); a song usually for solo voice and guitar popular in 19th-century Brazil and Portugal; also a Brazilian dance form derived from the vocal form. LCNAF no2008020824

Morceau/Morceaux
TYPE (French); for "piece"; use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also darab, pala, p'esa, pezzo, piece, pièce, pieza, skladba, Stück, stuk, utwór. LCNAF n 87831073

Morceau de concert
DISTINCTIVE (French)

Motet/Motets
TYPE (Czech, Dutch, English, French, Polish, Russian); use for motete, motetta, Motette, motetto, motteto, mottetto. LCNAF no 97083996

Motete
(Spanish); use motet.

Motetta
(Hungarian); use motet.

Motette
(German); use motet.

Motetto
(Italian); use motet.

Motteto
(Italian); use motet.

Mottetto
(Italian); use motet.

Mouvement/Mouvements
TYPE (French); for "movement"; use for an independent work titled as such, not for individual movements of a larger work; see also chast', movement, movimento, movimiento, Satz, tétel. LCCN 91-751167

Movement/Movements
TYPE (English); use for an independent work titled as such, not for individual movements of a larger work; see also chast', mouvement, movimento, movimiento, Satz, tétel. LCNAF n 82077765

Movimento/Movimenti
TYPE (Italian); for "movement"; use for an independent work titled as such; not for individual movements of a larger work; see also chast', mouvement, movement, movimiento, Satz, tétel. LCNAF n 97072113

Movimiento/Movimientos
TYPE (Spanish); for "movement"; use for an independent work titled as such, not for individual movements of a larger work; see also chast', mouvement, movement, movimento, Satz, tétel. LCCN 91-761385

Mša          
(Czech); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Janácek, Leos. [Mša glagolskaja]); use mass if a generic title is appropriate.

Msza          
(Polish); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Szczypiorski, Andrzej. [Msza za miasto Arras]); use mass if a generic title is appropriate.

Muséte
(French); use musette.

Musette/Musettes
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); a dance-like piece of pastoral character whose style is suggestive of the sound of the musette or bagpipe; use for miuzet. LCNAF n00-077830

Music
TYPE (English); use for hudba, musica, música, Musik, musique, muzyka. LCNAF n85-244981

Musica
(Italian); use music.

Música
(Spanish); use music.

Musical comedy
For collections of a composer's musical comedies, use the uniform title Musicals. LCNAF n83-151232

Musicals
TYPE (English); usually used as a collective uniform title. LCNAF n83-151232

Musik
(German); use music.

Musique
(French); use music.

Muzyka
(Russian); use music.

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N

Nachspiel/Nachspiele
TYPE (German) LCNAF n82-243146

Nachtstück
DISTINCTIVE (German); do not translate to "nocturne" in uniform title. LCNAF n 2006056505

Night piece/Nightpiece
DISTINCTIVE (English); do not translate to "nocturne" in uniform title. LCNAF n 96082811

Nocturne/Nocturnes
TYPE (English, French, German); use for nocturno, noktiurn, notturno. LCNAF n86-857989

Nocturno
(Spanish); use nocturne.

Noël/Noëls
TYPE (French); LCNAF n82-153156

Noktiurn
(Russian); use nocturne.

Nonet/Nonets
TYPE (English, French, German); use for noneto, Nonett, nonetto. LCNAF n99-833954

Noneto
(Spanish); use nonet.

Nonett
(German); use nonet.

Nonetto
(Italian, Spanish); use nonet.

Notturno
(German, Italian); use nocturne.

Novelette
DISTINCTIVE (English, French) LCCN 86-753748

Novellette/Novelleten
DISTINCTIVE (German) LCNAF n96-50222

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O

Obertura
(Spanish); use overture.

Octet/Octets
TYPE (English); use for octeto, octuor, oktet, Oktett, ottetto. LCNAF n87-120620

Octeto
(Spanish); use octet.

Octuor
(French); use octet.

Oda          
(Polish, Spanish, Russian); use ode.

Óda          
(Czech, Hungarian); use ode.

Ode/Odes    
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian); use for oda, óda. LCCN 85-753189

Ofertorio
(Spanish); use offertory.

Offertoire
(French); use offertory.

Offertorĭi
(Russian); use offertory.

Offertorio
(Italian); use offertory.

Offertorium
TYPE (English, German, Latin); chant, item of the Proper of the Mass; polyphonic settings exist from the 15th and 16th centuries; from the 17th century on, frequently performed instrumentally or vocally and not related to the prescribed liturgical term. LCCN 85-752080

Offertory/Offertories
TYPE (English); use for ofertorio, offertoire, offertorĭi, offertorio. LCNAF n92-90894

Oktet          
(Russian); use octet.

Oktett
(German); use octet.

Oriental
DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 77-750441

Orientale
DISTINCTIVE (French) LCCN 88-753369

Ostinato/Ostinatos
TYPE (English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for compositions in which a musical pattern is repeated many times in succession while other musical elements are generally changing. LCNAF n 2004068635

Ottetto
(Italian); use octet.

Ouvertüre
(German); use overture unless part of a larger work. In that case use composer's original spelling.

Ouverture
(French, Italian); use overture unless part of a larger work. In that case use composer's original spelling.

Ouvertürensuite
DISTINCTIVE (German) LCNAF n 2009053988

Overtura
(Hungarian); use overture unless part of a larger work. In that case use composer's original spelling.

Overture/Overtures
TYPE (English); use for independent overtures, either non-distinctively named individual overtures or for collections of a composer's overtures. Overtures that are part of a larger work follow rule 25.32. When used as a generic title, see 25.30B1: do not include medium of performance when the overture is for orchestra, as it is the implied medium; include medium of performance in all other cases; use for abertura, obertura, Ouvertüre, ouverture, overtura, sinfonia, uvertiura, uwertura. LCNAF n85-300279

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P

Padovana
(Italian); use pavan.

