Types of Composition for Use in Authorized Access Points for Music

A Manual for Use with RDA


Table of Contents

Preface  ||  Principles of the list  ||  Diacritics  ||  Use of "double," "triple," etc. in titles of musical works  ||  Submitting terms for consideration

Additions and changes to this list, all of which have been incorporated into this document, are also listed by year in separate documents:
2014

| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Z |


Preface

For music catalogers following the guidelines in RDA: Resource Description and Access for constructing access points to represent musical works, the question of what constitutes the name of a generic "type of musical composition" is an important one.

Depending on whether a preferred title is the name of a type or is a distinctive title, different RDA instructions apply for making additions to the title when constructing an authorized access point (RDA 6.28.1.9 versus 6.28.1.10). The distinction between generic types and distinctive titles also affects the choice of language used for the preferred title (RDA 6.14.2.5) and which elements to include when recording the title proper (RDA 2.3.2.8.1). A "type of composition" is defined in the RDA Glossary as a "form, a genre, or a generic term used frequently by different composers (e.g., capriccio, concerto, intermezzo, Magnificat, mass, movement, muziek, nocturne, requiem, Stück, symphony, suite, Te Deum, trio sonata)." A "distinctive title" is defined as "a title that is not just a form or musical genre, a tempo indication, a number of performers, or a type of liturgical text."

While it is often obvious whether a title is distinctive or is a generic type, this is not always the case. Many titles are ambiguous and difficult to categorize, such as titles that look like generic titles but are not defined in reference sources as such, e.g., divertissement. Some of these terms may be treated as types of compositions, in accordance with RDA's definition of a type, if they are used frequently by different composers; others may not.

RDA 6.14.2.5 instructs catalogers to record the accepted form of name of a type of composition in a language preferred by the agency creating the data if the name has a cognate form in that language or the same name is used in that language. Thus, for English-language cataloging agencies, the name of the type is recorded in English if the name has an English cognate form, regardless of how the composer spelled it. For instance "symphony" is used, not symphonie, Sinfonie, or sinfonia; thus, the cataloger must know if the term is generic in order to know what language to use. For those types of compositions without English cognates, one must ascertain what language the composer originally used, and use the plural in that language if it is known that the composer has written more than one composition of that type.

The present list is intended to assist music catalogers in determining which terms are to be considered names of types and which are to be considered distinctive. For those cataloging in agencies whose preferred language is English, this list provides guidance on choosing the language to be used for a given preferred title. In addition, the list may also be used as a quick-reference source for plural forms of titles in several languages.

Types of Composition for Use in Authorized Access Points for Musical Works is a revision of Types of Compositions for Use in Music Uniform Titles: A Manual for Use with AACR2 Chapter 25, which was originally created in 1992 and last revised in 2002. The original list and historical information on the rationale and process for developing the list are archived at http://www.library.yale.edu/cataloging/music/types.htm. The present version is maintained by the Authorities Subcommittee of the MLA Bibliographic Control Committee.

For a complete list of changes from the AACR2 List of types to the current RDA List, please see http://www.library.yale.edu/cataloging/music/typeschanges.htm.


Principles of the list

The following list of terms that are either "types of compositions" or "distinctive titles" includes equivalent terms in English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish, and in some cases, Czech, Dutch, Hungarian, Latin, and Polish. The list is not exhaustive.

The list is organized to reflect practice among English-language cataloging agencies (see note 1 below).

Terms identified as "types" are listed with their plurals, along with the designation "Type," followed by language. These terms should be used in the plural if a composer has written more than one composition of that type with the same title (RDA 6.14.2.5.2). Cognates in other languages are listed in "use for…" notes.

If a term has no plural listed and is followed by language and a note beginning "use ...", it is a cognate of a preferred term, and the cataloger should refer to that other term to determine its usage. Terms that are "distinctive" are given only in the singular, followed by the designation "Distinctive" and by language. Many terms include a brief explanation of their usage. It is essential to read this information before constructing an authorized access point.

The list should be used in conjunction with: RDA: Resource Description and Access; Library of Congress-Program for Cooperative Cataloging Policy Statements (LC-PCC PS); Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21. Throughout this list there are many references to elements contained in these standards. To facilitate use of the list, excerpts from the most frequently cited are included below. Some principles of the list simply reflect historical practice that is undocumented in the current standards, but is nevertheless RDA-compliant. In such cases, Uniform Titles for Music by Michelle Koth (Scarecrow Press, 2008) was consulted.

1. RDA 6.14.2.5 (Cognates)

RDA 6.14.2.5 instructs catalogers to translate terms for types of composition when there is a cognate in the language of the cataloging agency. For English-language cataloging agencies, an English term is used, and when more than one cognate is available in English, the form of term found in a controlled vocabulary such as LCSH is preferred.

2. RDA 6.28.1.9 (Combination terms)

Combination terms (e.g., "Theme and variations," "Prelude and fugue") do not appear on this list and are addressed in RDA 6.28.1.9:
The treatment of combination terms may also be guided by historical practice as recorded in Koth, Uniform Titles for Music, p. 36-38, including the following points: 3. LC-PCC PS for 6.28.1, section on Liturgical Words or Phrases

LC practice/PCC practice: When the preferred title is a Latin liturgical word or phrase (e.g., "Gloria," "Salve Regina," "Te Deum"), record it in the singular. Exception: Use the plural form "Magnificats," "Masses," or "Requiems" when appropriate. Generally, do not add the medium of performance in the authorized access point.

4. Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21 6.14.2.5

MLA recommendation: When a composer uses a word which is normally the name of a type of composition as the title of a work which is definitely not a work of the type designated by the word, do not consider the [preferred] title to be the name of a type of composition.

5. RDA 6.14.2.5.1(Treatment of Specific Terms)

The treatment of three specific terms and their cognates are recorded in this list in accordance with RDA 6.14.2.5:
This is an exception in RDA to the default treatment of using the English cognate, meaning that when works with these names are not intended for concert performance, the default treatment applies. So, for example, "étude" is used when the work is intended for concert performance, but it is translated into the English cognate "etude" when it is not intended for concert performance.

Diacritics

Several diacritics are not available as text, only as images, in Web format. When a term includes a diacritic that is not available, the affected letters in the term will be linked to its image in this section of the document.


Use of "double," "triple," etc. in titles of musical works

Words like "double," "triple," etc., in titles of musical works may have various meanings and therefore should be considered in the context of the entire title of each individual work. For example, the word "double" in the titles "Double canon" and "Double fugue" refer to compositional techniques. These titles are types of compositions. A double quartet is not a quartet but an octet, and the title is distinctive. "Double concerto" is more ambiguous, since the word "double" does not refer to a compositional technique, and the work is still a concerto. According to a statement issued on March 7, 1991 by Richard Hunter, the Library of Congress does not consider that the word "double" refers to the statement of medium of performance and therefore "Double concerto" should be treated as distinctive.


Submitting terms for consideration

Do you have a term or title that is being treated inconsistently or about which you are uncertain? Feel free to submit new terms or titles for consideration to Raymond Schmidt, Chair, BCC Authorities Subcommittee by e-mail or US mail (Wellesley College, 106 Central St, Wellesley, MA, 02481). Any supporting citations or documentation you can provide will be appreciated.


A

Abanera
(Italian); use habanera.

Abertura
(Spanish); use overture.

Adagietto/Adagiettos
TYPE (Italian)

Adagio/Adagios
TYPE (Italian)

Agnus Dei
TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3); fifth item of Ordinary of Mass.

Air/Airs
TYPE (English); a vocal or instrumental tune.

Aire/Aires
TYPE (English)

Al'bom
DISTINCTIVE (Russian)

Album
DISTINCTIVE (English, French, German)

Álbum
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)

Album leaf
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Albumblatt
DISTINCTIVE (German)

Albumblad
DISTINCTIVE

Albumleaf
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Allegretto/Allegrettos
TYPE (Italian)

Allegro/Allegros
TYPE (Italian)

Alleluia
DISTINCTIVE

Alleluja
DISTINCTIVE

Alleluya
DISTINCTIVE

Allemanda
(English); use allemande

Allemande/Allemandes
TYPE (English, French, German); use for allemanda, almain, almaine, alman, almand, almaygne, almayne.

Almain
(English); use allemande.

Almaine
(English); use allemande.

Alman
(English); use allemande.

Almand
(English); use allemande.

Almaygne
(French, German); use allemande.

Almayne
(French, German); use allemande.

Andante/Andantes
TYPE (Italian)

Andantino/Andantinos
TYPE (Italian)

Anglaise/Anglaises
TYPE (English, French, German); a late Baroque dance movement in a harpsichord or orchestra suite; also used loosely to refer to any of the English dance types popular during the late 17th century; use for anglez, inglesa, inglese.

Anglez
(Russian); use anglaise.

Anthem/Anthems
TYPE (English); a choral setting (in English) of a religious or moral text; frequently used as a conventional collective title. Do not include medium of performance when the anthem is for chorus, with or without instrumental accompaniment, as it is the implied medium. Include medium of performance in all other cases.

Antifon
DISTINCTIVE (Russian)

Antifona
DISTINCTIVE (Italian)

Antífona
DISTINCTIVE (Hungarian, Spanish)

Antiphon
DISTINCTIVE (English, German)

Arabesca
(Italian, Spanish); use arabesque.

Arabesco
(Spanish); use arabesque.

Arabeska
(Russian); use arabesque.

Arabeske
(German); use arabesque.

Arabesque/Arabesques
TYPE (English, French); use for arabesca, arabesco, arabeska, Arabeske.

Aria/Arias
TYPE (English, French, Hungarian, Italian, Spanish); use for Arie, ariia.

Arie          
(German); use aria

Arieta
(Spanish); use arietta.

Arietta/Ariettas
TYPE (English, German, Italian, Russian); use for arieta, ariette.

Ariette
(French, German); use arietta.

Ariettina/Ariettinas
TYPE (English)

Ariia          
(Russian); use aria.

Arioso/Ariosos
TYPE (English); a piece in a songlike style; use for vocal and instrumental works and short arias so titled not part of a larger recitative.

Armonia
DISTINCTIVE (Italian)

Armonía
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)

Aubade/Aubades
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); a piece of morning music; counterpart of serenade or nocturne; use for Aube. Note: Poulenc's Aubade is considered to be distinctive. See 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21.

Aube          
(Hungarian); use aubade.

Ave Maria
TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3);

Ayre/Ayres
TYPE (English)


B

Bagatela
(Spanish); use bagatelle.

Bagatell
(Hungarian); use bagatelle.

Bagatella
(Italian); use bagatelle.

Bagatelle/Bagatelles
TYPE (English, French, German); use for bagatela, bagatell, bagatella.

Balada/Baladas
TYPE (Russian, Spanish); vocal work; do not confuse with ballata; for instrumental baladas use ballade.

Ballad/Ballads
TYPE (English); type of folksong or art song in a folk style; when a vocal work, see song for treatment.

Ballada
(Hungarian, Russian); use ballade for instrumental works so named.

Ballade/Ballades
TYPE (English, French, German); vocal work; form fixe of 14th- to 15th-century France; also an instrumental piece in narrative style; when given as the title to art songs from the 19th and 20th centuries, see song for treatment; do not confuse with the instrumental ballade.

Ballade/Ballades
TYPE (English, French, German); an instrumental work (usually for piano) in a narrative style; do not confuse with the vocal ballade; use for instrumental works titled balada, ballada, ballata.

Ballata/Ballatas
TYPE (Italian); Italian dance song; do not confuse with balada; for instrumental ballatas use ballade.

