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Yale University EAD Encoding Best Practice Guidelines

Version: 1.0

Created: 2006

Revised: 2010-01

The Yale University EAD Encoding Best Practice Guidelines are intended to establish common encoding practices at Yale. The best practices are expresed as a Relax NG schema.

Yale EAD instances should validate against the EAD 2002 XSD Schema. Compliance with the Yale EAD Encoding Best Practices should be checked by external validation using the Relax NG best practices schema (yale.ead2002.rng). The main schema is dependent upon a second schema with datatypes and local settings (yale.ead2002.datatypes.rng).

This documentation is recorded in TEI embedded in the Relax NG schema. This XHTML version is generated using an XSLT stylesheet (yale.rng.xhtml.xsl).

XML Declaration

Each Yale EAD instance must begin with the following XML declaration.

XML Declaration <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
Description Identifies the document as XML and the character encoding as UTF-8.
Status Required

<ead> Element

Element Name Encoded Archival Description
xpath ead
Description The root element of all EAD documents. Organized into two subelements, eadheader and archdesc.
Status Required
Parent None
Repeatable No
Required Elements eadheader, archdesc
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements frontmatter
Required Attributes xmlns="urn:isbn:1-931666-22-9", xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink", xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance", xsi:schemaLocation="urn:isbn:1-931666-22-9 http://www.library.yale.edu/facc/schemas/ead/ead.xsd", id
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, relatedencoding
Comments The id attribute should be the same as the filename of the EAD instance. It corresponds to the Orbis key in the 035 field of the collection-level MARC record. It is also the same as the <eadid> element.

<eadheader> Elements

Element Name EAD Header
xpath ead/eadheader
Description A wrapper element for bibliographic and descriptive information about the finding aid document rather than the archival materials being described.
Status Required
Parent ead
Repeatable No
Required Elements eadid, filedesc, profiledesc
Optional Elements revisiondesc
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes langencoding="iso639-2b", scriptencoding="iso15924", countryencoding="iso3166-1", repositoryencoding="iso15511", dateencoding="iso8601"
Optional Attributes audience="external | internal", findaidstatus="edited-full-draft", id=""
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, relatedencoding
Comments The eadheader id attribute is reserved for encoding legacy NOTIS keys.
Element Name EAD Identifier
xpath ead/eadheader/eadid
Description A required subelement of eadheader that designates a unique code for a particular EAD finding aid document.
Status Required
Parent eadheader
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes countrycode="us", mainagencycode="", publicid="", url=""
Optional Attributes identifier=""
Unused Attributes encodinganalog, urn
Comments Examples of element data: beinecke.carson, mssa.ms.1840, mssa.ru.0151, divinity.172, music.smithEach repository has a unique repository code: US-CtY [MSSA], US-CtY-BR [Beinecke], US-CtY-D [Divinity], US-CtY-Mus [Music], US-CtY-A [Art], US-CtY-M [Medical Library],US- CtY-BA [British Art Center]Form Public Identifiers according to the following model:: "-//Yale University::Repository//TEXT (US::Repository Code::::[Finding Aid Title])//EN" Identifier attribute is reserved for Fedora identifier. URL attribute is reserved for the Yale Persistent Link (handle) for the finding aid.
Example <eadid countrycode="us" mainagencycode="US-CtY-BR" publicid="-//Yale University::Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library//TEXT (US::CtYBR::::[Henry de Bourbel Papers])//EN" identifier=""> beinecke.bourbel</eadid>
Element Name File Description
xpath ead/eadheader/filedesc
Description A required subelement of the eadheader that bundles much of the bibliographic information about the finding aid.
Status Required
Parent eadheader
Repeatable No
Required Elements titlestmt, publicationstmt, notestmt
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements editionstmt, seriesstmt
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Title Statement
xpath ead/eadheader/filedesc/titlestmt
Description A required wrapper element within the filedesc portion of eadheader that groups information about the name of an encoded finding aid and those responsible for its intellectual content.
Status Required
Parent filedesc
Repeatable No
Required Elements titleproper[@type='formal'], titleproper[@type='filing']
Optional Elements author, subtitle, sponsor
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Title Proper (Formal)
xpath ead/eadheader/filedesc/titlestmt/titleproper[@type="formal"]
Description The formal title of the finding aid, not the title of the group of materials being described.
Status Required
Parent titlestmt
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements date, emph, lb, num
Unused Elements abbr, expan, extptr, ptr
Required Attributes type="formal"
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, render
Element Name Title Proper (Filing)
xpath ead/eadheader/filedesc/titlestmt/titleproper[@type='filing']
Description A version of the title of the finding aid revised to allow for alphabetization.
Status Required
Parent titlestmt
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements abbr, date, emph, expan, extptr, lb, num, ptr
Required Attributes type="filing", audience="internal"
Optional Attributes render="altrender", altrender="nodisplay"
Unused Attributes encodinganalog, id
Comments For personal papers, list last name first, followed by first and middle names in parentheses. For organization records, list names in direct order.
Comments For personal papers, list last name first, followed by first and middle names in parentheses. For organization records, list names in direct order.
Example For personal papers: Carson (Rachel) Papers; Ladd (George Trumbull) Papers.For family papers: Bangs Family Papers; Sanford Family Papers.For corporate records: Book and Bond, Yale University, Records; British East India Company Records; Association of Professors and Researchers in Religious Education, Archives.
Element Name Subtitle
xpath ead/eadheader/filedesc/titlestmt/subtitle
Description A secondary or subsidiary name of an encoded finding aid that is subordinate to the main name encoded in titleproper.
Status Optional
Parent titlestmt
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements date, emph, lb, num
Unused Elements abbr, expan, extptr, ptr
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Author
xpath ead/eadheader/filedesc/titlestmt/author
Description Name(s) of institution(s) or individual(s) responsible for compiling the intellectual content of the finding aid.
Status Optional
Parent titlestmt
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements extptr, ptr
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Sponsor
xpath ead/eadheader/filedesc/titlestmt/sponsor
Description Name(s) of institution(s) or individual(s) who endorsed, financed, or arranged the acquisition, appraisal, and processing of the described materials or the preparation and distribution of the finding aid.