Paduana
(German); use pavan.

Pala/Palad
TYPE (Estonian); for "piece"; use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also darab, morceau, p'esa, pezzo, piece, pièce, pieza, skladba, Stück, stuk, utwór. LCNAF no2010197089

Panasz
DISTINCTIVE (Hungarian)

Part song/Part songs; Part-song/Part-songs; Partsong/Partsongs (provisional entry)
TYPE (English); a work in two or more voice parts without independent accompaniment; (however, some works may be accompanied). The problems with this type of composition continue to be unresolved. The first problem is the form of the name of the type. Until a definitive policy is issued, use the spelling the composer used. The second problem is medium of performance. Although "part song" is not included in the list of types of composition with implied medium of performance in 25.30B1a, the New Grove definition of the type lends credence to applying 25.30B1a. Examples in the authority file are inconsistent in stating the medium of performance. Until this problem is resolved, follow the treatment in established headings for a composer's works.

Parte          
(Italian); use partita.

Parthia
(German); use partita.

Parthie
(German); use partita.

Partia          
(German); use partita.

Partie          
(German); use partita.

Partita/Partitas
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for parte, Parthia, Parthie, Partia, Partie (German). Do not use for partie (French) which is synonymous with movement or part and is not a cognate of partita. LCNAF n85-235300

Pasacalle
(Spanish); use passacaglia.

Paseo/Paseos
TYPE (English, Spanish); a type of ripresa or ritornello similar to the Spanish passacaglia; also used in the 17th century for keyboard variations or for compositions similar to a chaconne; use for passeo.

Paso/Pasos
TYPE (Spanish); probably comes from a Spanish dance and is most often used by 17th- and 18th-century Spanish composers of organ music. LCNAF n 2008082492

Paso doble
(Russian, Spanish); use pasodoble.

Pasodoble/Pasodobles
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for paso doble. no2009018016

Pasp'e
(Russian); use passepied.

Paspié
(French); use passepied.

Passacaglia/Passacaglias
TYPE (English, German, Hungarian, Italian, Spanish); use for pasacalle, passacaille, passacalle, passakal'ia, passakaliia, passecaille. LCNAF n81-5033

Passacaille
(French); use passacaglia.

Passacalle
(Spanish); use passacaglia.

Passakal'ia
(Russian); use passacaglia.

Passakaliia
(Russian); use passacaglia.

Passamezzo/Passamezzos
TYPE (English); Italian dance of the 16th and early 17th centuries; cannot be distinguished from the pavan; use for pass'e mezo, pass'e mezzo, passing measures, passo e mezo, passomezo, passymeasures. LCCN 86-754078

Pass'e mezo
(Italian); use passamezzo.

Pass'e mezzo
(Italian); use passamezzo.

Passecaille
(French); use passacaglia.

Passeo
(Spanish); use paseo.

Passepied/Passepieds
TYPE (English, German, Hungarian, Italian); use for pasp'e, paspié, passe-pied, pass-pié.

Passe-pied
(French); use passepied.

Passing measures
(English); use passamezzo.

Passo e mezo
(Italian); use passamezzo.

Passomezo
(Italian); use passamezzo.

Pass-pié
(French); use passepied.

Passymeasures
(English); use passamezzo.

Pastoral/Pastorals; Pastorale/Pastorales
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); LC uses the spelling with or without the final "e" depending on which spelling the composer used; use for pastoral', pasztorál. LCNAF n81-140255.

Pastoral'
(Russian); use pastoral(e).

Pastourelle
DISTINCTIVE (French); use for instrumental works. LCNAF no97-72987

Pasztorál
(Hungarian); use pastoral(e).

Pavan/Pavans
TYPE (English, German); use for padovana, paduana, pavana, pavane, pavin. LCNAF n86-856032

Pavana
(Czech, Italian, Polish, Russian, Spanish); use pavan.

Pavane
(French); use pavan.

Pavin          
(English); use pavan.

P'esa/P'esy
TYPE (Russian); for "piece"; use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also darab, morceau, pala, pezzo, piece, pièce, pieza, skladba, Stück, stuk, utwór. LCNAF n 2001064575

Pesnia
(Russian); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Mussorgsky, Modest Petrovich. [Pesnia o blokhe]); use song if a generic title is appropriate.

Pezzo/Pezzi
TYPE (Italian); for "piece"; use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also darab, morceau, pala, p'esa, piece, pièce. pieza, skladba, Stück, stuk, utwór. LCNAF n 84038588

Pezzo da concierto
DISTINCTIVE (Italian)

Phancy
(English); use fancy.

Phansie
(English); use fancy.

Phantasie/Phantasien
TYPE (German); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also fantaisie, fantasia (English), fantasia (Italian), fantasía, Fantasie, fantasio, fantasy, phantasy. LCNAF n81-133005

Phantasy/Phantasies
TYPE (English); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also fantaisie, fantasia (English), fantasia (Italian), fantasía, Fantasie, fantasio, fantasy, Phantasie. LCCN 95-751865

Piece/Pieces
TYPE (English); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also darab, morceau, pala, p'esa, pezzo, pièce, pieza, skladba, Stück, stuk, utwór. LCCN 89750307

Pièce/Pièces
TYPE (French); for "piece"; use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also darab, morceau, pala, p'esa, pezzo, piece, pieza, skladba, Stück, stuk, utwór. LCNAF n 89628259

Pièce de concert
DISTINCTIVE (French)

Pieza/Piezas
TYPE (Spanish); for "piece"; use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also darab, morceau, pala, p'esa, pezzo, piece, pièce, skladba, Stück, stuk, utwór. LCNAF n 88000910

Pieza da concerto
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)