Ballett/Balletts
TYPE (English); a late 16th-/early 17th-century English part-song using nonsense refrains. Use for works of English origin or influence.

Balletto/Balletti
TYPE (Italian); a 15th-century Italian dance; a late 16th-/early 17th-century Italian part-song using nonsense refrains; use for works of Italian origin or influence; a late 16th-century Italian instrumental dance.

Barcarola
(Spanish); use barcarolle.

Barcarole
(English, German); use barcarolle.

Barcaroletta
(English, Italian); use barcarollette.

Barcarolette
(English, French); use barcarollette.

Barcarolle/Barcarolles
TYPE (French); use for barcarola, barcarole, barcaruola, barkarola.

Barcarolletta
(English, Italian); use barcarollette.

Barcarollette/Barcarollettes
TYPE (English, French); use for barcaroletta, barcarolette, barcarolletta.

Barcaruola
(Italian); use barcarolle.

Barkarola
(Hungarian, Russian); use barcarolle.

Basdans
(Russian); use basse danse

Bassa danza
(Italian); use basse danse

Bassadanza
(Italian); use basse danse

Basse danse
TYPE (English, French, Spanish); the principal court dance during the late Middle Ages and Renaissance; use for bassa danza, bassadanza, basdans.

Beguine/Beguines
TYPE (English, German, Italian, Spanish); a social dance popular in Europe and American from the 1930s, with a rhythm similar to that of the bolero; use for béguine, bigin, biguine.

Béguine
(French); use beguine.

Berceuse/Berceuses
TYPE (French); a quiet song in triple meter or a character piece for instruments.

Bicinien
(German); use bicinia.

Bicinium/Bicinia
TYPE (Latin); a two-voice work for voices, instruments, or keyboard. Generally used as a conventional collective title; use for Bicinien.

Bigin     
(Spanish); use beguine.

Biguine
(Spanish); use beguine.

Blues
TYPE (English); use for works employing a 12-bar structure, using flattened 3rds and 7ths; also use when the title indicates a blues-type mood rather than a strict adherence to the 12-bar form.

Boceto
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)

Bolero/Boleros
TYPE (English, German, Hungarian, Italian, Russian, Spanish)

Boléro
(French); use bolero.

Boree
(English); use bourrée.

Bossa nova
TYPE (English, French, German, Portuguese)

Bourrée/Bourrées
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); use for boree, burre.

Boutade
TYPE (French); 18th-century term for a dance or whole ballet in a fanciful and playful style; the name given to an improvised piece of instrumental music, which, if written down, would have been given the title caprice or fantaisie; use for butada.

Brano da concerto
DISTINCTIVE (Italian)

Burla/Burlas
TYPE (English, German, Italian); a humorous instrumental piece.

Burlesca
(Italian, Spanish); use burlesque.

Burleska
(Russian); use burlesque.

Burleske
(German); use burlesque.

Burlesque/Burlesques
TYPE (English, French); use for burlesca, burleska, Burleske, burleszk.

Burleszk
(Hungarian); use burlesque.

Burre          
(Russian); use bourrée.

Butada
(Russian); use boutade.


C

Cadence
(French); use cadenza when used as the title of an independent work.

Cadencia
(Spanish); use cadenza when used as the title of an independent work.

Cadenza/Cadenzas
TYPE (English, Italian); use as a type only when applied to the title of an independent work; not considered a type of composition when applied to cadenzas within concertos; use for Cadence, Cadencia, Kadenz. Use as a conventional collective title for collections of a composer's cadenzas written to accompany three or more separate concertos, etc., by the same or other composers.

Canarie
(French); use canary.

Canario
(Italian, Spanish); use canary.

Canary/Canaries
TYPE (English); a form of dance and music popular in Europe from the mid-16th to mid-18th centuries; use for canarie, canario.

Canción/Canciónes
TYPE (Spanish); use as a type for vocal works; see song for treatment. Use for collections and works specifically titled by the composer, e.g., Revueltas, Silvestre, 1899-1940. [Canciónes, orchestra accompaniment]; Botto, Carlos, 1923-2004. [Canciónes, op. 4]; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works (see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21)

Cançoneta
(Portuguese); use canzonetta.

Canon/Canons
TYPE (English, French, Spanish); use for canone, Kanon, kánon.

Canon doble
(Spanish); use double canon.

Canon double
(French); use double canon.

Canone
(Italian); use canon.

Canone doppio
(Italian); use double canon.

Cantabile/Cantabiles
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for Kantabile.

Cantata/Cantatas
TYPE (English, Italian); usually used as a conventional collective title; use for cantate, Kantate.

Cantate
(French); use cantata (for conventional collective titles only)

Canticle/Canticles
TYPE (English); use as a type for vocal works only; use for cantico, cántico, Canticum, cantique, kantikum.

Cantico
(Italian); use canticle.

Cántico
(Spanish); use canticle.

Canticum
(German); use canticle.

Cantiga/Cantigas
TYPE (Spanish); a medieval Iberian monophonic song; generally used as a conventional collective title; use for kantiga.

Cantilena
DISTINCTIVE (Italian)

Cantilène
DISTINCTIVE (French)

Cantione
DISTINCTIVE (Italian)

Cantique
(French); use canticle.

Canto/Canti/Cantos
TYPE (English, Italian); use as a type for vocal works, see song for treatment. Use for collections and works specifically titled by the composer; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works; see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21.

Cantus
DISTINCTIVE (Latin)

Canzon
(Italian); alternate spelling of canzona; use canzona.

Canzona/Canzonas
TYPE (English, Italian, Spanish); originally a Provençal troubadour song; later, a piece of 16th-century Italian secular music, 16th- to 17th-century instrumental work; in this usage, not a cognate of canzone; use canzona when a work of this type was originally titled canzone.

Canzone/Canzoni
TYPE (Italian); an 18th- and 19th-century song-like work for voice or instruments. In this usage, not a cognate of canzona. See song for treatment. Also, an alternate spelling of canzona above; use canzona for a work of this type.

Canzonet/Canzonets
TYPE (English); late 16th-century English part-song; use for works of English origin or influence.

Canzoneta
(Spanish); use canzonetta.

Canzonetta/Canzonettas
TYPE (English, Italian); late 16th-century Italian part-song; also used for solo songs and instrumental pieces of a songlike nature; use for cançoneta, canzoneta, canzonette, kantsonetta, Kanzonette.

Canzonette
(French, German); use canzonetta.

Capriccetto/Capriccetti
TYPE (English)

Capriccietto/Capriccietti
TYPE (Italian)

Capriccio/Capriccios
TYPE (English, German, Italian, Spanish); use for capricho, capricio, kaprichchio.

Caprice/Caprices
TYPE (English, French, German); use for kaprichch, Kaprice, kaprisa, Kaprize.

Capricette/Capricetten
TYPE (German)

Capricho
(Spanish); use capriccio.

Capricio
(French); use capriccio.

Carmen/Carmina
TYPE (Latin); word used during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance to refer to various kinds of vocal music and to instrumental music derived from vocal chansons.

Carol/Carols
TYPE (English)

Casación
(Spanish); use cassation.

Cassation/Cassations
TYPE (English, French); use for casación, cassazione, Kassation, kassatsiia.

Cassazione
(Italian); use cassation.

Catch/Catches
TYPE (English); an English round for 3 voices; generally used as a conventional collective title.

Cavatina/Cavatinas
TYPE (English, Italian, Spanish); originally signified a short opera aria; now an aria-like vocal piece or a song-like instrumental work; use for independent works titled as such, not for individual cavatinas within operas; use for cavatine, kavatina, Kavatine.

Cavatine
(French); use cavatina.

Chacarera/Chacareras
TYPE (Spanish); Argentine couple dance.

Chacona
(Spanish); use chaconne.

Chaconne/Chaconnes
TYPE (English, French, German); use for chacona, chacony, chakona, ciaccona, ciacona.

Chacony
(English); use chaconne.

Chakona
(Russian); use chaconne.

Chamber concerto
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Chamber music
TYPE (English); usually used as a conventional collective title; apply 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21 for a single work with this title that is not a chamber work; use for Kammermusik, musica da camera, musique de chambre.

Chamber sonata
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Chamber symphony
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Chanson/Chansons
TYPE (French); use as a type for vocal works; a term meaning song in all its uses; spanning a wide range of periods and genres from the troubadour/trouvère repertoires through the secular polyphony of the 14th to 16th centuries to the art song of the 19th and 20th centuries and folk and popular song of all eras. See song for treatment. Use for miscellaneous sets, e.g., Le Jeune, Claude. [Chansons. Selections] or specific collections, e.g., Ravel, Maurice. [Chansons. Nicolette], Janequin, Clément. [Chansons (1528). Réveillez vous, cueurs endormis]; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works; see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21.

Chant/Chants
TYPE (English, French); use as a type when applied to vocal works, see song for treatment. Use for collections and works specifically titled by the composer; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works; see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21.

Chast'/Chasti
TYPE (Russian); for "movement"; use for an independent work titled as such, not for individual movements of a larger work; see also movement, Satz, tétel.

Chœur
(French); use chorus.

Chor    
(German); use chorus.

Choral
(French, German); use chorale.

Choralbearbeitung/Choralbearbeitungen
TYPE (German); a vocal or instrumental composition based on a pre-existing sacred melody; do not apply 6.28.1.9 exception.

Chorale/Chorales
TYPE (English); use for Choral, coral, corale, khoral.

Chorale prelude/Chorale preludes
TYPE (English); apply 6.28.1.9, exception: do not add a statement of medium of performance if the medium is implied by the title. Implied medium: organ; use for prélude de choral; see also Choralvorspiel

Choralvorspiel/Choralvorspiele; Choral-Vorspiel/Choral-Vorspiele
TYPE (German); use this form when it is the composer's original title; apply 6.28.1.9, exception: do not add a statement of medium of performance if the medium is implied by the title. Implied medium: organ; see also chorale prelude.

Chorinho/Chorinhos
TYPE (Spanish); various meanings in Brazilian popular music, generically denoting urban instrumental ensemble music, often with one group member as a soloist, consisted mostly of dances of European origin performed at popular festivities; use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also choro.

Choro/Choros
TYPE (Spanish); various meanings in Brazilian popular music, generically denoting urban instrumental ensemble music, often with one group member as a soloist, consisted mostly of dances of European origin performed at popular festivities; use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also chorinho.

Chorus/Choruses
TYPE (English); use for Chor, chœur, coro, khor.

Chotis
(Spanish); use ecossaise.

Church sonata
(English); use epistle sonata.

Ciaccona
(Italian); use chaconne.

Ciacona
(Italian); use chaconne.

Ciciliano
(Italian); use siciliana.

Composición
(Spanish); use composition.

Composition/Compositions
TYPE (English, French); usually used in reference to the process of creating a musical work: also used as a title for an independent work; use for composición, composizione, Komposition, kompozitsiia.

Composizione
(Italian); use composition.

Concert piece
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Concertant
(French); use concertante.

Concertante/Concertantes
TYPE (English, Italian, Spanish); use for concertant, Konzertant.

Concertino/Concertinos
TYPE (Italian)

Concerto/Concertos
TYPE (English, French, Italian); use for concierto, kontsert, Konzert.

Concerto da camera
DISTINCTIVE (Italian)

Concerto grosso/Concerti grossi
TYPE (Italian)

Concertone/Concertoni
TYPE (English); a rarely-used term meaning "large concerto," the form closely approximates the symphonie concertante; use for Konchertone, Konzertone.

Concertpiece
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Concertstück
DISTINCTIVE (German)

Concierto
(Spanish); use concerto.