Status Optional
Parent titlestmt
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements extptr, ptr
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Publication Statement
xpath ead/eadheader/filedesc/publicationstmt
Description A wrapper element within the filedesc portion of eadheader for information concerning the publication or distribution of the encoded finding aid, including the publisher's name and address, the date of publication, and other relevant details.
Status Required
Parent filedesc
Repeatable No
Required Elements publisher, address, date
Optional Elements p
Unused Elements num
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Publisher
xpath ead/eadheader/filedesc/publicationstmt/publisher
Description Name of the party responsible for issuing or distributing the encoded finding aid.
Status Required
Parent publicationstmt
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements extptr, ptr
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Comments Repeat publisher as needed for listing library subunits.
Element Name Note Statement
xpath ead/eadheader/filedesc/notestmt
Description A subelement within the filedesc portion of the eadheader that groups note elements, each of which contains a single piece of descriptive information about the finding aid.
Status Required
Parent filedesc
Repeatable No
Required Elements note
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Best Practices Note
xpath ead/eadheader/filedesc/notestmt/note[@type="bpg"]
Description A note to record which version of the Yale EAD Best Practice Guidelines the EAD instance complies with.
Status Required
Parent notestmt
Repeatable No
Required Elements p
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements address, blockquote, chronlist, list, note, table
Required Attributes type="bpg"
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes actuate, altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, label, show
Element Name Frontmatter Note
xpath ead/eadheader/filedesc/notestmt/note[@type="frontmatter"]
Description A generic element that provides a short statement about the finding aid.
Status Optional
Parent notestmt
Repeatable No
Required Elements p
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements address, blockquote, chronlist, list, note, table
Required Attributes type="frontmatter"
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes actuate, altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, label, show
Element Name Profile Description
xpath ead/eadheader/profiledesc
Description A subelement of the eadheader that bundles information about the creation of the encoded version of the finding aid, including the name of the agent, place, and date of encoding. The profiledesc element also designates the predominant and minor languages used in the finding aid.
Status Required
Parent eadheader
Repeatable No
Required Elements creation, langusage, descrules
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Creation
xpath ead/eadheader/profiledesc/creation
Description A subelement of the profiledesc portion of eadheader used for information about the encoding of the finding aid, including the person(s) or agency(ies) responsible for the encoding, the date, and the circumstances under which the encoding was done.
Status Required
Parent profiledesc
Repeatable No
Required Elements date
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibref, expan, extptr, extref, linkgrp, ptr, ref, title
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Language Usage
xpath ead/eadheader/profiledesc/langusage
Description A subelement within the profiledesc portion of the eadheader that provides a statement about languages, sublanguages, and dialects represented in an encoded finding aid.
Status Required
Parent profiledesc
Repeatable No
Required Elements language
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibref, emph, expan, extptr, extref, lb, linkgrp, ptr, ref, title
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Descriptive Rules
xpath ead/eadheader/profiledesc/descrules
Description A subelement of Profile Description profiledesc for the enumeration of the rules, standards, conventions, and protocols used in preparing the description.
Status Required
Parent profiledesc
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, extref, lb, title
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibref, expan, extptr, linkgrp, ptr, ref
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Revision Description
xpath ead/eadheader/revisiondesc
Description An optional subelement of the eadheader for information about changes or alterations that have been made to the encoded finding aid.
Status Optional
Parent eadheader
Repeatable No
Required Elements change
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements list
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Change
xpath ead/eadheader/revisiondesc/change
Description A subelement in the revisiondesc portion of eadheader used for a brief description of an update made to an EAD document.
Status Required
Parent revisiondesc
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements date, item
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Change Item
xpath ead/eadheader/revisiondesc/change/item
Description Designates information about a revision to the finding aid.
Status Required
Parent change
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements abbr, address, archref, bibref, blockquote, chronlist, corpname, date, expan, extptr, extref, famname, function, genreform, geogname, linkgrp, list, name, note, num, occupation, origination, persname, ptr, ref, repository, subject, table, title, unitdate, unittitle
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, id
Element Name EAD Header Paragraph
xpath ead/eadheader//p
Description One or more sentences that form a logical prose passage. A paragraph may be a subdivision of a larger composition, or it may exist alone.
Required Elements None
Optional Elements blockquote, corpname, famname, function, genreform, geogname, date, emph, extptr, extref, lb, name, num, occupation, persname, ref, subject, title
Unused Elements abbr, address, archref, bibref, chronlist, expan, linkgrp, list, note, origination, ptr, repository, table, unitdate, unittitle
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, id
Element Name EAD Header Date
xpath ead/eadheader//date
Description A generic element that contains a month, day, or year in any format. Use date to identify any dates that merit encoding, except for the creation and other relevant dates of the described materials, which are instead tagged with the unitdate element.
Parent titleproper[@type='formal'], subtitle, publicationstmt, creation, change, p, item, label, chronitem, event, title, ref, extref
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements extptr, ptr
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes normal, calendar="gregorian", era="ce", type="original | ead | copyright | revised | XMetaLAuthor | Edix/Wordix | Excel | NoteTabPro | openOffice | OfficeOfOrigin:Word| vendor:ES | vendor:ArchProteus"
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, certainty, encodinganalog, id