Pisen/Pisne
TYPE (Czech); use for vocal works of this type in Czech; see song for treatment; when an instrumental work is titled "Pisen," treat this title as distinctive. Use for specific collections, e.g., Klein, Gideon. [Pisne, op. 1], Krása, Hans [Pisne, clarinet, viola, violoncello acc.] or as the first word of a composer's distinctive title, e.g., Martinů, Bohuslav [Pisne o Marii]. For miscellaneous collections use "song", e.g. [Songs. Selections] LCNAF n94-95182

Piva/Pive
TYPE (Italian); a 15th- and 16th-century Italian dance. LCNAF no2004-15246

Poem
DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 91-752983

Poema
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish) LCCN 87-770352

Poema
DISTINCTIVE (Italian) LCCN 84-755042

Poėma
DISTINCTIVE (Russian) LCCN 91-105497

Poema sinfonico/Poemi sinfonici
TYPE (Italian); use when it is the composer's original title; see also poema sinfónico, poème symphonique, simfonicheskaia poėma, sinfonische Dichtung, sinfonische Gedicht, symphonic poem, symphonische Dichtung.

Poema sinfónico/Poemas sinfónicos
TYPE (Spanish); use when it is the composer's original title; see also poema sinfonico, poème symphonique, simfonicheskaia poėma, sinfonische Dichtung, sinfonische Gedicht, symphonic poem symphonische Dichtung.

Poemat
DISTINCTIVE (Polish)

Poème
DISTINCTIVE (French)

Poème symphonique/Poèmes symphoniques
TYPE (French); use when it is the composer's original title; see also poėma sinfonico, poema sinfónico, simfonicheskaia poėma, sinfonische Dichtung, sinfonische Gedicht, symphonic poem, symphonische Dichtung. LCNAF no2006099804

Polacca/Polaccas
TYPE (Italian); an Italianate piece in the style of a polonaise. Sufficiently individualized not to be considered a strict cognate. LCCN 87-181417

Polca          
(Italian, Portuguese, Spanish); use polka.

Polka/Polkas
TYPE (Dutch, English, French, German, Hungarian, Polish); use for polca, pol'ka. LCNAF n00-114685

Pol'ka
(Russian); use polka.

Polonaise/Polonaises
TYPE (English, French, German); use for Polonäse, polonesa, polonese, polonez. Do not use for Polacca. LCNAF n92-10619

Polonäse
(German); use polonaise.

Polonesa
(Spanish); use polonaise.

Polonese
(Italian); use polonaise.

Polonez
(Russian); use polonaise.

Popurri
(Russian); use potpourri.

Popurrí
(Spanish); use potpourri.

Posludio
(Italian); use postlude.

Postliudiia
(Russian); use postlude.

Postlude/Postludes
TYPE (English, French); use for posludio, postliudiia, postludio, Postludium. LCCN 95-702752

Postludio
(Italian, Spanish); use postlude.

Postludium
(German, Hungarian); use postlude.

Potpourri/Potpourris
TYPE (English, German, Hungarian, Spanish); use for popurri, popurrí. LCNAF n94-98694

Pot-pourri/Pot-pourris
TYPE (French, Italian) LCCN 86-743125

Praeambulum/Praeambula
TYPE (Latin) LCCN 89-750965

Praeludium
(German); use prelude.

Präludium
(German); use prelude.

Preliud
(Russian); use prelude.

Preliudiia
(Russian); use prelude.

Prelude/Preludes
TYPE (English); use for Praeludium, Präludium, preliud, preliudiia, prélude, preludio, preludium, preludjum. NOTE: Liszt's tone poem entitled Les préludes is not to be considered as a type (see LCRI 25.27A1 footnote 10) LCNAF n88-621625

Prélude
(French); use prelude.

Prélude de choral/Préludes de chorals
TYPE (French); use this form when it is the composer's original title; apply 25.30B1a: do not add a statement of medium of performance if the medium is implied by the title. Implied medium: organ; see also chorale prelude, Choralvorspiel.

Preludio
(Italian, Spanish); use prelude.

Preludium
(Czech, Hungarian); use prelude.

Preludjum
(Polish); use prelude.

Presto/Prestos
TYPE (Italian) LCNAF n84-43349

Processional/Processionals
TYPE (English) LCNAF n 2006078119

Prolog
DISTINCTIVE (German, Hungarian, Russian); use for independent pieces so named. For prologues that are part of a larger work, follow rule 25.32.

Prologo
DISTINCTIVE (Italian, Spanish); use for independent pieces so named. For prologues that are part of a larger work, follow rule 25.32.

Prologue
DISTINCTIVE (English, French); use for independent prologues. For prologues that are part of a larger work, follow rule 25.32. LCNAF n89-754755

Psalm/Psalms
TYPE (English, German, Russian); for vocal works only; distinctive title for instrumental works; use in the language of the original and in the singular if a single psalm is qualified in a title by the number of the psalm. Give the numeral in the numerical system used by the composer (e.g., [Psalm 116], [Psaume XLVII], [Salmo XIX]). If a composer used the single title "psalms" (or its cognates) for several psalms without indication of psalm numbers or grouped several psalms in one publication (whether psalm numbers are indicated or not), use the English plural form and (if necessary to distinguish from other psalms), the qualifying statement that best facilitates a logical arrangement of entries (e.g., Head, Michael. [Psalms], Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Felix. [Psalms, op. 78], Holst, Gustav. [Psalms, mixed voices, string orchestra]). Use for psalmo, psalmus, psaume, salmo, žalm. LCNAF n82-42547; LCNAF n83-163693

Psalmo
(Spanish); use psalm.

Psalmus
(Latin); use psalm.

Psaume
(French); use psalm.

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Q

Quadriglia
(Italian); use quadrille.

Quadrille/Quadrilles
TYPE (English, French, German); popular 19th-century ballroom dance; use for cuadrilla, kadril', quadriglia. LCNAF no98-7167

Quadro
(English, German); when a work for four instruments or voices, use quartet.