Conductus
TYPE (Latin); a medieval vocal work for one or more voices; usually used as a conventional collective title.

Conga/Congas
TYPE (English) Latin-American dance in 2/4 meter with a repeated two-measure rhythmic pattern.

Contradanza
(Italian, Spanish); use country dance.

Contredanse
(French); use country dance.

Coral
(Spanish); use chorale.

Corale
(Italian); use chorale.

Corant
(English); use courante.

Coro    
(Italian, Spanish); use chorus.

Corrente
(Italian); use courante.

Cortège/Cortèges
Type (English, French)

Country dance/Country dances
TYPE (English); use for contradanza, contredanse, kontrans, kontratánc, Kontretänze.

Courante/Courantes
TYPE (English, French); use for corant, corrente.

Cracoviak
(French); use krakowiak.

Cracoviana
(Italian, Spanish); use krakowiak.

Cracovienne
(English, French); use krakowiak.

Credo
TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3); third item in the Ordinary of Mass.

Csárdás
(French); use czarda.

Cuadrilla
(Spanish); use quadrille.

Cuarteto
(Spanish); use quartet.

Cujawiak
(Spanish); use kujawiak.

Czardas/Czardas
TYPE (Hungarian); use for csárdás.


D

Dal/Dalok
TYPE (Hungarian); use as a type for vocal works; see song for treatment; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works; see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21.

Dance/Dances
TYPE (English); use for danse, danza, tánc, tanets, taniec, Tanz.

Danse
(French); use dance.

Danza/Danzas
TYPE (Spanish); the particular genre of salon music for piano developed in Puerto Rico in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Do not translate to "dance" in the preferred title; for all others, use dance.

Danza
(Italian); when danza refers to the particular genre of salon music for piano developed in Puerto Rico in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, use Danza and do not translate to "dance" in the preferred title; for all others, use dance.

Danzón
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish); Cuban dance form; do not translate to "dance" in preferred title.

Darab/Darabok
TYPE (Hungarian); for "piece"; usually refers to a complete piece of music; use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also morceau, pala, piece, skladba, Stück, stuk, utwór.

Decet/Decets
TYPE (English); a work for ten players; use for decimette, decimino, dectet, detsimet, Dezett, dixtuor, tentet.

Decimette
(English); use decet.

Decimino
(Italian); use decet.

Dectet
(English); use decet.

Detsimet
(Russian); use decet.

Dezett
(German); use decet.

Dialog
DISTINCTIVE (German, Russian)

Dialogo
DISTINCTIVE (Italian)

Diálogo
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)

Dialogue
DISTINCTIVE (English, French)

Diptych
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Dirge   
DISTINCTIVE (English); a mournful song for burial or memorial rites or an instrumental piece expressive of similar sentiments.

Diversion
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Divertimentino/Divertimentinos
TYPE (English, German)

Divertimento/Divertimenti
TYPE (English, German, Hungarian, Italian, Spanish); use for divertisment, divertissement (instrumental works only).

Divertisment
(Russian); use divertimento (for instrumental works). Also a type of 17th- to 18th-century French musical-dramatic entertainment. When found in this context do not use divertimento.

Divertissement
(French); use divertimento (for instrumental works).

Division/Divisions
TYPE (English); a 17th-century English technique of improvised variation over a ground, written out for didactic or performance purposes; treatment as a type is not limited to 17th-century works; see also divisions on a ground.

Divisions on a ground
TYPE (English); a 17th-century English technique of improvised variation over a ground, written out for didactic or performance purposes; use this form when the composer's original title includes the phrase "on a ground"; treatment as a type is not limited to 17th-century works; see also division.

Dixit Dominus
DISTINCTIVE (Latin)

Dixtuor
(French); use decet.

Doble canon
(Spanish); use double canon.

Doble fuga
(Spanish); use double fugue.

Doppelfuge
(German); use double fugue.

Doppelkanon
(German); use double canon.

Doppelquartett
DISTINCTIVE (German)

Double canon/Double canons
TYPE (English, French); use for canon doble, canon double, canone doppio, doble canon, Doppelkanon, dvoĭnoia kanon.

Double concerto
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Double fugue/Double fugues
TYPE (English, French); use for doble fuga, Doppelfuge, dupla fúga, dvoĭnaia fuga, fuga doble, fuga doppia' see also kettős fúga.

Double quartet/Double quartets
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Doumka
(French); use dumka.

Duet/Duets
TYPE (English); use for dueto, Duett, duetto, duo; see also kettős.

Dueto
(Spanish); use duet.

Duett          
(German, Hungarian); use duet.

Duettino/Duettinos
TYPE (Italian); diminutive of duetto; a short and/or concise vocal or instrumental duet; use the plural form Duettini when it appears as 1) part of a heading including another type (e.g., Soli e duettini, guitars (2)) or as 2) a distinctive title for what are actually trios.

Duetto
(Italian); use duet.

Dumka/Dumkas
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); a type of Ukrainian folk music whose name was adopted in Slavonic countries in the 19th century as a term for a sung lament and later as an instrumental piece; use for doumka.

Dumky
(English); plural form of dumka; use dumkas.

Duo          
(Italian); use duet.

Duo concertante
DISTINCTIVE for 20th-century works; TYPE for pre-20th-century works. For pre-20th-century works with titles such as duo concertant, quartetto concertant, etc, (but not titles naming a form, such as sinfonie concertante, rondeau concertante, etc.) consider the word "concertante" or its equivalent to be an adjective or epithet not part of the original title of the work and omit it from the preferred title (see 6.14.2.4 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21). For treatment of duo, see duet.

Dupla fúga
(Hungarian); use double fugue.

Dvoĭnaia fuga
(Russian); use double fugue.

Dvoĭnoia kanon
(Russian); use double canon.


E

Ecossaise/Ecossaises
TYPE (English, Hungarian); use for chotis, écossaise, escocesa, Schottische, scozzese.

Écossaise
(French); use Ecossaise.

Ejercicio
(Spanish); use exercise.

Ėksprompt
(Russian); use impromptu.

Ėkspromt
(Russian); use impromptu.

Elegia
(Italian); use elegy for instrumental works; DISTINCTIVE for vocal works.

Élégie
(French); use elegy for instrumental works; DISTINCTIVE for vocal works.

Elegie
(German); use elegy for instrumental works; DISTINCTIVE for vocal works.

Elegiia
(Russian); use elegy for instrumental works; DISTINCTIVE for vocal works.

Elegy/Elegies
TYPE (English); use as a type for instrumental works; use for elegia, Elegie, élégie, elegiia; DISTINCTIVE for vocal works; see MCB v. 17, no. 8, p. 9.

Entr'acte/Entr'actes
TYPE (French)

Entrada
(Spanish); use intrada.

Entwurf
DISTINCTIVE (German)

Epilog
DISTINCTIVE (German); use for independent pieces so named. For epilogues that are part of a larger work, apply 6.14.2.7.1.

Epilogo
DISTINCTIVE (Italian); use for independent pieces so named. For epilogues that are part of a larger work, apply 6.14.2.7.1.

Epílogo
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish); use for independent pieces so named. For epilogues that are part of a larger work, apply 6.14.2.7.1.

Epilogue
DISTINCTIVE (English); use for independent epilogues. For epilogues that are part of a larger work,apply 6.14.2.7.1.

Épilogue
DISTINCTIVE (French); use for independent epilogues. For epilogues that are part of a larger work, apply 6.14.2.7.1.

Episode
DISTINCTIVE (English, German)

Épisode
DISTINCTIVE (French)

Episodio
DISTINCTIVE (Italian, Spanish)

Epistle sonata/Epistle sonatas
TYPE (English); an instrumental work intended for performance probably following the Epistle of the Mass; not the same as Sonata da chiesa; use for church sonata, Kirche Sonate, sonate all'epistola.

Epizód
DISTINCTIVE (Hungarian)

Escocesa
(Spanish); use ecossaise.

Esercizio
(Italian); ; use exercise.

Ėskiz
DISTINCTIVE (Russian)

Esquisse
DISTINCTIVE (French)

Estampida
(Provençal); use estampie.

Estampie/Estampies
TYPE (English, French, German); instrumental dance form originating in the 13th and 14th centuries; use for estampida, estampita, istampita, istanpitta, stampita.

Estampita
(Spanish); use estampie.

Estudio/Estudios
TYPE (Spanish); use this form for a work intended for concert performance when it is the composer's original title; see also ėtiud, etude, étude, Etüde, gyakorlat, studie, studio, study; for a work not intended for concert performance, use etude.

Ėtiud/Ėtiudy
TYPE (Russian); use this form for a work intended for concert performance when it is the composer's original title; see also estudio, etude, étude, Etüde, gyakorlat, studie, studio, study; for a work not intended for concert performance, use etude.

Etude/Etudes
TYPE (English); use this form for a work intended for concert performance when it is the composer's original title; see also estudio, ėtiud, étude, Etüde, gyakorlat, studie, studio, study; for a work not intended for concert performance, use for estudio, ėtiud, étude, Etüde.

Étude/Études
TYPE (French); use this form for a work intended for concert performance when it is the composer's original title; see also estudio, ėtiud, etude, Etüde, gyakorlat, studie, studio, study; for a work not intended for concert performance, use etude.

Etüde/Etüden
TYPE (German); use this form for a work intended for concert performance when it is the composer's original title; see also estudio, ėtiud, etude, étude, gyakorlat, studie, studio, study; for a work not intended for concert performance, use etude.

Exercice
(French); use exercise.

Exercise/Exercises
TYPE (English); treat as a type of composition when the term is used to mean "study," "etude," etc.; use for ejercicio, esercizio, exercice; see also Übung.


F

Fancie
(English); use fancy.

Fancy/Fancies
TYPE (English); use for fancie, fansye, phancy, phansie.

Fandango/Fandangos
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Russian)

Fanfara
(Italian, Russian); use fanfare.

Fanfare/Fanfares
TYPE (English, French, German); use for fanfara, fanfarra, fanfarria.

Fanfarra
(Spanish); use fanfare.

Fanfarria
(Spanish); use fanfare.

Fansye
(English); use fancy.

Fantaisie/Fantaisies
TYPE (French); use this form for a work intended for concert performance when it is the composer's original title; see also fantasia (English), fantasia (Italian), fantasía, Fantasie, fantasio, fantasy, Phantasie, phantasy.

Fantasia/Fantasias
TYPE (English); use this form for a work intended for concert performance when it is the composer's original title; see also fantaisie, fantasia (Italian), fantasía, Fantasie, fantasio, fantasy, Phantasie, phantasy.

Fantasía/Fantasías
TYPE (Spanish); use this form for a work intended for concert performance when it is the composer's original title; see also fantaisie, fantasia (Italian), Fantasie, fantasio, fantasy, Phantasie, phantasy.

Fantasia/Fantasie
TYPE (Italian); use this form for a work intended for concert performance when it is the composer's original title; see also fantaisie, fantasia (English), fantasía, Fantasie, fantasio, fantasy, Phantasie, phantasy.

Fantasie/Fantasien
TYPE (German); use this form for a work intended for concert performance when it is the composer's original title; see also fantaisie, fantasia (English), fantasia (Italian), fantasía, fantasio, fantasy, Phantasie, phantasy.

Fantasietta/Fantasiettas
TYPE (English, Italian)

Fantasio
TYPE (French); use this form for a work intended for concert performance when it is the composer's original title; see also fantaisie, fantasia (Italian), fantasía, Fantasie, fantasy, Phantasie, phantasy.