<archdesc> Elements

Element Name Archival Description
xpath ead/archdesc
Description A wrapper element for the bulk of an EAD document instance, which describes the content, context, and extent of a body of archival materials, including administrative and supplemental information that facilitates use of the materials.
Status Required
Parent ead
Repeatable No
Required Elements did, descgrp, scopecontent, dsc
Optional Elements bioghist, arrangement, controlaccess, index, odd
Unused Elements accessrestrict, accruals, acqinfo, altformavail, appraisal, bibliography, bioghist, controlaccess, custodhist, dao, daogrp, fileplan, note, odd, originalsloc, otherfindaid, phystech, prefercite, processinfo, relatedmaterial, runner, scopecontent, separatedmaterial, userestrict
Required Attributes level="collection", type="register", relatedencoding="MARC21"
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, otherlevel

<archdesc> <did> Elements

Element Name Descriptive Identification
xpath ead/archdesc/did
Description A required wrapper element that bundles other elements identifying core information about the described materials at the collection level.
Status Required
Parent archdesc
Repeatable No
Required Elements unittitle, unitdate, unitid, physdesc, abstract, repository
Optional Elements head, origination, physloc, langmaterial, materialspec, note
Unused Elements container, dao, daogrp
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog
Comments The heading for this element - encoded in <head> - should be "Overview".
Element Name Origination
xpath ead/archdesc/did/origination
Description Information about the individual or organization responsible for the creation, accumulation, or assembly of the described materials before their incorporation into an archival repository.
Status Optional
Parent did
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements One of the following: persname, corpname, or famname
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibref, emph, expan, extptr, extref, lb, linkgrp, name, ptr, ref, title
Required Attributes label="Creator:"
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Title of the Unit
xpath ead/archdesc/did/unittitle
Description The name, either formal or supplied, of the collection of materials being described.
Status Required
Parent did
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb, title
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibref, bibseries, corpname, date, edition, expan, extptr, extref, famname, function, genreform, geogname, imprint, linkgrp, name, num, occupation, persname, ptr, ref, subject, unitdate
Required Attributes label="Title:"
Optional Attributes type
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Date of the Unit
xpath ead/archdesc/did/unitdate
Description The creation year, month, or day of the described materials. Can be expressed as inclusive or bulk dates.
Status Required
Parent did
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibref, expan, extptr, extref, linkgrp, ptr, ref, title
Required Attributes label="Dates: | Bulk Dates:", type="inclusive | bulk", normal, datechar="creation", calendar="gregorian", era="ce"
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, certainty, id
Element Name ID of the Unit
xpath ead/archdesc/did/unitid
Description Any alpha-numeric text string that serves as a unique reference point or control number for the described material, such as a lot number, an accession number, a classification number, or an entry number in a bibliography or catalog.
Status Required
Parent did
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibref, expan, extptr, extref, linkgrp, ptr, ref, title
Required Attributes label="Call Number:", countrycode="US", repositorycode
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, identifier, type
Element Name Physical Description
xpath ead/archdesc/did/physdesc
Description A wrapper element for bundling information about the extent, size, appearance or construction of the described materials.
Status Required
Parent did
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements None
Optional Elements dimensions, emph, extent, lb
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibref, corpname, date, expan, extptr, extref, famname, function, genreform, geogname, linkgrp, name, occupation, persname, physfacet, ptr, ref, subject, title
Required Attributes label="Physical Description:"
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, rules, source
Element Name Language of the Materials
xpath ead/archdesc/did/langmaterial
Description A prose statement enumerating the language(s) of the archival materials found in the unit being described.
Status Optional
Parent did
Repeatable No
Required Elements language
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibref, expan, extptr, extref, linkgrp, ptr, ref, title
Required Attributes label="Language(s):"
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Abstract
xpath ead/archdesc/did/abstract
Description A very brief summary of the materials being described, used primarily to encode bits of biographical or historical information about the creator and abridged statements about the scope, content, arrangement, or other descriptive details about the archival unit or one of its components.
Status Required
Parent did
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb, title
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibref, expan, extptr, extref, linkgrp, ptr, ref
Required Attributes label="Summary:"
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, langcode, type
Element Name Repository
xpath ead/archdesc/did/repository
Description The institution or agency responsible for providing intellectual access to the materials being described.
Status Required
Parent did
Repeatable No
Required Elements corpname, address
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibref, emph, expan, extptr, extref, lb, linkgrp, name, ptr, ref, subarea, title
Required Attributes label="Repository:"
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Physical Location
xpath ead/archdesc/did/physloc
Description Information identifying the place where the described materials are stored, such as the name or number of the building, room, stack, shelf, or other tangible area.
Status Optional
Parent did
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, extref, lb, title
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibref, expan, extptr, linkgrp, ptr, ref
Required Attributes label="Physical Location:"
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, parent, type
Element Name Material Specific Details
xpath ead/archdesc/did/materialspec
Description Data which are unique to a particular class or form of material and which are not assigned to any other element of description. Examples of material specific details include mathematical data, such as scale for cartographic and architectural records, jurisdictional and denominational data for philatelic records, and physical presentation data for music records.
Status Optional
Parent did
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, extref, lb, title
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibref, expan, extptr, linkgrp, materialspec, ptr, ref
Required Attributes label="Material Specification"
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, type
Element Name Note
xpath ead/archdesc/did/note
Description A generic element that provides a short statement that is comparable to MARC field 500.
Status Optional
Parent did
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements p
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements address, blockquote, chronlist, list, note, table
Required Attributes label="Note:"
Optional Attributes encodinganalog="500"
Unused Attributes actuate, altrender, audience, id, show, type