Quartet/Quartets
TYPE (English); use for cuarteto, kvartet, quadro, Quartett, quartetto, quatuor. LCNAF n84-88603

Quartet movement
DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN no 99026255

Quartett
(German); use quartet.

Quartettino/Quartettinos
TYPE (Italian); because titles like Terzettino, Quartettino, Quintettino, etc. do not include the words trio, quartet, quintet, etc., rule 25.30B3 cannot be applied; LCCN 85-751084

Quartetto
(Italian); use quartet.

Quartettsatz
DISTINCTIVE (German) LCCN n 2004070757

Quatuor
(French); use quartet.

Quintet/Quintets
TYPE (English); use for kvintet, quinteto, Quintett, quintette, quintetto. LCNAF n83-176166

Quinteto
(Spanish); use quintet.

Quintett
(German); use quintet.

Quintette
(French); use quintet.

Quintettino/Quintettinos
TYPE (Italian); because titles like Terzettino, Quartettino, Quintettino, etc. do not include the words trio, quartet, quintet, etc., rule 25.30B3 cannot be applied; LCCN 95-754183

Quintetto
(Italian); use quintet.

Quodlibet/Quodlibets
TYPE (English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Spanish); use for kvodlibet. LCCN 85-754103

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R

Rag/Rags
TYPE (English)

Rapsodia
(Italian, Spanish); use rhapsody.

Rapsodie
(French); use rhapsody.

Rapsodiia
(Russian); use rhapsody.

Recercada
(Spanish); use ricercare.

Recessional/Recessionals
TYPE (English) LCCN 94703730

Rechitativ
(Russian); use recitative.

Récit/Récits
TYPE (French); a generic term used in France during the 17th and 18th centuries for fragments or entire compositions for solo voice and, by extension, for solo instrument; also used as a title for an organ piece with a distinct melodic part, as opposed to earlier, contrapuntal organ music; use for works for solo instrument with or without acc.; distinctive when the title means "story" or "narrative." LCNAF n 89629002

Récitatif
(French); use recitative.

Recitative/Recitatives
TYPE (English, French); use for both instrumental and vocal works; use for rechitativ, récitatif, recitativo, Rezitativ. LCCN 87-770023

Recitativo
(Italian); use recitative

Rekviem
(Russian); use requiem.

Requiem/Requiems
TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3); use for Rekviem. LCCN 86-753798

Retornelo
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish); used as an introduction or interlude to a Baroque aria or concerto. Do not treat as a type of composition.

Rezitativ
(German); use recitative

Rhapsodie
(French, German); use rhapsody.

Rhapsody/Rhapsodies
TYPE (English); use for rapsodia, rapsodie, rapsodiia, Rhapsodie.

Rhumba
(English); use rumba.

Ricercar
(French, German); use ricercare.

Ricercare/Ricercars/Ricercari
TYPE (English, Italian); generally, a type of instrumental piece common during the 16th and 17th centuries; because there is no single accepted English form of name for either the singular or plural of this type, use the form used by the composer and maintain that form throughout for that composer; if the composer used no plural form, use Ricercars; use for recercada, Ricercar, richerkar. LCCN 84-757355

Richerkar
(Russian); use ricercare.

Rigadoon
(English); use rigaudon.

Rigaudon/Rigaudons
TYPE (French, German, Hungarian); use for rigadoon, rigodon, rigodón. LCCN 85-752971

Rigodon
(Italian, Russian); use rigaudon.

Rigodón
(Spanish); use rigaudon.

Ritornello/Ritornelli
TYPE (Italian) LCNAF n00-67406

Ritournelle/Ritournelles
TYPE (French) LCNAF n2004-75913

Rőgtőnzés
(Hungarian); use improvisation.

Romance/Romances
TYPE (English, French, Spanish); a 16th- to 17th-century Spanish ballade (also Romanza), an 18th-century French song, and a 19th-century instrumental work. If an instrumental work, use the English form. Use for instrumental works titled romans, Romanza, romanze. LCNAF n87-121520. If a vocal work, use the form of the language of the text; see also romans, romanza (Italian), romanza (Spanish), Romanze; when in English, apply 25.30B8 and name the type of solo voice. LCNAF no00-60406

Romans/Romansy
TYPE (Russian); solo vocal form. See "song" for treatment; LCNAF n94-102950. When an instrumental work, use romance.

Romanza/Romanze
TYPE (Italian); solo vocal form. See "song" for treatment; LCNAF n2003-84617. When an instrumental work, use romance.

Romanza/Romanzas
TYPE (Spanish); solo vocal form. See "song" for treatment. When an instrumental work, use romance.

Romanze/Romanzen
TYPE (German); solo vocal form. See "song" for treatment; LCNAF no98-1957. When an instrumental work, use romance.

Romanzetta/Romanzettas
TYPE (Italian); use for both vocal and instrumental works.

Rondeau/Rondeaux
TYPE (French); use as a type only for the "form fixe" vocal work of the 13th to 15th centuries, and as the refrain form used in the suites of the Baroque era. If encountered as the French variant of the repeat form of the late 18th and 19th centuries, use rondo.

Rondel
DISTINCTIVE (French) LCNAF n94-26598

Rondino/Rondinos
TYPE (English) LCNAF n78-61506

Rondo/Rondos
TYPE (English, French, German); use for rondó, rondò, Rundgesang. LCNAF n82-140142

Rondó
(Spanish); use rondo.

Rondò
(Italian); use rondo.

Rondoletto/Rondolettos
TYPE (Italian) LCCN 99-385075

Round/Rounds
TYPE (English); a short perpetual canon in which all the parts sound at the same pitch or at an octave to it. LCNAF n 2003085548

Rumba/Rumbas
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); a popular recreational dance of Afro-Cuban origin, in syncopated duple metre with a repetitive melody and an ostinato one-bar rhythmic pattern played in the accompaniment; use for rhumba. LCNAF n 2001063996

Rundgesang
(German); use rondo.