Fantasy/Fantasies
TYPE (English); use this form for a work intended for concert performance when it is the composer's original title; see also fantaisie, fantasia (English), fantasia (Italian), fantasía, Fantasie, fantasio, Phantasie, phantasy.

Feuilles d'album
DISTINCTIVE (French)

Final
(English, French, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use finale.

Finale/Finales
TYPE (English, German, Italian); use for final.

Florish
(English); use flourish.

Flourish/Flourishes
TYPE (English); use for florish.

Fokstrot
(Russian); use foxtrot.

Forlana
(German, Italian, Spanish, Russian); use forlane.

Forlane
TYPE (English, French); Italian folkdance; use for forlana, furlana.

Fox trot
(English); use foxtrot.

Fox-trot
(English, French, Spanish); use foxtrot.

Fox-trott
(Italian); use foxtrot.

Foxtrot/Foxtrots
TYPE (English); 20th-century American social dance in 4/4; use for fokstrot, fox trot, fox-trot, fox-trott, Foxtrott.

Foxtrott
(German); use foxtrot.

Fuga          
(Italian, Russian, Spanish); use fugue.

Fuga doble
(Spanish); use double fugue.

Fuga doppia
(Italian); use double fugue.

Fugado
(Spanish); use fugato.

Fugato/Fugatos
TYPE (English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Russian); a fugue-like passage of a larger work that is not a fugue; or a fugue-like piece that in some way does not conform to the rigorous thematic and structural methodology of the fugue; use for fugado.

Fuge          
(German); use fugue.

Fugetta
(Hungarian, Russian); use fughetta.

Fughetta/Fughettas
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); a short or light fugue; use for fugetta.

Fugue/Fugues
TYPE (English, French): use for fuga, Fuge.

Furiant/Furiants
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); an exuberant Bohemian folkdance.

Furlana
(Spanish, Italian); use forlane.


G

Gagliarda
(Italian); use galliard.

Gaillarde
(French, German); use galliard.

Gal'iarda
(Russian); use galliard.

Gallarda
(Spanish); use galliard.

Galliard/Galliards
TYPE (English); use for gagliarda, gaillarde, gal'iarda, gallarda.

Galop/Galops
TYPE (English, French, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for Galopp.

Galopp
(German); use galop.

Gavot
(Russian); use gavotte.

Gavota
(Spanish); use gavotte.

Gavotta
(Italian); use gavotte.

Gavotte/Gavottes
TYPE (English, French, German); use for gavot, gavota, gavotta.

Gedichte/Gedichten
DISTINCTIVE (German)

Gesang/Gesänge
TYPE (German); use as a type for vocal works; German song or choral work; see song for treatment. Use for works of this type in German and only for sets specifically titled by the composer, e.g., Becker, Gunther. [Gesang]; Beethoven, Ludwig van. [Gesänge, op. 75]; Kreutzer, Conradin. [Gesänge, men's voices, op. 24] For miscellaneous collections use "song", e.g., [Songs. Selections]; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works; see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21.

Giga          
(Italian, Spanish); use gigue.

Gigue/Gigues
TYPE (English, French, German); use for giga, jig, Jiga, jigge, zhiga.

Gimno
(Russian); use hymn (for vocal works).

Glee/Glees
TYPE (English); an English part-song for three or more voices; usually used as a conventional collective title.

Gloria
TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3); second item of Ordinary of Mass.

Gradual/Graduals
TYPE (English, German, Spanish); an item of the Proper of the Mass; usually used as a conventional collective title.

Graduale
TYPE (Italian)

Graduále
TYPE (Hungarian)

Graduel
TYPE (French)

Ground/Grounds
TYPE (English)

Guajira/Guajiras
TYPE (Spanish); use as a type for vocal works; a Cuban narrative song form, usually in 6/8 alternating with 3/4; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works; see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21.

Gyakorlat/Gyakorlatok
TYPE (Hungarian); use this form for a work intended for concert performance when it is the composer's original title; see also estudio, ėtiud, etude, étude, Etüde, studie, studio, study.


H

Habanera/Habaneras
TYPE (English, French, German, Spanish); use for abanera, khabanera, khavanez, havanaise.

Halleluia
DISTINCTIVE

Halleluja
DISTINCTIVE

Hallelujah
DISTINCTIVE

Halleluya
DISTINCTIVE6

Halleluyah
DISTINCTIVE

Harmonie
(French, German); use harmony.

Harmony/Harmonies
TYPE (English); use for works for wind instruments or a small wind band (oboes, horns, bassoons, etc.); use for harmonie, Harmonie.

Havanaise
(French); use habanera.

Himno
(Spanish); use hymn (for vocal works)

Homage
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Hommage
DISTINCTIVE (French)

Hornpipe/Hornpipes
TYPE (English)

Hudba
TYPE (Czech); see also music.

Humoresca
(Spanish); use humoresque.

Humoreske
(German); use humoresque.

Humoresque/Humoresques
TYPE (English, French); use for humoresca, Humoreske, humoreszk, iumoreska, umoresca.

Humoreszk
(Hungarian); use humoresque.

Hymn/Hymns
TYPE (English); for vocal works; usually used as a conventional collective title; use for gimno, himno, Hymne, inno.

Hymne
(German); use hymn (for vocal works)


I

Idilio          
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)

Idillio
DISTINCTIVE (Italian)

Idyla          
DISTINCTIVE (Czech)

Idyll          
DISTINCTIVE (English, German)

Idylle
DISTINCTIVE (French)

Impromptu/Impromptus
TYPE (English, French, German, Hungarian, Spanish); use for ėksprompt, ėkspromt.

Improvisación
(Spanish); use improvisation.

Improvisation/Improvisations
TYPE (English, French, German); use for improvisación, improvizáció, improvizálás, improvizatsiia, improvvisazione; see also rögtönzés; the Italian "improvviso" and Spanish "improviso" are not cognates.

Improviso
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)

Improvizáció
(Hungarian); use improvisation.

Improvizálás
(Hungarian); use improvisation.

Improvizatsiia
(Russian); use improvisation.

Improvvisazione
(Italian); use improvisation.

Improvviso
DISTINCTIVE (Italian)

In nomine/In nomines
TYPE (Latin)

Induló/Indulók
TYPE (Hungarian); see also march.

Inglesa
(Spanish); use Anglaise.

Inglese
(Italian); use Anglaise.

Inno          
(Italian); use hymn (for vocal works).

Interlude/Interludes
TYPE (English, French); use for interludio, Interludium.

Interludio
(Italian, Spanish); use interlude.

Interludium
(German); use interlude.

Intermède/Intermèdes
TYPE (French); use when this is the title of a character piece; do not apply this treatment to an independent stage work whose title begins with or includes the word intermède; intermèdes that are performed between the acts of a stage work follow 6.14.2.7.1; use for intermedio, intermedium.

Intermedio
(Italian, Spanish); use intermède.

Intermedium
(Italian); use intermède.

Intermetstso
(Russian); use intermezzo.

Intermezzo/Intermezzi
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); use for intermetstso; see also Zwischenakt.

Intonazione
(Italian); use intonation.

Intonation/Intonations
TYPE (English, French, German); originally an introductory toccata-like piece for keyboard that sets the pitch for a following sacred vocal composition; may also exist independently; use for intonazione.

Intrada/Intradas
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian); use for entrada.

Introducción
(Spanish); use introduction.

Introduction/Introductions
TYPE (English, French); usually used as the first part of a larger work, although single works with the title do exist (e.g., Telemann, Georg Philipp. [Introduction, recorders (2), continuo, C major]); use for introducción, Introduktion, introduktsiia, introduzione.

Introduktion
(German); use introduction.

Introduktsiia
(Russian); use introduction.

Introduzione
(Italian); use introduction.

Introit/Introits
TYPE (English, French, Latin); liturgical (see note 3); an item of the proper of the Mass; usually used as a conventional collective title; use for Introitus; distinctive when an instrumental work.

Introitus
(German, Latin); when a vocal work, use Introit.

Invención
(Spanish); use invention.

Invention/Inventions
TYPE (English, French, German); use for invención, invento, inventsiia, invenzione.

Invento
(Spanish); use invention.

Inventsiia
(Russian); use invention.

Invenzione
(Italian); use invention.

Istampita
(Italian); use estampie.

Istanpitta
(Italian); use estampie.

IUmoreska
(Russian); use humoresque.


J

Jácara/Jácaras
TYPE (Portuguese, Spanish); a Spanish and Hispano-American dance and musical pattern used in 17th- and 18th-century stage productions, church villancicos, and instrumental variation pieces; use for xácara.

Jig          
(English); use gigue.

Jiga          
(Spanish); use gigue.

Jigge          
(English); use gigue.

Jota/Jotas
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); a lively dance in triple time from northern Spain; use for both instrumental and vocal works; use for khota.


K

Kadenz
(French); use cadenza when used as the title of an independent work.

Kadril'
(Russian); use quadrille.

Kamernaia simfoniia
DISTINCTIVE (Russian)

Kamernaia sonata
DISTINCTIVE (Russian)

Kammerkonzert
DISTINCTIVE (German)

Kammermusik
(German); use chamber music.

Kammersinfonie
DISTINCTIVE (German)

Kammersonate
DISTINCTIVE (German)

Kammersymphonie
DISTINCTIVE (German)

Kanon
(German); use canon.

Kánon
(Hungarian); use canon.

Kantabile
(Russian); use cantabile.

Kantate
(German); use cantata (for conventional collective titles only).

Kantiga
(Russian); use cantiga.

Kantikum
(Russian); use canticle.

Kantilena
DISTINCTIVE (Russian)

Kantilene
DISTINCTIVE (German)

Kantsonetta
(Russian); use canzonetta.

Kanzonette
(German); use canzonetta.

Kaprice
(German); use caprice.

Kaprichch
(Russian); use caprice.

Kaprichchio
(Russian); use capriccio.

Kaprisa
(Russian); use caprice.

Kaprize
(German); use caprice.

Kassation
(German); use cassation.

Kassatsiia
(Russian); use cassation.

Kavatina
(Russian); use cavatina.

Kavatine
(German); use cavatina.

Kettős/Kettősök
TYPE (Hungarian); see also duet.

Kettős fúga/Kettős fúgak
TYPE (Hungarian); see also double fugue.

Khabanera
(Russian); use habanera.

Khavanez
(Russian); use habanera.

Khor    
(Russian); use chorus.

Khoral
(Russian); use chorale.

Khota
(Russian); use jota.

Kirche Sonate
(German); use epistle sonata.

Klage
DISTINCTIVE (German)

Komposition
(German); use composition.

Kompozitsiia
(Russian); use composition.

Konchertone
(German); use concertone.

Kontrans
(Russian); use country dance.

Kontratánc
(Hungarian); use country dance.

Kontretänze
(German); use country dance.

Kontsert
(Russian); use concerto.

Kontsertshtiuk
DISTINCTIVE (Russian)

Konzert
(German); use concerto.

Konzertant
(German); use concertante.

Konzertone
(German); use concertone.

Konzertstück
DISTINCTIVE (German)

Krakoviák
(Hungarian); use krakowiak.

Krakoviak
(Russian); use krakowiak.

Krakowiak/Krakowiaks
TYPE (English, German, Polish); Polish folk dance characterized by syncopated rhythms in fast duple time; use for cracoviak, cracoviana, cracovienne, krakoviák, krakoviak.

Kujaviak
(English); use kujawiak.

Kujawiak/Kujawiaks
TYPE (English, Polish); Polish folk dance characterized by triple time with a displacement of the accent to the second or third beat of the bar, similar to but slower than the mazurka; use for cujawiak, kujaviak.

Kvartet
(Russian); use quartet.