<archdesc> Administrative Information <descgrp> Elements

Element Name Administrative Information Description Group
xpath ead/archdesc/descgrp[@type='admininfo']
Description A wrapper element used to group together elements relating to administrative information.
Status Required
Parent archdesc
Repeatable No
Required Elements head
Optional Elements descgrp[@type='provenance'], userestrict, prefercite, accessrestrict, processinfo, relatedmaterial, altformavail, accruals, appraisal, originalsloc, otherfindaid, phystech, separatedmaterial, fileplan, bibliography
Unused Elements acqinfo, address, arrangement, bioghist, blockquote, chronlist, controlaccess, custodhist, index, list, note, odd, p, scopecontent, table
Required Attributes type="admininfo"
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog
Comments The heading for this element - encoded in <head> - should be "Administrative Information".
Element Name Provenance Description Group
xpath ead/archdesc/descgrp[@type='admininfo']/descgrp[@type='provenance']
Description A wrapper element used to group together elements relating to provenance.
Status Optional
Parent descgrp[@type='admininfo']
Repeatable No
Required Elements head, acqinfo
Optional Elements custodhist
Unused Elements accessrestrict, accruals, address, altformavail, appraisal, arrangement, bibliography, bioghist, blockquote, chronlist, controlaccess, descgrp, fileplan, index, list, note, odd, originalsloc, otherfindaid, p, phystech, prefercite, processinfo, relatedmaterial, scopecontent, separatedmaterial, table, userestrict
Required Attributes type='provenance'
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog
Comments The heading for this element - encoded in <head> - should be "Provenance".
Element Name Acquisition Information
xpath ead/archdesc/descgrp[@type='admininfo']/descgrp[@type='provenance']/acqinfo
Description Indicates the immediate source of the materials being described and the circumstances under which they were received. Includes donations, transfers, purchases, and deposits.
Status Required
Parent descgrp[@type='provenance']
Repeatable No
Required Elements p
Optional Elements blockquote, head, table, list, chronlist
Unused Elements acqinfo, address, note
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog
Element Name Custodial History
xpath ead/archdesc/descgrp[@type='admininfo']/descgrp[@type='provenance']/custodhist
Description Information about the chain of ownership of the materials being described, before they reached the immediate source of acquisition.
Status Optional
Parent descgrp[@type='provenance']
Repeatable No
Required Elements p
Optional Elements blockquote, head, table, list
Unused Elements acqinfo, address, chronlist, custodhist, note
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog
Element Name Conditions Governing Use
xpath ead/archdesc/descgrp[@type='admininfo']/userestrict
Description Information about conditions that affect use of the described materials after access has been granted.
Status Optional
Parent descgrp[@type='admininfo']
Repeatable No
Required Elements head
Optional Elements p, blockquote, table, list
Unused Elements address, chronlist, note, userestrict
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog
Comments The heading for this element - encoded in <head> - should be "Ownership & Copyright".
Element Name Preferred Citation
xpath ead/archdesc/descgrp[@type='admininfo']/prefercite
Description Information about how users should identify the described materials when referring to them in published credits.
Status Optional
Parent descgrp[@type='admininfo']
Repeatable No
Required Elements head
Optional Elements p, blockquote, table, list
Unused Elements address, chronlist, note, prefercite
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog
Comments The heading for this element - encoded in <head> - should be "Cite As".
Element Name Conditions Governing Access
xpath ead/archdesc/descgrp[@type='admininfo']/accessrestrict
Description Information about conditions that affect the availability of the materials being described.
Status Optional
Parent descgrp[@type='admininfo']
Repeatable No
Required Elements head
Optional Elements p, blockquote, table, list
Unused Elements address, chronlist, note, accessrestrict, legalstatus
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog
Comments The heading for this element - encoded in <head> - should be "Information about Access".
Element Name Processing Information
xpath ead/archdesc/descgrp[@type='admininfo']/processinfo
Description Information about accessioning, arranging, describing, preserving, storing, or otherwise preparing the described materials for research use.
Status Optional
Parent descgrp[@type='admininfo']
Repeatable No
Required Elements head
Optional Elements p, blockquote, table, list
Unused Elements address, chronlist, note, processinfo
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, type
Comments The heading for this element - encoded in <head> - should be "Processing Notes".
Element Name Related Material
xpath ead/archdesc/descgrp[@type='admininfo']/relatedmaterial
Description Information about materials that are not physically or logically included in the material described in the finding aid but that may be of use to a reader because of an association to the described materials.
Status Optional
Parent descgrp[@type='admininfo']
Repeatable No
Required Elements head
Optional Elements p, blockquote, table, list
Unused Elements address, archref, bibref, chronlist, extref, linkgrp, note, ref, relatedmaterial, title
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, type
Comments The heading for this element - encoded in <head> - should be "Associated Materials".
Element Name Alternative Form Available
xpath ead/archdesc/descgrp[@type='admininfo']/altformavail
Description Information about copies of the materials being described, including the type of alternative form, significant control numbers, location, and source for ordering if applicable.
Status Optional
Parent descgrp[@type='admininfo']
Repeatable No
Required Elements head
Optional Elements p, blockquote, table, list
Unused Elements address, altformavail, chronlist, note
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, type
Comments The heading for this element - encoded in <head> - should be "Alternative Formats".
Element Name Accruals
xpath ead/archdesc/descgrp[@type='admininfo']/accruals
Description Information about anticipated additions to the materials being described.
Status Optional
Parent descgrp[@type='admininfo']
Repeatable No
Required Elements head
Optional Elements p, blockquote, table, list
Unused Elements accruals, address, chronlist, note
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog
Comments The heading for this element - encoded in <head> - should be "Accruals".
Element Name Appraisal
xpath ead/archdesc/descgrp[@type='admininfo']/appraisal
Description Information about the process of determining the archival value and thus the disposition of records based upon their current administrative, legal, and fiscal use; their evidential, intrinsic, and informational value; their arrangement and condition; and their relationship to other records
Status Optional
Parent descgrp[@type='admininfo']
Repeatable No
Required Elements head
Optional Elements p, blockquote, table, list
Unused Elements appraisal, address, chronlist, note
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog
Comments The heading for this element - encoded in <head> - should be "Appraisal".
Element Name Location of Originals
xpath ead/archdesc/descgrp[@type='admininfo']/originalsloc
Description Information about the existence, location, availability, and/or the destruction of originals where the unit described consists of copies.
Status Optional
Parent descgrp[@type='admininfo']
Repeatable No
Required Elements head
Optional Elements p, blockquote, table, list
Unused Elements address, chronlist, note, originalsloc
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, type
Comments The heading for this element - encoded in <head> - should be "Location of Originals".
Element Name Other Finding Aid
xpath ead/archdesc/descgrp[@type='admininfo']/otherfindaid
Description Information about additional or alternative guides to the described material, such as card files, dealers' inventories, or lists generated by the creator or compiler of the materials.
Status Optional
Parent descgrp[@type='admininfo']
Repeatable No
Required Elements head
Optional Elements p, blockquote, table, list
Unused Elements address, archref, bibref, chronlist, extref, linkgrp, note, otherfindaid, ref, title
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog
Comments The heading for this element - encoded in <head> - should be "Other Finding Aids".
Element Name Physical Characteristics and Technical Requirements
xpath ead/archdesc/descgrp[@type='admininfo']/phystech
Description A description of important physical conditions or characteristics that affect the storage, preservation, or use of the materials described.
Status Optional
Parent descgrp[@type='admininfo']
Repeatable No
Required Elements head
Optional Elements p, blockquote, table, list
Unused Elements address, chronlist, note, phystech
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, type
Comments The heading for this element - encoded in <head> - should be "Physical Characteristics / Technical Requirements".
Element Name Separated Material
xpath ead/archdesc/descgrp[@type='admininfo']/separatedmaterial
Description Information about materials that are associated by provenance to the described materials but that have been physically separated or removed.
Status Optional
Parent descgrp[@type='admininfo']
Repeatable No
Required Elements head
Optional Elements p, blockquote, table, list
Unused Elements address, archref, bibref, chronlist, extref, linkgrp, note, ref, separatedmaterial, title
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, type
Comments The heading for this element - encoded in <head> - should be "Separated Materials".
Element Name File Plan
xpath ead/archdesc/descgrp[@type='admininfo']/fileplan
Description Information about any classification scheme used for arranging, storing, and retrieving the described materials by the parties originally responsible for creating or compiling them.
Status Optional
Parent descgrp[@type='admininfo']
Repeatable No
Required Elements head
Optional Elements p, blockquote, table, list
Unused Elements address, bibref, chronlist, fileplan, note, ref, title
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog
Comments The heading for this element - encoded in <head> - should be "File Plan".
Element Name Bibliography
xpath ead/archdesc/descgrp[@type='admininfo']/bibliography
Description Citations to works that are based on, about, or of special value when using the materials being described, or works in which a citation to or brief description of the materials is available.
Status Optional
Parent descgrp[@type='admininfo']
Repeatable No
Required Elements head
Optional Elements p, bibref, blockquote, list, table
Unused Elements address, archref, bibliography, chronlist, extref, linkgrp, note, ref, title
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog
Comments The heading for this element - encoded in <head> - should be "Bibliography".