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S

Salmo
(Italian); see psalm.

Saltarelle
(French); use saltarello.

Saltarello/Saltarellos
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); use for saltarelle, sal'tarello, saltarelo. LCCN 2001-542442

Sal'tarello
(Russian); use saltarello.

Saltarelo
(Spanish); use saltarello.

Salve Regina
TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3) LCNAF n83-163506

Samba/Sambas
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish) LCCN 86-752077

Sanctus
TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3)

Saraband/Sarabands
TYPE (English); use for sarabanda, Sarabande, zarabanda. LCNAF n87-103646

Sarabanda
(Italian, Russian); use saraband.

Sarabande
(French, German); use saraband.

Sardana/Sardanas
TYPE (Spanish) LCNAF n83-67011

Satz/Sätze
TYPE (German); use for an independent work titled as such, not for individual movements of a larger work; see also chast', mouvement, movement, movimento, movimiento, tétel. LCNAF n87-136299

Scherzando/Scherzandos
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish) LCNAF n 2004144266

Scherzettino/Scherzettinos
TYPE (Italian) LCNAF no2011038325

Scherzetto/Scherzetti
TYPE (English) LCNAF n83-121492

Scherzino/Scherzinos
TYPE English, Italian) LCNAF n00-67394.

Scherzo/Scherzos
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); use for skertso, squerzo.

Schottische
(German); use ecossaise.

Scozzese
(Italian); use ecossaise.

Seguidilla/Seguidillas
TYPE (Spanish); use "Seguidilla/Seguidillas" and medium statement for vocal works. For an instrumental work, consider it a dance and use the plural form of the term, "Seguidillas," for both singular and plural forms, with medium statement.

Sekstet
(Russian); use sextet.

Septet/Septets
TYPE (English, Russian); use for septeto, Septett, septimino, septuor, settimino. LCNAF n82-130965

Septeto
(Spanish); use septet.

Septett
(German); use septet.

Septimino
(Spanish); use septet.

Septuor
(French); use septet.

Serenada
(Russian); use serenade.

Serenade/Serenades
TYPE (English, French); instrumental composition of the 18th and 19th centuries; use for serenada, serenata; for vocal works titled serenata, see serenata; see also seresta, Ständchen. LCNAF n 81112131

Serenata/Serenatas
TYPE (Italian); a 17th- and 18th-century dramatic cantata-like vocal work for two or more singers and orchestra, performed at court or at the home of an aristocratic family. LCNAF no2007039286; for instrumental works titled serenata, see serenade.

Seresta/Serestas
TYPE (Portuguese); the title means "serenade"; use this form for both instrumental and vocal works when it is the composer's original title; see also serenade. LCNAF no2004120758

Service/Services
TYPE (English); a term used in the Anglican liturgy to refer to musical settings of the canticles for Matins (Morning prayer) and Evensong, and of certain parts of the Communion service; apply 25.30B1 and do not normally include a statement of medium of performance; regard any title in which "service" is modified by something other than medium or key as distinctive.

Sestetto
(Italian); use sextet.

Set/Sets
TYPE (English) LCNAF n98-64541

Setting
DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 88-754240

Settimino
(Italian); use septet.

Sevillana/Sevillanas
TYPE (Spanish) LCNAF n2002-69321

Sextet/Sextets
TYPE (English); use for sekstet, sestetto, sexteto, Sextett, sextuor. LCNAF n85-204021

Sexteto
(Spanish); use sextet.

Sextett
(German); use sextet.

Sextuor
(French); use sextet.

Siciliana/Sicilianas
TYPE (English); use for ciciliano, sicilien, siciliene, sicilienne, siciliano, sitsiliana, siziliano. LCNAF n92-26301

Siciliano
(Italian); use siciliana.

Sicilien
(French); use siciliana.

Siciliene
(French); use siciliana.

Sicilienne
(French); use siciliana.

Simfonicheskaia poėma/Simfonicheskie poėmy
TYPE (Russian); use when it is the composer's original title; see also poema sinfonico, poema sinfónico, poème symphonique, sinfonische Dichtung, sinfonische Gedicht, symphonic poem, symphonische Dichtung. LCNAF no 98119131

Simfoniia
(Russian); use symphony.

Simfonietta
(Russian); use sinfonietta.

Simphonie
(French); use symphony.

Simphonie concertante/Simphonies concertantes
TYPE (French); use when it is the composer's original title; see also sinfonia concertante, sinfonie concertante, symphonie concertante. LCNAF n86-871273

Simphonietta
(French); use sinfonietta.

Simphony
Variant spelling of symphony; use symphony.

Sinfonia/Sinfonie
TYPE (Italian); cognate for symphony. When the term represents the multi-movement work of the 18th to 20th centuries, use symphony. NOTE: the term also represents several separate types of Italian Baroque compositions, one of which (the tri-partite opera overture) was one of the precursors of the modern symphony. When used to represent any of these Baroque compositions, the term should not be normalized to symphony; use sinfonia/sinfonie. However, the German "Sinfonie" (plural is Sinfonien) (a cognate of symphony) should be normalized to symphony. LCNAF n88-609341

Sinfonia concertante/Sinfonie concertanti
TYPE (Italian); use when it is the composer's original title; see also simphonie concertante, sinfonie concertante, symphonie concertante. LCNAF n87-105768

Sinfonia da camera
DISTINCTIVE (English, Italian) LCNAF n 2006074405

Sinfonie
The German cognate for symphony and the Italian plural of sinfonia. When it represents the 18th- to 20th-century multi-movement work use symphony. When it represents the plural of the Italian Baroque sinfonia, use "Sinfonie."