Kvintet
(Russian); use quintet.

Kvodlibet
(Russian); use quodlibet.

Kyrie
TYPE (Greek); liturgical (see note 3); first item of Ordinary of Mass.


L

Ladainha
DISTINCTIVE (Portuguese)

Laendler
(French); use Ländler.

Lament
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Lamentáció
DISTINCTIVE (Hungarian)

Lamentación
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)

Lamentation
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Lamentazione
DISTINCTIVE (Italian)

Lamento
DISTINCTIVE (Italian, Spanish)

Ländler/Ländler
TYPE (German); use for laendler, lendler.

Largetto
(Russian); use larghetto.

Larghetto/Larghettos
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for largetto.

Largo/Largos
TYPE (Italian)

Laulu/Laulut
TYPE (Finnish); use as a type for vocal works; see song for treatment; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works; see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21.

Lavolta
(English, French); use volta

Lección/Lecciónes
TYPE (Spanish)

Lectura/Lecturas
TYPE (Spanish)

Lecture/Lectures
TYPE (French)

Legend
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Légende
DISTINCTIVE (French)

Lektion/Lektionen
TYPE (German)

Lendler
(Italian, Russian); use Ländler.

Lento
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Russian)

Lesson/Lessons
TYPE (English)

Lesung/Lesungen
TYPE (German)

Letanía
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)

Lezion/Lezioni
TYPE (Italian)

Lied/Lieder
TYPE (German); use as a type for vocal works; see song for treatment; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works; see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21.

Litanei
DISTINCTIVE (German)

Litania
DISTINCTIVE (Italian)

Litanie
DISTINCTIVE (French)

Litany
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Lullaby/Lullabies
TYPE (English); use for lullabye.

Lullabye
(English); use lullaby.


M

Madrigaal
(Dutch); use madrigal.

Madrigal/Madrigals
TYPE (English, French, German, Hungarian, Russian, Spanish); use for vocal works of this type; when an instrumental work is titled "Madrigal," treat this title as DISTINCTIVE. Use for madrigaal, madrigale, madrygał.

Madrigale
(Italian); use madrigal.

Madrygał
(Polish); use madrigal.

Maestoso
TYPE (Italian)

Magnificat/Magnificats
TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3); use for magníficat, magnifikat.

Magníficat
(Spanish); use magnificat.

Magnifikat
(Russian); use magnificat.

Malagueña/Malagueñas
TYPE (Spanish); a type of instrumental piece, song, or dance in the flamenco style; use for malaguėn'ia.

Malaguėn'ia
(Russian); use malagueña.

Mambo/Mambos
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish)

March/Marches
TYPE (English); use for marcha, marche, marcia, mars, Marsch, marsh, marsz; see also induló.

Marcha
(Portuguese, Spanish); use march.

Marche
(French); use march.

Marcia
(Italian); use march.

Marcietta/Marciettas
TYPE (English); diminutive form of "marcia;" use for works in the form of a march.

Mars          
(Dutch); use march.

Marsch
(German); use march.

Marsh
(Russian); use march.

Marsz
(Polish); use march.

Mass/Masses
TYPE (English); use as the first word of a distinctive title so named by the composer (e.g., Hytrek, Theopane. [Mass in honor of Saint John the Evangelist]) or as a generic title with qualifiers when needed to distinguish between a composer's masses or produce a more logical arrangement (e.g., Haydn, Joseph. [Masses, H. XXII, 9, C major], Bruckner, Anton. [Masses, E minor]); use for messa, messe, misa, missa, mise, mša, msza.

Mazur
(Polish); use mazurka.

Mazurca
(Italian, Spanish); use mazurka.

Mazurek
(Italian, Polish); use mazurka.

Mazurka/Mazurkas
TYPE (Czech, English, French, German, Hungarian, Russian); use for mazur, mazurca, mazurek.

Melodia
(Hungarian, Italian, Spanish); use melody.

Melodie
(Czech, Dutch, German); use melody.

Mélodie/Mélodies
TYPE (French); apply LC-PCC PS for 6.14.2.5; use for a French work for 1) solo voice and keyboard stringed instrument, in which case do not include the medium of performance in the authorized access point (6.28.1.9), e.g., Chausson. Ernest [Mélodies, op. 2] or for 2) solo voice and accompaniment of other than a solo keyboard stringed instrument or without accompaniment, in which case indicate the medium of accompaniment or absence of accompaniment in the authorized access point (6.28.1.9). See song for treatment. "Mélodies," in these cases, do not have the same meaning as the cognate in other languages.

Melodiia
(Russian); use melody.

Melodja
(Polish); use melody.

Melody/Melodies
TYPE (English); see LC-PCC PS for 6.14.2.5: considered a type distinct from the French "mélodie" (e.g., Cage, John. [Melodies, violin, keyboard instrument]). Use for melodia, melodie (use for the French "Mélodie" when medium of performance is other than specified in LC-PCC PS for 6.14.2.5), melodiia, melodja.

Menuet
(Russian); use minuet.

Menuett
(German, Hungarian); use minuet.

Menuetto
(Italian); use minuet.

Messa
(Italian); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Puccini, Giacomo. [Messa di Gloria]); use mass if a generic title is appropriate.

Messe
(French, German); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Gilles, Jean. [Messe des morts]); use mass if a generic title is appropriate.

Milonga/Milongas
TYPE (Spanish); a traditional song genre of Uruguay and Argentina; an Argentinian dance, forerunner of the tango; a piece of music for this dance; use for both vocal and instrumental works.

Miniatiura
DISTINCTIVE (Russian)

Miniatur
DISTINCTIVE (German)

Miniatűr/Miniatűrök
DISTINCTIVE (Hungarian)

Miniatura
DISTINCTIVE (Italian, Spanish)

Miniatura/Miniatury
DISTINCTIVE (Polish)

Miniature
DISTINCTIVE (English, French)

Miniatuur
DISTINCTIVE (Dutch)

Minué
(Spanish); use minuet.

Minuet/Minuets
TYPE (English); use for menuet, Menuett, menuetto, minué, minuete, minuetto.

Minuete
(Portuguese, Spanish); use minuet.

Minuetto
(Italian); use minuet.

Misa          
(Spanish); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Sojo, Vicente Emilio. [Misa cromática]); use mass if a generic title is appropriate.

Mise          
(Hungarian); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title; use mass if a generic title is appropriate.

Miserere
TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3)

Missa
(Latin); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Frescobaldi, Girolamo. [Missa sopra l'arca della monica]); use mass if a generic title is appropriate.

Miuzet
(Russian); use musette.

Moderato/Moderatos
TYPE (Italian)

Modinha/Modinhas
TYPE (English, Portuguese); a song usually for solo voice and guitar popular in 19th-century Brazil and Portugal; also a Brazilian dance form derived from the vocal form.

Morceau/Morceaux
TYPE (French); for "piece"; use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also darab, pala, piece, skladba, Stück, stuk, utwór.

Morceau de concert
DISTINCTIVE (French)

Motet/Motets
TYPE (Czech, Dutch, English, French, Polish, Russian); use for motete, motetta, Motette, motetto, motteto, mottetto.

Motete
(Spanish); use motet.

Motetta
(Hungarian); use motet.

Motette
(German); use motet.

Motetto
(Italian); use motet.

Motteto
(Italian); use motet.

Mottetto
(Italian); use motet.

Mouvement
(French); use movement.

Movement/Movements
TYPE (English); use for an independent work titled as such, not for individual movements of a larger work; use for mouvement, movimento, movimiento; see also chast', Satz, tétel.

Movimento
(Italian); use movement.

Movimiento
(Spanish); use movement.

Mša          
(Czech); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Janácek, Leos. [Mša glagolskaja]); use mass if a generic title is appropriate.

Msza          
(Polish); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Szczypiorski, Andrzej. [Msza za miasto Arras]); use mass if a generic title is appropriate.

Muséte
(French); use musette.

Musette/Musettes
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); a dance-like piece of pastoral character whose style is suggestive of the sound of the musette or bagpipe; use for miuzet.

Music
TYPE (English); use for musica, música, Musik, musique, muzyka; see also hudba.

Musica
(Italian); use music.

Música
(Spanish); use music.

Musica da camera
(Italian); use chamber music.

Musical comedy
For collections of a composer's musical comedies, use the preferred title Musicals.

Musicals
TYPE (English); usually used as a conventional collective title.

Musik
(German); use music.

Musique
(French); use music.

Musique de chambre
(French); use chamber music.

Muzyka
(Russian); use music.


N

Nachspiel/Nachspiele
TYPE (German)

Nachtstück
DISTINCTIVE (German); do not translate to "nocturne" in preferred title.

Night piece/Nightpiece
DISTINCTIVE (English); do not translate to "nocturne" in preferred title.

Nocturne/Nocturnes
TYPE (English, French, German); use for nocturno, noktiurn, notturno.

Nocturno
(Spanish); use nocturne.

Noël/Noëls
TYPE (French)

Noktiurn
(Russian); use nocturne.

Nonet/Nonets
TYPE (English, French, German); use for noneto, Nonett, nonetto.

Noneto
(Spanish); use nonet.

Nonett
(German); use nonet.

Nonetto
(Italian, Spanish); use nonet.

Notturno
(German, Italian); use nocturne.

Novelette
DISTINCTIVE (English, French)

Novellette/Novelleten
DISTINCTIVE (German)


O

Obertura
(Spanish); use overture.

Octet/Octets
TYPE (English); use for octeto, octuor, oktet, Oktett, ottetto.

Octeto
(Spanish); use octet.

Octuor
(French); use octet.

Oda          
(Polish, Spanish, Russian); use ode.

Óda          
(Czech, Hungarian); use ode.

Ode/Odes    
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian); use for oda, óda.

Ofertorio
(Spanish); use offertory.

Offertoire
(French); use offertory.

Offertorĭi
(Russian); use offertory.

Offertorio
(Italian); use offertory.

Offertorium
TYPE (English, German, Latin); chant, item of the Proper of the Mass; polyphonic settings exist from the 15th and 16th centuries; from the 17th century on, frequently performed instrumentally or vocally and not related to the prescribed liturgical term.

Offertory/Offertories
TYPE (English); use for ofertorio, offertoire, offertorĭi, offertorio.

Oktet          
(Russian); use octet.

Oktett
(German); use octet.

Oriental
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Orientale
DISTINCTIVE (French)

Ostinato/Ostinatos
TYPE (English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for compositions in which a musical pattern is repeated many times in succession while other musical elements are generally changing.

Ottetto
(Italian); use octet.

Ouvertüre
(German); use overture unless part of a larger work. In that case use the composer's original spelling.

Ouverture
(French, Italian); use overture unless part of a larger work. In that case use the composer's original spelling.

Ouvertürensuite
DISTINCTIVE (German)

Overtura
(Hungarian); use overture unless part of a larger work. In that case use the composer's original spelling.

Overture/Overtures
TYPE (English); use for independent overtures, either non-distinctively named individual overtures or for collections of a composer's overtures. Overtures that are part of a larger work follow 6.14.2.7.1. When used as a generic title, see 6.28.1.9, exception: do not include medium of performance when the overture is for orchestra, as it is the implied medium; include medium of performance in all other cases; use for abertura, obertura, Ouvertüre, ouverture, overtura, sinfonia, uvertiura, uwertura; see also sinfonia when it is used to mean "overture."


P

Padovana
(Italian); use pavan.

Paduana
(German); use pavan.

Pala/Palad
TYPE (Estonian); for "piece"; use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also darab, morceau, piece, skladba, Stück, stuk, utwór.