Other <archdesc> Elements

Element Name Biography or History
xpath ead/archdesc/bioghist
Description A concise essay or chronology that places the archival materials in context by providing information about their creator(s).
Status Optional
Parent archdesc
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements head
Optional Elements bioghist, blockquote, chronlist, list, p, table
Unused Elements address, dao, daogrp, note
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes altrender, encodinganalog="545", id
Unused Attributes audience
Comments The heading for this element - encoded in <head> - should be either "Biographical Sketch," "Historical Sketch," or the name of the subject.
Element Name Scope and Content
xpath ead/archdesc/scopecontent
Description A prose statement summarizing the range and topical coverage of the described materials, often mentioning the form and arrangement of the materials and naming significant organizations, individuals, events, places, and subjects represented.
Status Required
Parent archdesc
Repeatable No
Required Elements head
Optional Elements blockquote, chronlist, list, p, table
Unused Elements address, arrangement, dao, daogrp, note, scopecontent
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog
Comments The heading for this element - encoded in <head> - should be "Description of the Papers," "Description of the Records," or "Description of the Collection".
Element Name Arrangement
xpath ead/archdesc/arrangement
Description Information on how the described materials have been subdivided into smaller units, e.g., record groups into series, identifying the logical or physical groupings within a hierarchical structure. Can also be used to express the filing sequence of the described materials, such as the principle characteristics of the internal structure, or the physical or logical ordering of materials, including alphabetical, chronological, geographical, office of origin, and other schemes.
Status Optional
Parent archdesc
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements head
Optional Elements blockquote, list, p, table
Unused Elements address, arrangement, chronlist, note
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog
Comments The heading for this element - encoded in <head> - should be "Arrangement".
Element Name Controlled Access Headings
xpath ead/archdesc/controlaccess
Description A wrapper element that designates key access points for the described materials and enables authority-controlled searching across finding aids on a computer network.
Status Optional
Parent archdesc
Repeatable No
Required Elements head
Optional Elements p, corpname, famname, function, genreform, geogname, name, occupation, persname, subject, title, controlaccess
Unused Elements address, blockquote, chronlist, list, note, table
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog
Comments The heading for this element - encoded in <head> - should be "Access Terms".
Element Name Other Descriptive Data
xpath ead/archdesc/odd
Description An element for information about the described materials that is not easily incorporated into one of the other named elements within archdesc and dsc. Usually used for appendices.
Status Optional
Parent archdesc
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements head
Optional Elements blockquote, chronlist, list, p, table
Unused Elements address, dao, daogrp, note, odd
Required Attributes type="add | appendix | index | microfilm"
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog
Comments The heading for this element - encoded in <head> - should start with "Appendix".
Element Name Index
xpath ead/archdesc/index
Description A list of key terms and reference pointers that have been assembled to enhance access to the materials being described.
Status Optional
Parent archdesc
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements head, indexentry
Optional Elements p, listhead
Unused Elements address, blockquote, chronlist, index, list, note, table
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog
Comments The heading for this element - encoded in <head> - should start with "Index".
Element Name Index Entry
xpath ead/archdesc/index/indexentry
Description A formatting element that pairs an index term with one or more linking elements.
Status Optional
Parent index
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements namegrp, ptrgrp
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements corpname, famname, function, genreform, geogname, indexentry, name, occupation, persname, ptr, subject, title
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience
Element Name Name Group
xpath ead/archdesc/index/indexentry/namegrp
Description A formatting element used in an indexentry to group access element entries that share the same ptrgrp element.
Status Required
Parent indexentry
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements corpname, famname, function, genreform, geogname, name, occupation, persname, subject, title
Unused Elements note
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, id
Element Name Pointer Group
xpath ead/archdesc/index/indexentry/ptrgrp
Description A wrapper element for one or more Pointer ptr or Reference ref elements used in an indexentry.
Status Required
Parent indexentry
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements ptr, ref
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, id

<dsc> Elements

Element Name Description of Subordinate Components
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc
Description A wrapper element that bundles information about the hierarchical groupings of the materials being described.
Status Required
Parent archdesc
Repeatable No
Required Elements head, c01
Optional Elements p, thead
Unused Elements address, blockquote, c, chronlist, dsc, list, note, table
Required Attributes type="combined"
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, othertype, tpattern
Comments The heading for this element - encoded in <head> - should be "Collection Contents".
Element Name Component (First Level)
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc/c01
Description A wrapper element that designates the top or first-level subordinate part of the materials being described.
Status Required
Parent dsc
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements did
Optional Elements accessrestrict, acqinfo, altformavail, arrangement, bioghist, c02, custodhist, note, originalsloc, otherfindaid, phystech, relatedmaterial, scopecontent, userestrict
Unused Elements accruals, appraisal, bibliography, controlaccess, dao, daogrp, descgrp, dsc, fileplan, head, index, odd, prefercite, processinfo, separatedmaterial, thead
Required Attributes level="subgrp | series | subseries | file | item | otherlevel", id
Optional Attributes otherlevel
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, tpattern
Element Name Component (Second Level)
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc/c01/c02
Description A wrapper element that designates a second-level subordinate part of the materials being described.
Status Optional
Parent c01
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements did
Optional Elements accessrestrict, acqinfo, altformavail, arrangement, bioghist, c03, custodhist, note, originalsloc, otherfindaid, phystech, relatedmaterial, scopecontent, userestrict
Unused Elements accruals, appraisal, bibliography, controlaccess, dao, daogrp, descgrp, dsc, fileplan, head, index, odd, prefercite, processinfo, separatedmaterial, thead
Required Attributes id
Optional Attributes level="series | subseries | file | item | otherlevel", otherlevel
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, tpattern
Element Name Component (Third Level)
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc/c01/c02/c03
Description A wrapper element that designates a third-level subordinate part of the materials being described.
Status Optional
Parent c02
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements did
Optional Elements accessrestrict, acqinfo, altformavail, arrangement, bioghist, c04, custodhist, note, originalsloc, otherfindaid, phystech, relatedmaterial, scopecontent, userestrict
Unused Elements accruals, appraisal, bibliography, controlaccess, dao, daogrp, descgrp, dsc, fileplan, head, index, odd, prefercite, processinfo, separatedmaterial, thead
Required Attributes id
Optional Attributes level=" subseries | file | item | otherlevel", otherlevel
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, tpattern
Element Name Component (Fourth Level)
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc/c01/c02/c03/c04
Description A wrapper element that designates a fourth-level subordinate part of the materials being described.
Status Optional
Parent c03
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements did
Optional Elements accessrestrict, acqinfo, altformavail, arrangement, bioghist, c05, custodhist, note, originalsloc, otherfindaid, phystech, relatedmaterial, scopecontent, userestrict
Unused Elements accruals, appraisal, bibliography, controlaccess, dao, daogrp, descgrp, dsc, fileplan, head, index, odd, prefercite, processinfo, separatedmaterial, thead
Required Attributes id
Optional Attributes level=" subseries | file | item | otherlevel", otherlevel
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, tpattern
Element Name Component (Fifth Level)
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc/c01/c02/c03/c04/c05
Description A wrapper element that designates a fifth-level subordinate part of the materials being described.
Status Optional
Parent c04
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements did
Optional Elements accessrestrict, acqinfo, altformavail, arrangement, bioghist, c06, custodhist, note, originalsloc, otherfindaid, phystech, relatedmaterial, scopecontent, userestrict
Unused Elements accruals, appraisal, bibliography, controlaccess, dao, daogrp, descgrp, dsc, fileplan, head, index, odd, prefercite, processinfo, separatedmaterial, thead
Required Attributes id
Optional Attributes level="subseries | file | item | otherlevel", otherlevel
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, tpattern
Element Name Component (Sixth Level)
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc/c01/c02/c03/c04/c05/c06
Description A wrapper element that designates a sixth-level subordinate part of the materials being described.
Status Optional
Parent c05
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements did
Optional Elements accessrestrict, acqinfo, altformavail, arrangement, bioghist, custodhist, note, originalsloc, otherfindaid, phystech, relatedmaterial, scopecontent, userestrict
Unused Elements accruals, appraisal, bibliography, c07, controlaccess, dao, daogrp, descgrp, dsc, fileplan, head, index, odd, prefercite, processinfo, separatedmaterial, thead
Required Attributes id
Optional Attributes level="file | item | otherlevel", otherlevel
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, tpattern
Element Name Component Descriptive Identification
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc/c01/c02//did
Description A required wrapper element that bundles other elements identifying core information about the described materials.
Status Required
Parent c02, c03, c04, c05, c06
Repeatable No
Required Elements unittitle
Optional Elements container, dao, daogrp, langmaterial, materialspec, origination, physdesc, physloc, unitdate, unitid
Unused Elements abstract, head, note, repository
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id