Sinfonie concertante/Sinfonies concertantes
TYPE (French); use when it is the composer's original title; see also simphonie concertante, sinfonia concertante, symphonie concertante. LCCN 93-711493

Sinfonie da camera
DISTINCTIVE (Italian) LCNAF n 85105937

Sinfonietta/Sinfoniettas
TYPE (English, German, Italian); apply 25.30B1a; use for simfonietta, simphonietta, symfoniieta, symphonietta, symphoniette. LCNAF n96-37352

Sinfonische Dichtung/Sinfonische Dichtungen
TYPE (German); use when it is the composer's original title; see also poema sinfonico, poema sinfónico, poème symphonique, simfonicheskaia poėma, sinfonische Gedicht, symphonic poem, symphonische Dichtung.

Sinfonische Gedicht/Sinfonische Gedichte
TYPE (German); use when it is the composer's original title; see also poema sinfonico, poema sinfónico, poème symphonique, simfonicheskaia poėma, sinfonische Dichtung, symphonic poem, symphonische Dichtung.

Sitsiliana
(Russian); use siciliana.

Siuita          
(Russian); use suite.

Siziliano
(German); use siciliana.

Skertso
(Russian); use scherzo.

Sketch
DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 84-759279

Skizze
DISTINCTIVE (German); for "sketch." LCCN 86-754441

Skladba/Skladby
TYPE (Czech); for "piece"; use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also darab, morceau, pala, p'esa, pezzo, piece, pièce, pieza, Stück, stuk, utwór. LCCN 91752182

Solo/Solos
TYPE (English); probably not used in other languages as a type of composition. "In 18th-century English terminology, 'solo' as the designation for a piece of music for a melody instrument with continuo accompaniment was virtually equivalent to 'sonata' and was often so used in titles"--New Grove. LCNAF n88-676840

Solo de concours
DISTINCTIVE (French) LCNAF n 97095250

Solo piece
DISTINCTIVE (English) LCNAF no 99035859

Solostück
DISTINCTIVE (German) LCNAF n 00073633

Solostykke
DISTINCTIVE (Danish, Norwegian)

Son/Sones
TYPE (Spanish); a generic term for Latin American rural or peasant music, both vocal and instrumental, in various forms; an unequal triple rhythm (sesquialtera) is a common feature.

Sonata/Sonatas
TYPE (English, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for sonate. LCNAF n89-605155

Sonata da camera
DISTINCTIVE (English, French, Italian, Spanish) LCNAF no98-60604

Sonata da chiesa
DISTINCTIVE (Italian); a Baroque instrumental work, often in 4 movements that replaced the organ solos that had regularly been substituted for elements of the Proper at Mass and Vespers. LCNAF no2002029071.

Sonata de cámara
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)

Sonata en trio
(Spanish); use trio sonata.

Sonata movement/Sonata movements
TYPE (English) LCNAF n2005-10688

Sonate
(French, German); use sonata.

Sonate all'epistola
(Italian); use epistle sonata.

Sonate da camera
DISTINCTIVE (Italian) LCCN 97-708718

Sonate de chambre
DISTINCTIVE (French)

Sonate en trio
(French); use trio sonata.

Sonatensatz/Sonatensätze
TYPE (German) LCNAF n2004-79718

Sonatille/Sonatilles
TYPE (English, French); a type of "mini sonata." LCNAF no2008137287

Sonatina/Sonatinas
TYPE (English, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for Sonatine. LCNAF n82-116353

Sonatina da camera
DISTINCTIVE (Italian) LCCN 2008365343

Sonatine
(French, German); use sonatina.

Sonatinetta/Sonatinettas
TYPE (English, Italian); use for sonatinette. LCCN 96-704336

Sonatinette
(English); use Sonatinetta.

Song/Songs
TYPE (English); use for vocal works of this type in English; when an instrumental work is titled "Song," treat this title as distinctive. For vocal works, apply 25.30B1 a): do not add a medium of performance for works with the initial title element Songs, Lieder, etc. unless it differs from the implied medium of solo voice(s) with acc. for keyboard instrument (this does not apply to songs in a popular medium). Apply 25.30B10: accompaniment for works with the initial title element Songs, Lieder, etc.: when the work is accompanied by any medium other than a keyboard instrument, add the name(s) of the instrument(s) followed by "acc." If the work is unaccompanied, add "unacc." as the medium of performance. Use only for miscellaneous sets, e.g., [Songs], [Songs. Selections] and specific collections, e.g., [Songs, op. 14], [Songs. op. 56. Maid sings light]. For other languages see canción, canzone, chanson, dal, Gesang, laulu, Lied, melodie, pisen, romance. LCNAF n85-139914

Sortie
DISTINCTIVE (French) LCCN 90-751474

Sortsiko
(Russian); use zortzico.

Sousedská/Sousedsky
TYPE (Czech) LCCN 96-752783

Spielmusik
DISTINCTIVE (German) LCNAF n92-55877

Spirichuėl
(Russian); use spiritual.

Spiritual/Spirituals
TYPE (English); a type of folksong that originated in American revivalist activity between 1740 and the close of the 19th century; treat as a type for vocal works; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works; use for spirichuėl. LCNAF no2008185915

Squerzo
(Portuguese); use scherzo.

Stabat Mater
TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3) LCCN 89755320

Stampita
(Italian); use estampie.

Ständchen
TYPE (German); the title meaning "serenade" often given to multi-movement instrumental compositions; use this form when it is the composer's original title; possibly distinctive when a vocal work; see also serenade. LCNAF n 95027103

Stück/Stücke
TYPE (German); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also darab, morceau, pala, p'esa, pezzo, piece, pièce, pieza, skladba, stuk, utwór. LCNAF n 89626896

Studie/Studien
TYPE (German); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also estudio, ėtiud, etude, étude, Etüde, gyakorlat, studio, study. LCNAF n 80125202

Studio/Studi
TYPE (Italian); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also estudio, ėtiud, etude, étude, Etüde, gyakorlat, studie, study. LCCN 86-752847

Study/Studies
TYPE (English); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also estudio, ėtiud, etude, étude, Etüde, gyakorlat, studie, studio. LCNAF n 84164408

Stuk/Stukken
TYPE (Dutch); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also darab, morceau, p'esa, pezzo, piece, pièce, pieza, skladba, Stück, utwór. LCNAF n 80071601

Suite/Suites
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); use for siuita. LCNAF n 89637546

Symfoniieta
(Russian); use sinfonietta.