Panasz
DISTINCTIVE (Hungarian)

Part song/Part songs; Part-song/Part-songs; Partsong/Partsongs (provisional entry)
TYPE (English); a work in two or more voice parts without independent accompaniment; (however, some works may be accompanied). The problems with this type of composition continue to be unresolved. The first problem is the form of the name of the type. Until a definitive policy is issued, use the spelling the composer used. The second problem is medium of performance. Although "part song" is not included in the list of types of composition with implied medium of performance in 6.28.1.9 exception, the New Grove definition of the type lends credence to applying 6.28.1.9 exception. Examples in the authority file are inconsistent in stating the medium of performance. Until this problem is resolved, follow the treatment in established headings for a composer's works.

Parte          
(Italian); use partita.

Parthia
(German); use partita.

Parthie
(German); use partita.

Partia          
(German); use partita.

Partie          
(German); use partita.

Partita/Partitas
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for parte, Parthia, Parthie, Partia, Partie (German). Do not use for partie (French) which is synonymous with movement or part and is not a cognate of partita.

Pasacalle
(Spanish); use passacaglia.

Paseo/Paseos
TYPE (English, Spanish); a type of ripresa or ritornello similar to the Spanish passacaglia; also used in the 17th century for keyboard variations or for compositions similar to a chaconne; use for passeo.

Paso/Pasos
TYPE (Spanish); probably comes from a Spanish dance and is most often used by 17th- and 18th-century Spanish composers of organ music.

Paso doble
(Russian, Spanish); use pasodoble.

Pasodoble/Pasodobles
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for paso doble.

Pasp'e
(Russian); use passepied.

Paspié
(French); use passepied.

Passacaglia/Passacaglias
TYPE (English, German, Hungarian, Italian, Spanish); use for pasacalle, passacaille, passacalle, passakal'ia, passakaliia, passecaille.

Passacaille
(French); use passacaglia.

Passacalle
(Spanish); use passacaglia.

Passakal'ia
(Russian); use passacaglia.

Passakaliia
(Russian); use passacaglia.

Passamezzo/Passamezzos
TYPE (English); Italian dance of the 16th and early 17th centuries; cannot be distinguished from the pavan; use for pass'e mezo, pass'e mezzo, passing measures, passo e mezo, passomezo, passymeasures.

Pass'e mezo
(Italian); use passamezzo.

Pass'e mezzo
(Italian); use passamezzo.

Passecaille
(French); use passacaglia.

Passeo
(Spanish); use paseo.

Passepied/Passepieds
TYPE (English, German, Hungarian, Italian); use for pasp'e, paspié, passe-pied, pass-pié.

Passe-pied
(French); use passepied.

Passing measures
(English); use passamezzo.

Passo e mezo
(Italian); use passamezzo.

Passomezo
(Italian); use passamezzo.

Pass-pié
(French); use passepied.

Passymeasures
(English); use passamezzo.

Pastoral/Pastorals; Pastorale/Pastorales
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); LC uses the spelling with or without the final "e" depending on which spelling the composer used; use for pastoral', pasztorál.

Pastoral'
(Russian); use pastoral(e).

Pastourelle
DISTINCTIVE (French); use for instrumental works.

Pasztorál
(Hungarian); use pastoral(e).

Pavan/Pavans
TYPE (English, German); use for padovana, paduana, pavana, pavane, pavin.

Pavana
(Czech, Italian, Polish, Russian, Spanish); use pavan.

Pavane
(French); use pavan.

Pavin          
(English); use pavan.

P'esa
(Russian); use piece.

Pesnia
(Russian); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Mussorgsky, Modest Petrovich. [Pesnia o blokhe]); use song if a generic title is appropriate.

Pezzo
(Italian); use piece.

Pezzo da concierto
DISTINCTIVE (Italian)

Phancy
(English); use fancy.

Phansie
(English); use fancy.

Phantasie/Phantasien
TYPE (German); use this form for a work intended for concert performance when it is the composer's original title; see also fantaisie, fantasia (English), fantasia (Italian), fantasía, Fantasie, fantasio, fantasy, phantasy.

Phantasy/Phantasies
TYPE (English); use this form for a work intended for concert performance when it is the composer's original title; see also fantaisie, fantasia (English), fantasia (Italian), fantasía, Fantasie, fantasio, fantasy, Phantasie.

Piece/Pieces
TYPE (English); use for p'esa, pezzo, pièce, pieza; see also darab, morceau, pala, skladba, Stück, stuk, utwór.

Pièce
(French); use piece.

Pièce de concert
DISTINCTIVE (French)

Pieza
(Spanish); use piece.

Pieza da concerto
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)

Pisen/Pisne
TYPE (Czech); use for vocal works of this type in Czech; see song for treatment; when an instrumental work is titled "Pisen," treat this title as distinctive. Use for specific collections, e.g., Klein, Gideon. [Pisne, op. 1], Krása, Hans [Pisne, clarinet, viola, cello accompaniment] or as the first word of a composer's distinctive title, e.g., Martinů, Bohuslav [Pisne o Marii]. For miscellaneous collections use "song", e.g., [Songs. Selections]

Piva/Pive
TYPE (Italian); a 15th- and 16th-century Italian dance.

Poem
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Poema
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)

Poema
DISTINCTIVE (Italian)

Poėma
DISTINCTIVE (Russian)

Poema sinfonico
(Italian); use symphonic poem.

Poema sinfónico
(Spanish); use symphonic poem.

Poemat
DISTINCTIVE (Polish)

Poème
DISTINCTIVE (French)

Poème symphonique
(French); use symphonic poem.

Polacca/Polaccas
TYPE (Italian); an Italianate piece in the style of a polonaise. Sufficiently individualized not to be considered a strict cognate.

Polca          
(Italian, Portuguese, Spanish); use polka.

Polka/Polkas
TYPE (Dutch, English, French, German, Hungarian, Polish); use for polca, pol'ka.

Pol'ka
(Russian); use polka.

Polonaise/Polonaises
TYPE (English, French, German); use for Polonäse, polonesa, polonese, polonez. Do not use for Polacca.

Polonäse
(German); use polonaise.

Polonesa
(Spanish); use polonaise.

Polonese
(Italian); use polonaise.

Polonez
(Russian); use polonaise.

Popurri
(Russian); use potpourri.

Popurrí
(Spanish); use potpourri.

Posludio
(Italian); use postlude.

Postliudiia
(Russian); use postlude.

Postlude/Postludes
TYPE (English, French); use for posludio, postliudiia, postludio, Postludium.

Postludio
(Italian, Spanish); use postlude.

Postludium
(German, Hungarian); use postlude.

Potpourri/Potpourris
TYPE (English, German, Hungarian, Spanish); use for popurri, popurrí, pot-pourri.

Pot-pourri
(French, Italian); use potpourri.

Praeambulum/Praeambula
TYPE (Latin)

Praeludium
(German); use prelude.

Präludium
(German); use prelude.

Preliud
(Russian); use prelude.

Preliudiia
(Russian); use prelude.

Prelude/Preludes
TYPE (English); use for Praeludium, Präludium, preliud, preliudiia, prélude, preludio, preludium, preludjum. NOTE: Liszt's tone poem entitled Les préludes is not to be considered as a type (see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21)

Prélude
(French); use prelude.

Prélude de choral
(French); use chorale prelude.

Preludio
(Italian, Spanish); use prelude.

Preludium
(Czech, Hungarian); use prelude.

Preludjum
(Polish); use prelude.

Presto/Prestos
TYPE (Italian)

Processional/Processionals
TYPE (English)

Prolog
DISTINCTIVE (German, Hungarian, Russian); use for independent pieces so named. For prologues that are part of a larger work, apply 6.14.2.7.1.

Prologo
DISTINCTIVE (Italian, Spanish); use for independent pieces so named. For prologues that are part of a larger work, apply 6.14.2.7.1.

Prologue
DISTINCTIVE (English, French); use for independent prologues. For prologues that are part of a larger work, apply 6.14.2.7.1.

Psalm/Psalms
TYPE (English, German, Russian); use as a type for vocal works; use in the language of the original and in the singular if a single psalm is qualified in a title by the number of the psalm. Give the numeral in the numerical system used by the composer (e.g., [Psalm 116], [Psaume XLVII], [Salmo XIX]). If a composer used the single title "psalms" (or its cognates) for several psalms without indication of psalm numbers or grouped several psalms in one publication (whether psalm numbers are indicated or not), use the English plural form and (if necessary to distinguish from other psalms), the qualifying statement that best facilitates a logical arrangement of entries (e.g., Head, Michael. [Psalms], Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Felix. [Psalms, op. 78], Holst, Gustav. [Psalms, mixed voices, string orchestra]). Use for psalmo, psalmus, psaume, salmo, žalm; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works; see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21.

Psalmo
(Spanish); use psalm.

Psalmus
(Latin); use psalm.

Psaume
(French); use psalm.


Q

Quadriglia
(Italian); use quadrille.

Quadrille/Quadrilles
TYPE (English, French, German); popular 19th-century ballroom dance; use for cuadrilla, kadril', quadriglia.

Quadro
(English, German); when a work for four instruments or voices, use quartet.

Quartet/Quartets
TYPE (English); use for cuarteto, kvartet, quadro, Quartett, quartetto, quatuor.

Quartet movement
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Quartett
(German); use quartet.

Quartettino/Quartettinos
TYPE (Italian); because titles like Terzettino, Quartettino, Quintettino, etc. do not include the words trio, quartet, quintet, etc., 6.15.1.5 cannot be applied.

Quartetto
(Italian); use quartet.

Quartettsatz
DISTINCTIVE (German)

Quatuor
(French); use quartet.

Quintet/Quintets
TYPE (English); use for kvintet, quinteto, Quintett, quintette, quintetto.

Quinteto
(Spanish); use quintet.

Quintett
(German); use quintet.

Quintette
(French); use quintet.

Quintettino/Quintettinos
TYPE (Italian); because titles like Terzettino, Quartettino, Quintettino, etc. do not include the words trio, quartet, quintet, etc., 6.15.1.5 cannot be applied.

Quintetto
(Italian); use quintet.

Quodlibet/Quodlibets
TYPE (English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Spanish); use for kvodlibet.


R

Rag/Rags
TYPE (English)

Rapsodia
(Italian, Spanish); use rhapsody.

Rapsodie
(French); use rhapsody.

Rapsodiia
(Russian); use rhapsody.

Recercada
(Spanish); use ricercare.

Recessional/Recessionals
TYPE (English)

Rechitativ
(Russian); use recitative.

Récit/Récits
TYPE (French); a generic term used in France during the 17th and 18th centuries for fragments or entire compositions for solo voice and, by extension, for solo instrument; also used as a title for an organ piece with a distinct melodic part, as opposed to earlier, contrapuntal organ music; use for works for solo instrument with or without accompaniment; distinctive when the title means "story" or "narrative."

Récitatif
(French); use recitative.

Recitative/Recitatives
TYPE (English, French); use for both instrumental and vocal works; use for rechitativ, récitatif, recitativo, Rezitativ.

Recitativo
(Italian); use recitative

Rekviem
(Russian); use requiem.

Requiem/Requiems
TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3); use for Rekviem.

Retornelo
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish); used as an introduction or interlude to a Baroque aria or concerto. Do not treat as a type of composition.

Rezitativ
(German); use recitative

Rhapsodie
(French, German); use rhapsody.

Rhapsody/Rhapsodies
TYPE (English); use for rapsodia, rapsodie, rapsodiia, Rhapsodie.

Rhumba
(English); use rumba.

Ricercar
(French, German); use ricercare.