Component Level <did> Elements

Element Name Component Unit ID
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//did/unitid
Description Any alpha-numeric text string that serves as a unique reference point or control number for the described material, such as a lot number, an accession number, a classification number, or an entry number in a bibliography or catalog.
Status Optional
Parent did
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibref, expan, extptr, extref, linkgrp, ptr, ref, title
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes type, countrycode="US", repositorycode
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, identifier, label
Element Name Component Unit Title
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//did/unittitle
Description The name, either formal or supplied, of the described materials.
Status Required
Parent did
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements None
Optional Elements corpname, emph, extref, famname, function, genreform, geogname, lb, name, num, occupation, persname, ref, subject, title, unitdate
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibref, bibseries, date, edition, expan, extptr, imprint, linkgrp, ptr
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes type
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, label
Element Name Component Unit Date
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//did/unitdate
Description The creation year, month, or day of the described materials.
Status Optional
Parent did
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibref, expan, extptr, extref, linkgrp, ptr, ref, title
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes type="inclusive | bulk", normal, calendar="gregorian", era="ce"
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, certainty, datechar, encodinganalog, id, label
Element Name Component Origination
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//did/origination
Description Information about the individual or organization responsible for the creation, accumulation, or assembly of the described materials before their incorporation into an archival repository.
Status Optional
Parent did
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements None
Optional Elements corpname, emph, famname, lb, name, persname, title
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibref, expan, extptr, extref, linkgrp, ptr, ref
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, label
Element Name Component Physical Description
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//did/physdesc
Description A wrapper element for bundling information about the appearance or construction of the described materials, such as their dimensions, a count of their quantity or statement about the space they occupy, and terms describing their genre, form, or function, as well as any other aspects of their appearance, such as color, substance, style, and technique or method of creation.
Status Optional
Parent did
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements None
Optional Elements dimensions, emph, extent, lb, physfacet
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibref, corpname, date, expan, extptr, extref, famname, function, genreform, geogname, linkgrp, name, occupation, persname, ptr, ref, subject, title
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, label, rules, source
Element Name Component Language of the Materials
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//did/langmaterial
Description A prose statement enumerating the language(s) of the archival materials found in the unit being described.
Status Optional
Parent did
Repeatable No
Required Elements language
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibref, expan, extptr, extref, language, linkgrp, ptr, ref, title
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, label
Element Name Material Specific Details
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//did/materialspec
Description Data which are unique to a particular class or form of material and which are not assigned to any other element of description.
Status Optional
Parent did
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, extref, lb, num, title
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibref, expan, extptr, linkgrp, materialspec, ptr, ref
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes type
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, label
Element Name Component Physical Location
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//did/physloc
Description Information identifying the place where the described materials are stored, such as the name or number of the building, room, stack, shelf, or other tangible area.
Status Optional
Parent did
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, extref, lb, title, ptr, ref
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibref, expan, extptr, linkgrp
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, label, parent, type
Element Name Container
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//did/container
Description A did subelement for information that contributes to locating the described materials by indicating the kinds of devices that hold the materials and identifying any sequential numbers assigned to those devices.
Status Optional
Parent did
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibref, expan, extptr, extref, linkgrp, ptr, ref, title
Required Attributes type="Box | Folder | Reel"
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, label, parent