Symphonette/Symphonettes
TYPE (English); apply 25.30B1a: add a statement of medium of performance only when not for the implied medium of orchestra.

Symphonic poem/Symphonic poems
TYPE (English); use when it is the composer's original title; see also poema sinfonico, poema sinfónico, poème symphonique, simfonicheskaia poėma, sinfonische Dichtung, sinfonische Gedicht, symphonische Dichtung. LCNAF n 87112718

Symphonie
(French, German); use symphony.

Symphonie concertante/Symphonies concertantes
TYPE (French); use when it is the composer's original title; see also simphonie concertante, sinfonia concertante, sinfonie concertante.

Symphonie de chambre
DISTINCTIVE (French) LCNAF n 2007026995

Symphonietta
(French); use sinfonietta.

Symphoniette
(English, French); use sinfonietta.

Symphonische Dichtung/Symphonische Dichtungen
TYPE (German); use when it is the composer's original title; see also poema sinfonico, poema sinfónico, poème symphonique, simfonicheskaia poėma, sinfonische Dichtung, sinfonische Gedicht, symphonic poem.

Symphony/Symphonies
TYPE (English); form of the multi-movement work of the 18th to 20th centuries; use for simfoniia, Simphonie, Simphony, Symphonie, and (when this type of composition) for the Italian "sinfonia" and the German "Sinfonie." However, the Italian Baroque "sinfonia" (plural, Sinfonie) is a different type of composition and should not be normalized to symphony. LCNAF n 81018172

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T

Tambourin/Tambourins
TYPE (English, French); an 18th-century French dance with a lively melody and regular, static bass simulating a drum, usually in duple meter; found in the theatrical works of Rameau and others and as purely instrumental works.

Tánc          
(Hungarian); use dance

Taniec      
(Polish); use dance.

Tanets
(Russian); use dance

Tango/Tangos
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish) LCCN 89-751700

Tanz          
(German); use dance

Tarantela
(Spanish); use tarantella

Tarantella/Tarantellas
TYPE (German, Italian, English, Russian); use for tarantela, tarentelle, terentelle. LCNAF n 91079971

Tarentelle
(French); use tarantella.

Te Deum
TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3) LCNAF n 90600393

Tema          
(Italian, Spanish, Russian); use only as the first word of a combination title (e.g., [Tema con variazioni ...]). When it occurs alone, use theme.

Tentet
(English); use decet.

Terentelle
Variant spelling of tarantella/tarentelle; use tarantella.

Terzett
(German); use trio.

Terzettino/Terzettinos
TYPE (Italian); because titles like Terzettino, Quartettino, Quintettino, etc. do not include the words trio, quartet, quintet, etc., rule 25.30B3 cannot be applied; for terzetto use trio; LCNAF no 97081834

Terzetto
(Italian); use trio.

Tétel/Tételek
TYPE (Hungarian); for "movement"; usually refers to an independent work; use for an independent work entitled as such, not for individual movements of a larger work; see also chast', mouvement, movimento, movimiento, Satz. LCCN 86-751737

Thema
(German); use only as the first word of a combination title (e.g., [Thema und Variationen ...]). When it occurs alone, use theme.

Theme/Themes
TYPE (English); generally use in combination with the term "variations"; in such a case use the language of the original title and treat the resulting phrase as a type of composition (e.g., [Theme and variations, piano], [Thème et variations, orchestra], [Thema und Variationen, guitar], [Tema con variazioni, violin, piano]). It should also be considered as a type of composition on the rare occasion when it occurs alone. In this case use the English form; use for tema, Thema, thème. LCCN 98-6647; 83-73208

Thème
(French); use only as the first word of a combination title (e.g., [Thème et variations, orchestra]). When it occurs alone, use theme.

Tiento/Tientos
TYPE (Spanish)

Tocata
(Spanish); use toccata.

Toccata/Toccatas
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); use for tocata, tokkata. LCNAF n 80151141

Toccatella/Toccatellas
TYPE (English, Italian); use for toccatelle. LCCN 96700777

Toccatelle
(French); use toccatella.

Toccatina/Toccatinas
TYPE (Italian) LCNAF n 99834029

Tokkata
(Russian); use toccata.

Tonadilla/Tonadillas
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish) LCCN 95-703482

Tone poem
For collections of a composer's works in this genre, use symphonic poems.

Toy/Toys
TYPE (English); a short, light piece for lute or virginal, simple in form and light in texture; use for 16th- and 17th-century works; for post-17th-century works, treat the term as distinctive.

Toye
(English); use toy.

Trio/Trios
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for Terzett, terzetto. LCNAF n 87151624

Trio sonata/Trio sonatas
TYPE (English); use for sonata en trio, sonate en trio, trio-sonata, Triosonate. LCNAF n 87802965

Trio-sonata
(Russian, Spanish); use trio sonata.

Triosonate
(German); use trio sonata.

Triple concerto
DISTINCTIVE (English) LCNAF n 91008791

Triptych
DISTINCTIVE (English) LCNAF n 90625713

Trumpet tune/Trumpet tunes
TYPE (English) LCNAF n 2005004323

TSapateado
(Russian); use zapateado.

Tune/Tunes
TYPE (English) LCNAF n 78067341

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U

Übung/Übungen
TYPE (German); treat as a type of composition when the term is used to mean "study," "etude," etc.; see also ejercicio, esercizio, exercice, exercise. LCCN 96706002

Umoresca
(Italian); use humoresque.