Ricercare/Ricercars/Ricercari
TYPE (English, Italian); generally, a type of instrumental piece common during the 16th and 17th centuries; because there is no single accepted English form of name for either the singular or plural of this type, use the form used by the composer and maintain that form throughout for that composer; if the composer used no plural form, use Ricercars; use for recercada, Ricercar, richerkar.

Richerkar
(Russian); use ricercare.

Rigadoon
(English); use rigaudon.

Rigaudon/Rigaudons
TYPE (French, German, Hungarian); use for rigadoon, rigodon, rigodón.

Rigodon
(Italian, Russian); use rigaudon.

Rigodón
(Spanish); use rigaudon.

Ritornello/Ritornelli
TYPE (Italian)

Ritournelle/Ritournelles
TYPE (French)

Rögtönzés/Rögtönzések
TYPE (Hungarian); see also improvisation.

Romance/Romances
TYPE (English, French, Spanish); a 16th- to 17th-century Spanish ballade (also Romanza), an 18th-century French song, and a 19th-century instrumental work. If an instrumental work, use the English form. Use for instrumental works titled romans, Romanza, romanze. If a vocal work, use the form of the language of the text; see also romans, romanza (Italian), romanza (Spanish), Romanze; when in English, apply 6.15.1.10 and name the type of solo voice.

Romans/Romansy
TYPE (Russian); solo vocal form. See "song" for treatment. When an instrumental work, use romance.

Romanza/Romanze
TYPE (Italian); solo vocal form. See "song" for treatment7. When an instrumental work, use romance.

Romanza/Romanzas
TYPE (Spanish); solo vocal form. See "song" for treatment. When an instrumental work, use romance.

Romanze/Romanzen
TYPE (German); solo vocal form. See "song" for treatment. When an instrumental work, use romance.

Romanzetta/Romanzettas
TYPE (Italian); use for both vocal and instrumental works.

Rondeau/Rondeaux
TYPE (French); use as a type only for the "form fixe" vocal work of the 13th to 15th centuries, and as the refrain form used in the suites of the Baroque era. If encountered as the French variant of the repeat form of the late 18th and 19th centuries, use rondo.

Rondel
DISTINCTIVE (French)

Rondino/Rondinos
TYPE (English)

Rondo/Rondos
TYPE (English, French, German); use for rondó, rondò.

Rondó
(Spanish); use rondo.

Rondò
(Italian); use rondo.

Rondoletto/Rondolettos
TYPE (Italian)

Round/Rounds
TYPE (English); a short perpetual canon in which all the parts sound at the same pitch or at an octave to it; see also Rundgesang.

Rumba/Rumbas
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); a popular recreational dance of Afro-Cuban origin, in syncopated duple metre with a repetitive melody and an ostinato one-bar rhythmic pattern played in the accompaniment; use for rhumba.

Rundgesang/Rundgesänge
TYPE (German); see also round.


S

Salmo
(Italian); see psalm.

Saltarelle
(French); use saltarello.

Saltarello/Saltarellos
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); use for saltarelle, sal'tarello, saltarelo.

Sal'tarello
(Russian); use saltarello.

Saltarelo
(Spanish); use saltarello.

Salve Regina
TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3)

Samba/Sambas
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish)

Sanctus
TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3)

Saraband/Sarabands
TYPE (English); use for sarabanda, Sarabande, zarabanda.

Sarabanda
(Italian, Russian); use saraband.

Sarabande
(French, German); use saraband.

Sardana/Sardanas
TYPE (Spanish)

Satz/Sätze
TYPE (German); use for an independent work titled as such, not for individual movements of a larger work; see also chast', movement, tétel.

Scherzando/Scherzandos
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish)

Scherzettino/Scherzettinos
TYPE (Italian)

Scherzetto/Scherzetti
TYPE (English)

Scherzino/Scherzinos
TYPE English, Italian)

Scherzo/Scherzos
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); use for skertso, squerzo.

Schottische
(German); use ecossaise.

Scozzese
(Italian); use ecossaise.

Seguidilla/Seguidillas
TYPE (Spanish); use "Seguidilla/Seguidillas" and medium statement for vocal works. For an instrumental work, consider it a dance and use the plural form of the term, "Seguidillas," for both singular and plural forms, with medium statement.

Sekstet
(Russian); use sextet.

Septet/Septets
TYPE (English, Russian); use for septeto, Septett, septimino, septuor, settimino.

Septeto
(Spanish); use septet.

Septett
(German); use septet.

Septimino
(Spanish); use septet.

Septuor
(French); use septet.

Serenada
(Russian); use serenade.

Serenade/Serenades
TYPE (English, French); instrumental composition of the 18th and 19th centuries; use for serenada, serenata; for vocal works titled serenata, see serenata; see also seresta, Ständchen.

Serenata/Serenatas
TYPE (Italian); a 17th- and 18th-century dramatic cantata-like vocal work for two or more singers and orchestra, performed at court or at the home of an aristocratic family; for instrumental works titled serenata, see serenade.

Seresta/Serestas
TYPE (Portuguese); the title means "serenade"; use this form for both instrumental and vocal works when it is the composer's original title; see also serenade.

Service/Services
TYPE (English); a term used in the Anglican liturgy to refer to musical settings of the canticles for Matins (Morning prayer) and Evensong, and of certain parts of the Communion service; apply 6.28.1.9 exception and do not normally include a statement of medium of performance; regard any title in which "service" is modified by something other than medium or key as distinctive.

Sestetto
(Italian); use sextet.

Set/Sets
TYPE (English)

Setting
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Settimino
(Italian); use septet.

Sevillana/Sevillanas
TYPE (Spanish)

Sextet/Sextets
TYPE (English); use for sekstet, sestetto, sexteto, Sextett, sextuor.

Sexteto
(Spanish); use sextet.

Sextett
(German); use sextet.

Sextuor
(French); use sextet.

Siciliana/Sicilianas
TYPE (English); use for ciciliano, sicilien, siciliene, sicilienne, siciliano, sitsiliana, siziliano.

Siciliano
(Italian); use siciliana.

Sicilien
(French); use siciliana.

Siciliene
(French); use siciliana.

Sicilienne
(French); use siciliana.

Simfonicheskaia poėma
(Russian); use symphonic poem.

Simfoniia
(Russian); use symphony.

Simfonietta
(Russian); use sinfonietta.

Simphonie
(French); use symphony.

Simphonie concertante/Simphonies concertantes
TYPE (French); use this form for a work intended for concert performance when it is the composer's original title; see also sinfonia concertante, sinfonie concertante, symphonie concertante.

Simphonietta
(French); use sinfonietta.

Simphony
Variant spelling of symphony; use symphony.

Sinfonia/Sinfonie
TYPE (Italian); cognate for symphony. When the term represents the multi-movement work of the 18th to 20th centuries, use symphony. NOTE: the term also represents several separate types of Italian Baroque compositions, one of which (the tri-partite opera overture) was one of the precursors of the modern symphony. When used to represent any of these Baroque compositions, the term should not be normalized to symphony; use sinfonia/sinfonie. However, the German "Sinfonie" (plural is Sinfonien) (a cognate of symphony) should be normalized to symphony.

Sinfonia/Sinfonie
TYPE (Italian); use this term when it is used to mean an independent overture; see also overture.

Sinfonia concertante/Sinfonie concertanti
TYPE (Italian); use this form for a work intended for concert performance when it is the composer's original title; see also simphonie concertante, sinfonie concertante, symphonie concertante.

Sinfonia da camera
DISTINCTIVE (English, Italian)

Sinfonie
The German cognate for symphony and the Italian plural of sinfonia. When it represents the 18th- to 20th-century multi-movement work use symphony. When it represents the plural of the Italian Baroque sinfonia, use "Sinfonie."

Sinfonie concertante/Sinfonies concertantes
TYPE (French); use this form for a work intended for concert performance when it is the composer's original title; see also simphonie concertante, sinfonia concertante, symphonie concertante.

Sinfonie da camera
DISTINCTIVE (Italian)

Sinfonietta/Sinfoniettas
TYPE (English, German, Italian); apply 6.28.1.9 exception; use for simfonietta, simphonietta, symfoniieta, symphonietta, symphoniette.

Sinfonische Dichtung/Sinfonische Dichtungen
TYPE (German); use when it is the composer's original title; see also sinfonische Gedicht, symphonic poem, symphonische Dichtung.

Sinfonische Gedicht/Sinfonische Gedichte
TYPE (German); use when it is the composer's original title; see also sinfonische Dichtung, symphonic poem, symphonische Dichtung.

Sitsiliana
(Russian); use siciliana.

Siuita          
(Russian); use suite.

Siziliano
(German); use siciliana.

Skertso
(Russian); use scherzo.

Sketch
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Skizze
DISTINCTIVE (German); for "sketch."

Skladba/Skladby
TYPE (Czech); for "piece"; use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also darab, morceau, pala, piece, Stück, stuk, utwór.

Solo/Solos
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); a work for a solo instrument, unaccompanied or accompanied by one or more instruments.

Solo de concours
DISTINCTIVE (French)

Solo piece
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Solostück
DISTINCTIVE (German)

Solostykke
DISTINCTIVE (Danish, Norwegian)

Son/Sones
TYPE (Spanish); a generic term for Latin American rural or peasant music, both vocal and instrumental, in various forms; an unequal triple rhythm (sesquialtera) is a common feature.

Sonata/Sonatas
TYPE (English, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for sonate.

Sonata da camera
DISTINCTIVE (English, French, Italian, Spanish)

Sonata da chiesa
DISTINCTIVE (Italian); a Baroque instrumental work, often in 4 movements that replaced the organ solos that had regularly been substituted for elements of the Proper at Mass and Vespers.

Sonata de cámara
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)

Sonata en trio
(Spanish); use trio sonata.

Sonata movement/Sonata movements
TYPE (English)

Sonate
(French, German); use sonata.

Sonate all'epistola
(Italian); use epistle sonata.

Sonate da camera
DISTINCTIVE (Italian)

Sonate de chambre
DISTINCTIVE (French)

Sonate en trio
(French); use trio sonata.

Sonatensatz/Sonatensätze
TYPE (German)

Sonatille/Sonatilles
TYPE (English, French); a type of "mini sonata."

Sonatina/Sonatinas
TYPE (English, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for Sonatine.

Sonatina da camera
DISTINCTIVE (Italian)

Sonatine
(French, German); use sonatina.

Sonatinetta/Sonatinettas
TYPE (English, Italian); use for sonatinette.

Sonatinette
(English); use Sonatinetta.

Song/Songs
TYPE (English); use as a type for vocal works; apply 6.28.1.9 exception: do not add a medium of performance for works with the preferred title Songs, Lieder, etc. unless it differs from the implied medium of solo voice(s) with accompaniment for keyboard instrument (this does not apply to songs in a popular medium). Apply 6.15.1.12: accompaniment for works with the preferred title Songs, Lieder, etc.: when the work is accompanied by any medium other than a keyboard instrument, add the name(s) of the instrument(s) followed by "accompaniment." If the work is unaccompanied, add "unaccompanied" as the medium of performance. Use only for miscellaneous sets, e.g., [Songs], [Songs. Selections] and specific collections, e.g., [Songs, op. 14], [Songs. op. 56. Maid sings light]. For other languages see canción, canzone, chanson, dal, Gesang, laulu, Lied, melodie, pisen, romance; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works; see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21.

Sortie
DISTINCTIVE (French)

Sortsiko
(Russian); use zortzico.

Sousedská/Sousedsky
TYPE (Czech)

Spielmusik
DISTINCTIVE (German)

Spirichuėl
(Russian); use spiritual.