Component level Digital Archival Object Elements

Element Name Digital Archival Object
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc/c01/c02//did/dao
Description A linking element that uses the attribute HREF to connect the finding aid information to electronic representations of the described materials.
Status Optional
Parent did
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements None
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements daodesc
Required Attributes xlink:type="simple", xlink:actuate="onRequest|none", xlink:show="new", xlink:role, xlink:href
Optional Attributes xlink:title
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, entitiyref, id, xlink:arcrole, xpointer
Comments An emplty <dao> element will be used as the target of a link. The link will consist of the text of the <unitid> and or <unittitle> elements as displayed in the finding aid.If xlink:actuate="none", no link will be rendered.
Element Name Digital Archival Object Group
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc/c01/c02//did/daogrp
Description A wrapper element that contains one or more related Digital Archival Object Locations daoloc that should be thought of as a group and may share a single common Digital Archival Object Description daodesc.
Status Optional
Parent did
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements resource, daoloc, arc
Optional Elements daodesc
Unused Elements extptrloc, extrefloc, ptrloc, refloc
Required Attributes xlink:type="extended"
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, id, xlink:role, xlink:title
Comments Two extended link patterns are supported by these best practices. The first pattern is a text link to an external digital archival object. The second pattern is a thumbnail link to an external digital archival object.
Element Name Digital Archival Object Description
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc/c01/c02//did/daogrp/daodesc
Description Information about the contents, usage, or source of a Digital Archival Object dao or Digital Archival Object Group daogrp. When the unittitle or other descriptive information in a c0# element is sufficient to identify one or more digital objects, the daodesc caption is not necessary.
Status Optional
Parent daogrp
Repeatable No
Required Elements p
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements address, blockquote, chronlist, head, list, note, table
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, id
Element Name Digitial Archival Object Group: Text to DAO Pattern
Comments The following is an example of the pattern of daogrp elements that should be used for a text link to a digital archival object, where the text of the resource element is the link anchor and the href attribute of the daoloc element is the target fo the link.If arc[@xlink:actuate='none'], the text will be rendered but the link will not be actionable.
Example <daogrp xlink:type="extended"> <resource xlink:type="resource" xlink:label="start">Digital version of the letter</resource> <daoloc xlink:type="locator" xlink:label="reference" xlink:role="image/jpeg" href=""/> <arc xlink:type="arc" xlink:from="start" xlink:to="reference" xlink:actuate="onRequest" xlink:show="new"/> </daogrp>
Element Name Resource: Text to DAO
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc/c01/c02//did/daogrp/resource
Description A linking element that specifies the local resource that participates in an extended link.
Status Required
Parent daogrp
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes xlink:type="resource", xlink:label="start"
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, id, xlink:role, xlink:title
Element Name Digital Archival Object Location: Text to DAO
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc/c01/c02//did/daogrp/daoloc
Description The location of a Digital Archival Object that is a resource in an extended link. Within a daogrp, a daoloc element is used instead of a dao element to indicate that an extended, possibly multidirectional link is being tagged.
Status Required
Parent daogrp
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes xlink:type="locator", xlink:label="reference", xlink:role, xlink:href
Optional Attributes xlink:title
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, entityref, id, xpointer
Comments If used, the attribute xlink:role should encode the MIME type of the linked resource.
Element Name Arc: Text to DAO
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc/c01/c02//did/daogrp/arc
Description Specifies the rules for traversal among the participating resources in an extended link. Arc uses the attributes to and from to define the traversal between named pairs of resources.
Status Required
Parent daogrp
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes xlink:type="arc", xlink:from="start", xlink:to="reference", xlink:actuate="onRequest|none", xlink:show="new",
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, xlink:arcrole, audience, id, xlink:title
Element Name Digitial Archival Object Group: Thumb to DAO Pattern
Comments The following is an example of the pattern of daogrp elements that should be used for a thumbnail link to a digital archival object, where the image linked from the daoloc element with the label attribute value thumb is the link anchor and the href attribute of the daoloc element with the label attribute value reference is the target fo the link.If arc[@xlink:to='reference'][@xlink:actuate='none'], the thumbnail will be embedded in the finding aid but it will not be an actionable link..
Example <daogrp xlink:type="extended"> <resource xlink:type="resource" xlink:label="start" /> <daoloc xlink:type="locator" xlink:label="thumb" xlink:role="image/jpeg" xlink:href=""/> <daoloc xlink:type="locator" xlink:label="reference" xlink:role="image/jpeg" xlink:href=""/> <arc xlink:type="arc" xlink:from="start" xlink:to="thumb" xlink:actuate="onLoad" xlink:show="embed"/> <arc xlink:type="arc" xlink:from="thumb" xlink:to="reference" xlink:actuate="onRequest" xlink:show="new"/> </daogrp>
Element Name Resource: Thumbnail to DAO
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc/c01/c02//did/daogrp/resource
Description A linking element that specifies the local resource that participates in an extended link.
Status Required
Parent daogrp
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements emph, lb
Required Attributes xlink:type="resource", xlink:label="start"
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, id, xlink:role, xlink:title
Element Name First Digital Archival Object Location: Thumbnail to DAO
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc/c01/c02//did/daogrp/daoloc
Description The location of a Digital Archival Object that is a resource in an extended link. Within a daogrp, a daoloc element is used instead of a dao element to indicate that an extended, possibly multidirectional link is being tagged.
Status Required
Parent daogrp
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes xlink:type="locator", xlink:label="thumb", xlink:role, xlink:href
Optional Attributes xlink:title
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, entityref, id, xpointer
Element Name Second Digital Archival Object Location: Thumbnail to DAO
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc/c01/c02//did/daogrp/daoloc
Description The location of a Digital Archival Object that is a resource in an extended link. Within a daogrp, a daoloc element is used instead of a dao element to indicate that an extended, possibly multidirectional link is being tagged.
Status Required
Parent daogrp
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes xlink:type="locator", xlink:label="reference", xlink:role, xlink:href
Optional Attributes xlink:title
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, entityref, id, xpointer
Element Name First Arc: Thumbnail to DAO
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc/c01/c02//did/daogrp/arc
Description Specifies the rules for traversal among the participating resources in an extended link. Arc uses the attributes to and from to define the traversal between named pairs of resources.
Status Required
Parent daogrp
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes xlink:type="arc", xlink:from="start", xlink:to="thumb", xlink:actuate="onLoad", xlink:show="embed",
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, xlink:arcrole, audience, id, xlink:title
Element Name Second Arc: Thumbnail to DAO
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc/c01/c02//did/daogrp/arc
Description Specifies the rules for traversal among the participating resources in an extended link. Arc uses the attributes to and from to define the traversal between named pairs of resources.
Status Required
Parent daogrp
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes xlink:type="arc", xlink:from="thumb", xlink:to="reference", xlink:actuate="onRequest|none", xlink:show="new",
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, xlink:arcrole, audience, id, xlink:title