Utwór/Utwory
TYPE (Polish); for "piece"; use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also darab, morceau, pala, p'esa, pezzo, piece, pièce, pieza, skladba, stuk, Stück. LCNAF no2010174179

Uvertiura
(Russian); use overture.

Uwertura
(Polish); use overture.

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V

Val's          
(Russian); use waltz.

Vals          
(Spanish); use waltz.

Valse          
(French); use waltz. Note: Ravel's La valse is to be considered distinctive (see LCRI 25.27A1 footnote 10)

Valzer
(Italian); use waltz.

Variación
(Spanish); use variation.

Variant
DISTINCTIVE (English); for works not in the form of variations, use this form; LCCN 97-700369; for works in the form of variations, use variation.

Variante
DISTINCTIVE (French); for works not in the form of variations, use this form; LCCN 87-754231; for works in the form of variations, use variation.

Varianten
DISTINCTIVE (German); for works not in the form of variations, use this form; LCNAF n99-1755; for works in the form of variations, use variation.

Varianti
DISTINCTIVE (Italian); for works not in the form of variations, use this form; LCNAF no97-4585; for works in the form of variations, use variation. LCCN 2002-537041

Variation/Variations
TYPE (English, French, German); use for variación, variant, variante, Varianten, varianti, variatsiia, variazione, except when the first word of a distinctive title, when used in a combination title (e.g., [Tema e variazione]), or for works not in the form of variations. LCNAF n 81100998

Variatsiia
(Russian); use variation.

Variazione
(Italian); use variation.

Vázlatok
DISTINCTIVE (Hungarian) LCNAF n 81018971

Veränderung/Veränderungen
TYPE (German); treat as a type of composition when the term is used to mean "variations." LCNAF n 94031866

Vers          
(Hungarian); use verset.

Verset/Versets
TYPE (English, French); considered to be a type when written for organ; when written for any other medium, apply 25.27A1 footnote 10; use for vers, Versett, versetto, versettus, versiculo, verso. LCCN 88-752736

Versett
(German); use verset.

Versetto
(Italian); use verset.

Versettus
(Hungarian); use verset.

Versiculo
(Spanish); use verset.

Verso
(Spanish); use verset.

Vechernia
(Russian) use vespers.

Vesper/Vespers
TYPE (English, German); liturgical (see note 3); use for vechernia, vesperae, vêpres, vespro, vísperas. LCNAF n 2010031927

Vesperae
(Latin) use vespers.

Vêpres
(French) use vespers.

Vespro
(Italian) use vespers.

Vísperas
(Spanish) use vespers.

Vil'iansiko
(Russian); use villancico.

Villancico/Villancicos
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); a Spanish vocal work for one or more voices with refrain. Use without specification of medium except in case of conflicts; use for vil'iansiko. LCNAF n 81116150

Villanella/Villanelle
TYPE (English, Italian, Russian, Spanish); a form of "light vocal music popular in Italy and elsewhere from the 1530s to the early 17th century"--New Grove. Use "villanella" for the singular and "villanelle" for the plural. Do not confuse the plural with the French "villanelle." LCNAF no2008153937

Villanelle/Villanelles
TYPE (French); a 16th- to 17th-century French country dance or song, and an 18th- to 20th-century instrumental piece. Do not confuse with the Italian "villanella" (plural "villanelle"). NOTE: Also the German form of "villanella." When found in this context, use the Italian singular and plural forms. LCNAF n 82020271

Vivace/Vivaces
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Russian) LCCN 84758900

Vivo/Vivos
TYPE (Italian) LCNAF n 2005024423

Vocalise/Vocalises
TYPE (English, French); use for vocal works of this type; distinctive title for instrumental works. For vocal works, see song for treatment. Use for vocalización, vocalizzo, Vokalise, vokaliz. LCNAF n 82217213

Vocalización
(Spanish); use vocalise.

Vocalizzo
(Italian); use vocalise.

Vokalise
(German); use vocalise.

Vokaliz
(Russian); use vocalise.

Volta/Volte
TYPE (English, German, Italian, Spanish); an early 17th-century dance; use for lavolta, volte (the French singular form of the term)

Volte          
(French); use volta for the singular form of this term

Voluntary/Voluntaries
TYPE (English) LCNAF n81-24404

Vorspiel/Vorspiele
TYPE (German); use for independent works titled as such; when part of a larger work, follow rule 25.32. LCNAF n 82143656

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W

Waltz/Waltzes
TYPE (English); use for vals, val's, valse, valzer, Walzer. Note: Ravel's La valse is to be considered distinctive (see LCRI 25.27A1 footnote 10) LCNAF n 89619221

Walzer
(German); use waltz.

Wiegenlied
DISTINCTIVE (German); LCNAF n 80097108

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X

Xácara
(Spanish); use jácara.

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Z

Žalm          
(Czech); see psalm.

Zapateado/Zapateados
TYPE (Spanish); a solo dance in triple time in which rhythm is marked by stamping of the heels; use for tsapateado, zapateao.

Zapateao
(Spanish); use zapateado.

Zarabanda
(Spanish); use saraband.

Zhiga          
(Russian); use gigue.

Zorcico
(Spanish); use zortzico.

Zortciko
(Spanish); use zortzico.

Zortzico/Zortzicos
TYPE (Spanish); Basque folk song or dance in 5/4 time with dotted rhythms; use for sortsiko, zorcico, zortciko, Zortziko. LCNAF no2011059296

Zortziko
(German); use zortzico.

Zwiefacher/Zwiefache
TYPE (German); a German folk dance with regular alternation between duple and triple meter. LCNAF nr2006005717

Zwischenakt
(German); use intermezzo.

Zwischenspiel/Zwischenspiele
TYPE (German) LCCN 86-753796.

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Last revised February 3, 2014.
Comments to Michelle Koth (michelle.koth@yale.edu), Catalog Librarian, Yale University Music Library (203) 432-0494 FAX (203) 432-7339