Spiritual/Spirituals
TYPE (English); use as a type for vocal works; a type of folksong that originated in American revivalist activity between 1740 and the close of the 19th century; treat as a type for vocal works; use for spirichuėl; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works; see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21.

Squerzo
(Portuguese); use scherzo.

Stabat Mater
TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3)

Stampita
(Italian); use estampie.

Ständchen
TYPE (German); the title meaning "serenade" often given to multi-movement instrumental compositions; use this form when it is the composer's original title; possibly distinctive when a vocal work; see also serenade.

Stück/Stücke
TYPE (German); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also darab, morceau, pala, piece, skladba, stuk, utwór.

Studie/Studien
TYPE (German); use this form for a work intended for concert performance when it is the composer's original title; see also estudio, ėtiud, etude, étude, Etüde, gyakorlat, studio, study; for a work not intended for concert performance, use study.

Studio/Studi
TYPE (Italian); use this form for a work intended for concert performance when it is the composer's original title; see also estudio, ėtiud, etude, étude, Etüde, gyakorlat, studie, study; for a work not intended for concert performance, use study.

Study/Studies
TYPE (English); use this form for a work intended for concert performance when it is the composer's original title; see also estudio, ėtiud, etude, étude, Etüde, gyakorlat, studie, studio; for a work not intended for concert performance, use for Studie, studio.

Stuk/Stukken
TYPE (Dutch); use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also darab, morceau, piece, skladba, Stück, stuk, utwór.

Suite/Suites
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); use for siuita.

Symfoniieta
(Russian); use sinfonietta.

Symphonette/Symphonettes
TYPE (English); apply 6.28.1.9 exception: add a statement of medium of performance only when not for the implied medium of orchestra.

Symphonic poem/Symphonic poems
TYPE (English); use when it is the composer's original title; use for poema sinfonico, poema sinfónico, poème symphonique, simfonicheskaia poėma; see also sinfonische Dichtung, sinfonische Gedicht, symphonische Dichtung.

Symphonie
(French, German); use symphony.

Symphonie concertante/Symphonies concertantes
TYPE (French); use this form for a work intended for concert performance when it is the composer's original title; see also simphonie concertante, sinfonia concertante, sinfonie concertante.

Symphonie de chambre
DISTINCTIVE (French)

Symphonietta
(French); use sinfonietta.

Symphoniette
(English, French); use sinfonietta.

Symphonische Dichtung/Symphonische Dichtungen
TYPE (German); use when it is the composer's original title; see also sinfonische Dichtung, sinfonische Gedicht, symphonic poem.

Symphony/Symphonies
TYPE (English); form of the multi-movement work of the 18th to 20th centuries; use for simfoniia, Simphonie, Simphony, Symphonie, and (when this type of composition) for the Italian "sinfonia" and the German "Sinfonie." However, the Italian Baroque "sinfonia" (plural, Sinfonie) is a different type of composition and should not be normalized to symphony.


T

Tambourin/Tambourins
TYPE (English, French); an 18th-century French dance with a lively melody and regular, static bass simulating a drum, usually in duple meter; found in the theatrical works of Rameau and others and as purely instrumental works.

Tánc          
(Hungarian); use dance

Tanets
(Russian); use dance

Tango/Tangos
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish)

Taniec      
(Polish); use dance.

Tanz          
(German); use dance

Tarantela
(Spanish); use tarantella

Tarantella/Tarantellas
TYPE (German, Italian, English, Russian); use for tarantela, tarentelle, terentelle.

Tarentelle
(French); use tarantella.

Te Deum
TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3)

Tema          
(Italian, Spanish, Russian); use only as the first word of a combination title (e.g., [Tema con variazioni ...]). When it occurs alone, use theme.

Tentet
(English); use decet.

Terentelle
Variant spelling of tarantella/tarentelle; use tarantella.

Terzett
(German); use trio.

Terzettino/Terzettinos
TYPE (Italian); because titles like Terzettino, Quartettino, Quintettino, etc. do not include the words trio, quartet, quintet, etc., rule 6.15.1.5 cannot be applied; for terzetto use trio.

Terzetto
(Italian); use trio.

Tétel/Tételek
TYPE (Hungarian); for "movement"; usually refers to an independent work; use for an independent work entitled as such, not for individual movements of a larger work; see also chast', movement, Satz.

Thema
(German); use only as the first word of a combination title (e.g., [Thema und Variationen ...]). When it occurs alone, use theme.

Theme/Themes
TYPE (English); generally use in combination with the term "variations"; in such a case use the language of the original title and treat the resulting phrase as a type of composition (e.g., [Theme and variations, piano], [Thème et variations, orchestra], [Thema und Variationen, guitar], [Tema con variazioni, violin, piano]). It should also be considered as a type of composition on the rare occasion when it occurs alone. In this case use the English form; use for tema, Thema, thème.

Thème
(French); use only as the first word of a combination title (e.g., [Thème et variations, orchestra]). When it occurs alone, use theme.

Tiento/Tientos
TYPE (Spanish)

Tocata
(Spanish); use toccata.

Toccata/Toccatas
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); use for tocata, tokkata.

Toccatella/Toccatellas
TYPE (English, Italian); use for toccatelle.

Toccatelle
(French); use toccatella.

Toccatina/Toccatinas
TYPE (Italian)

Tokkata
(Russian); use toccata.

Tonadilla/Tonadillas
DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)

Tone poem
For collections of a composer's works in this genre, use symphonic poems.

Toy/Toys
TYPE (English); a short, light piece for lute or virginal, simple in form and light in texture; use for 16th- and 17th-century works; for post-17th-century works, treat the term as distinctive.

Toye
(English); use toy.

Trio/Trios
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for Terzett, terzetto.

Trio sonata/Trio sonatas
TYPE (English); use for sonata en trio, sonate en trio, trio-sonata, Triosonate.

Trio-sonata
(Russian, Spanish); use trio sonata.

Triosonate
(German); use trio sonata.

Triple concerto
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Triptych
DISTINCTIVE (English)

Trumpet tune/Trumpet tunes
TYPE (English)

TSapateado
(Russian); use zapateado.

Tune/Tunes
TYPE (English)


U

Übung/Übungen
TYPE (German); treat as a type of composition when the term is used to mean "study," "etude," etc.; see also exercise.

Umoresca
(Italian); use humoresque.

Utwór/Utwory
TYPE (Polish); for "piece"; use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also darab, morceau, pala, piece, skladba, stuk, Stück.

Uvertiura
(Russian); use overture.

Uwertura
(Polish); use overture.


V

Val's          
(Russian); use waltz.

Vals          
(Spanish); use waltz.

Valse          
(French); use waltz. Note: Ravel's La valse is to be considered distinctive (see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21)

Valzer
(Italian); use waltz.

Variación
(Spanish); use variation.

Variant
DISTINCTIVE (English); for works not in the form of variations, use this form; for works in the form of variations, use variation.

Variante
DISTINCTIVE (French); for works not in the form of variations, use this form; for works in the form of variations, use variation.

Varianten
DISTINCTIVE (German); for works not in the form of variations, use this form; for works in the form of variations, use variation.

Varianti
DISTINCTIVE (Italian); for works not in the form of variations, use this form; for works in the form of variations, use variation.

Variation/Variations
TYPE (English, French, German); use for variación, variant, variante, Varianten, varianti, variatsiia, variazione, except when the first word of a distinctive title, when used in a combination title (e.g., [Tema e variazione]), or for works not in the form of variations.

Variatsiia
(Russian); use variation.

Variazione
(Italian); use variation.

Vázlatok
DISTINCTIVE (Hungarian)

Vechernia
(Russian) use vespers.

Vêpres
(French) use vespers.

Veränderung/Veränderungen
TYPE (German); treat as a type of composition when the term is used to mean "variations."

Vers          
(Hungarian); use verset.

Verse/Verses
TYPE (English); consider to be a type when written for organ; when written for any other medium, treat a work with this title as DISTINCTIVE (see see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21); use for versus.

Verset/Versets
TYPE (English, French); consider to be a type when written for organ; when written for any other medium, treat a work with this title as DISTINCTIVE (see see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21); use for vers, Versett, versetto, versettus, versiculo, verso.

Versett
(German); use verset.

Versetto
(Italian); use verset.

Versettus
(Hungarian); use verset.

Versiculo
(Spanish); use verset.

Verso
(Spanish); use verset.

Versus
(English); use verse.

Vesper/Vespers
TYPE (English, German); liturgical (see note 3); use for vechernia, vesperae, vêpres, vespro, vísperas.

Vesperae
(Latin) use vespers.

Vespro
(Italian) use vespers.

Vil'iansiko
(Russian); use villancico.

Villancico/Villancicos
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); a Spanish vocal work for one or more voices with refrain. Use without specification of medium except in case of conflicts; use for vil'iansiko.

Villanella/Villanelle
TYPE (English, Italian, Russian, Spanish); a form of "light vocal music popular in Italy and elsewhere from the 1530s to the early 17th century"--New Grove. Use "villanella" for the singular and "villanelle" for the plural. Do not confuse the plural with the French "villanelle."

Villanelle/Villanelles
TYPE (French); a 16th- to 17th-century French country dance or song, and an 18th- to 20th-century instrumental piece. Do not confuse with the Italian "villanella" (plural "villanelle"). NOTE: Also the German form of "villanella." When found in this context, use the Italian singular and plural forms.

Vísperas
(Spanish) use vespers.

Vivace/Vivaces
TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Russian)

Vivo/Vivos
TYPE (Italian)

Vocalise/Vocalises
TYPE (English, French); use as a type for vocal works; see song for treatment. Use for vocalización, vocalizzo, Vokalise, vokaliz; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works; see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21.

Vocalización
(Spanish); use vocalise.

Vocalizzo
(Italian); use vocalise.

Vokalise
(German); use vocalise.

Vokaliz
(Russian); use vocalise.

Volta/Volte
TYPE (English, German, Italian, Spanish); an early 17th-century dance; use for lavolta, volte (the French singular form of the term)

Volte          
(French); use volta for the singular form of this term

Voluntary/Voluntaries
TYPE (English)

Vorspiel/Vorspiele
TYPE (German); use for independent works titled as such; when part of a larger work, apply 6.14.2.7.1.


W

Waltz/Waltzes
TYPE (English); use for vals, val's, valse, valzer, Walzer. Note: Ravel's La valse is to be considered distinctive (see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21)

Walzer
(German); use waltz.

Wiegenlied
DISTINCTIVE (German)


X

Xácara
(Spanish); use jácara.


Z

Žalm          
(Czech); see psalm.

Zapateado/Zapateados
TYPE (Spanish); a solo dance in triple time in which rhythm is marked by stamping of the heels; use for tsapateado, zapateao.

Zapateao
(Spanish); use zapateado.

Zarabanda
(Spanish); use saraband.

Zhiga          
(Russian); use gigue.

Zorcico
(Spanish); use zortzico.

Zortciko
(Spanish); use zortzico.

Zortzico/Zortzicos
TYPE (Spanish); Basque folk song or dance in 5/4 time with dotted rhythms; use for sortsiko, zorcico, zortciko, Zortziko.

Zortziko
(German); use zortzico.

Zwiefacher/Zwiefache
TYPE (German); a German folk dance with regular alternation between duple and triple meter.

Zwischenakt/Zwischenakten
TYPE (German); see also intermezzo.

Zwischenspiel/Zwischenspiele
TYPE (German)


Last revised May 30, 2014.
Comments to Raymond Schmidt, Chair, BCC Authorities Subcommittee