Component Level <did> Sibling Elements

Element Name Component Level Conditions Governing Access
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//accessrestrict
Description Information about conditions that affect the availability of the materials being described.
Status Optional
Parent c01, c02, c03, c04, c05, c06
Repeatable No
Required Elements p, list
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements accessrestrict, address, blockquote, chronlist, head, legalstatus, note, table
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, type
Element Name Component Level Acquisition Information
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//acqinfo
Description The immediate source of the materials being described and the circumstances under which they were received.
Status Optional
Parent c01, c02, c03, c04, c05, c06
Repeatable No
Required Elements p, list
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements acqinfo, address, blockquote, chronlist, head, note, table
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Component Level Alternative Form Available
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//altformavail
Description Information about copies of the materials being described, including the type of alternative form, significant control numbers, location, and source for ordering if applicable.
Status Optional
Parent c01, c02, c03, c04, c05, c06
Repeatable No
Required Elements p, list
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements address, altformavail, blockquote, chronlist, head, note, table
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, type
Element Name Component Level Arrangement
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//arrangement
Description Information on how the described materials have been subdivided into smaller units or the filing sequence of the described materials.
Status Optional
Parent c01, c02, c03, c04, c05, c06
Repeatable No
Required Elements p, list
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements address, arrangement, blockquote, chronlist, head, note, table
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Component Level Biography or History
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//bioghist
Description A concise essay or chronology that places the archival materials in context by providing information about their creator(s).
Status Optional
Parent c01, c02, c03, c04, c05, c06
Repeatable No
Required Elements p, list
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements address, bioghist, blockquote, chronlist, dao, daogrp, head, note, table
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Component Level Custodial History
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//custodhist
Description Information about the chain of ownership of the materials being described, before they reached the immediate source of acquisition.
Status Optional
Parent c01, c02, c03, c04, c05, c06
Repeatable No
Required Elements p, list
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements acqinfo, address, blockquote, chronlist, custodhist, head, note, table
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Component Level Note
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//note
Description A generic element that provides a short statement explaining the text, indicating the basis for an assertion, or citing the source of a quotation or other information. Used both for general comments and as an annotation for the text in a finding aid.
Status Optional
Parent c01, c02, c03, c04, c05, c06
Repeatable No
Required Elements p, list
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements address, blockquote, chronlist, note, table
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes type
Unused Attributes actuate, altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, label, show
Element Name Component Level Location of Originals
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//originalsloc
Description Information about the existence, location, availability, and/or the destruction of originals where the unit described consists of copies.
Status Optional
Parent c01, c02, c03, c04, c05, c06
Repeatable No
Required Elements p, list
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements address, blockquote, chronlist, head, note, originalsloc, table
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, type
Element Name Component Level Other Finding Aid
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//otherfindaid
Description Information about additional or alternative guides to the described material, such as card files, dealers' inventories, or lists generated by the creator or compiler of the materials.
Status Optional
Parent c01, c02, c03, c04, c05, c06
Repeatable No
Required Elements p, list
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements address, blockquote, chronlist, head, note, otherfindaid, table
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Component Level Physical Characteristics and Technical Requirements
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//phystech
Description A description of important physical conditions or characteristics that affect the storage, preservation, or use of the materials described. This includes details of their physical composition or the need for particular hardware or software to preserve or access the materials.
Status Optional
Parent c01, c02, c03, c04, c05, c06
Repeatable No
Required Elements p, list
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements address, blockquote, chronlist, head, note, phystech, table
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, type
Element Name Component Level Related Material
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//relatedmaterial
Description Information about materials that are not physically or logically included in the material described in the finding aid but that may be of use to a reader because of an association to the described materials.
Status Optional
Parent c01, c02, c03, c04, c05, c06
Repeatable No
Required Elements p, list
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements address, archref, bibref, blockquote, chronlist, extref, head, linkgrp, note, ref, relatedmaterial, table, title
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, type
Element Name Component Level Scope and Content
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//scopecontent
Description A prose statement summarizing the range and topical coverage of the described materials, often mentioning the form and arrangement of the materials and naming significant organizations, individuals, events, places, and subjects represented.
Status Optional
Parent c01, c02, c03, c04, c05, c06
Repeatable No
Required Elements p, list
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements address, arrangement, blockquote, chronlist, dao, daogrp, head, note, scopecontent, table
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Component Level Conditions Governing Use
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//userestrict
Description Information about conditions that affect use of the described materials after access has been granted.
Status Optional
Parent c01, c02, c03, c04, c05, c06
Repeatable No
Required Elements p, list
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements address, blockquote, chronlist, head, note, table, userestrict
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, type
Element Name Component Level File Plan
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//fileplan
Description Information about any classification scheme used for arranging, storing, and retrieving the described materials by the parties originally responsible for creating or compiling them.
Status Optional
Parent c01, c02, c03, c04, c05, c06
Repeatable No
Required Elements p, list
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements address, blockquote, chronlist, fileplan, head, note, table
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Component Level Bibliography
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//bibliography
Description Citations to works that are based on, about, or of special value when using the materials being described, or works in which a citation to or brief description of the materials is available.
Status Optional
Parent c01, c02, c03, c04, c05, c06
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements p, list, bibref
Unused Elements address, archref, bibliography, blockquote, chronlist, extref, head, linkgrp, note, ref, table, title
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Component Level Processing Information
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//processinfo
Description Information about accessioning, arranging, describing, preserving, storing, or otherwise preparing the described materials for research use.
Status Optional
Parent c01, c02, c03, c04, c05, c06
Repeatable No
Required Elements p, list
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements address, blockquote, chronlist, head, note, processinfo, table
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, type
Element Name Component Level Accruals
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//accruals
Description Information about anticipated additions to the materials being described.
Status Optional
Parent c01, c02, c03, c04, c05, c06
Repeatable No
Required Elements p, list
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements accruals, address, blockquote, chronlist, head, note, table
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Component Level Appraisal
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//appraisal
Description Information about the process of determining the archival value and thus the disposition of records based upon their current administrative, legal, and fiscal use; their evidential, intrinsic, and informational value; their arrangement and condition; and their relationship to other records.
Status Optional
Parent c01, c02, c03, c04, c05, c06
Repeatable No
Required Elements p, list
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements address, appraisal, blockquote, chronlist, head, note, table
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Component Level Preferred Citation
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//prefercite
Description Information about how users should identify the described materials when referring to them in published credits.
Status Optional
Parent c01, c02, c03, c04, c05, c06
Repeatable No
Required Elements p, list
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements address, blockquote, chronlist, head, note, prefercite, table
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Component Level Separated Material
xpath ead/archdesc/dsc//separatedmaterial
Description Information about materials that are associated by provenance to the described materials but that have been physically separated or removed.
Status Optional
Parent c01, c02, c03, c04, c05, c06
Repeatable No
Required Elements p, list
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements address, archref, bibref, blockquote, chronlist, extref, head, linkgrp, note, ref, separatedmaterial, table, title
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, type

Generic Block Data Elements

Block data elements can be used in many EAD data elements as listed above.

Element Name Heading
xpath ead/archdesc//head
Description A generic element that designates the title or caption for a section of text, including a list.
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements extptr, ptr
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes althead
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, id
Element Name Paragraph
xpath ead/archdesc//p
Description One or more sentences that form a logical prose passage. A paragraph may be a subdivision of a larger composition, or it may exist alone.
Required Elements None
Optional Elements corpname, famname, function, genreform, geogname, date, emph, extptr, extref, lb, name, num, occupation, persname, ptr, ref, subject, title
Unused Elements abbr, address, archref, bibref, blockquote, chronlist, expan, linkgrp, list, note, origination, repository, table, unitdate, unittitle
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, id
Element Name Bibliographic Reference
xpath ead/archdesc//bibref
Description A reference element that provides a citation and/or electronic link for a published work such as a book, article, dissertation, motion picture, or sound recording.
Required Elements None
Optional Elements corpname, famname, emph, extptr, extref, lb, name, num, persname, ptr, ref, title
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibseries, edition, expan, imprint
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes xlink:type="simple"
Unused Attributes xlink:actuate, altrender, xlink:arcrole, audience, encodinganalog, entityref, xlink:href, id, xlink:role, xlink:show, xlink:show, xlink:title, xpointer
Element Name Block Quote
xpath ead/archdesc//blockquote
Description A formatting element that designates an extended quotation.
Required Elements p
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements address, chronlist, list, note, table
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, id
Element Name Address
xpath ead//address
Description A generic element for information about the place where someone or something is located and may be reached.
Required Elements addressline
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, id
Element Name Address Line
xpath ead//address/addressline
Description A generic element for one line of a postal or other address. May be repeated as many times as necessary to enter all available lines of an address.
Status Required
Parent address
Repeatable yes
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements extptr, ptr
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes altrender="email | fax | phone"
Unused Attributes audience, id
Element Name List
xpath ead/archdesc//list
Description A formatting element that contains a series of words or numerals (called items) separated from one another and arranged in a linear, often vertical sequence.
Required Elements item | defitem
Optional Elements head, listhead
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes type="simple | deflist | marked | ordered"
Optional Attributes numeration="arabic | upperalpha | loweralpha | upperroman | lowerroman"
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, continuation, id, mark
Element Name Item
xpath ead/archdesc//list//item
Description A formatting element used as an entry in a simple, random, or ordered list.
Parent list | defitem
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements None
Optional Elements corpname, date, emph, extref, famname, function, genreform, geogname, lb, list, name, num, occupation, persname, ref, subject, title
Unused Elements abbr, address, archref, bibref, blockquote, chronlist, expan, extptr, linkgrp, note, origination, ptr, repository, table, unitdate, unittitle
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience
Element Name Definition List Item
xpath ead/archdesc//list/defitem
Description A formatting element in a special type of list that keeps an entry in a list (called a label) paired with its definition, description, or explanation (called an item).
Status Optional
Parent list
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements label, item
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes id
Unused Attributes altrender, audience
Element Name Label
xpath ead/archdesc//list/defitem/label
Description A formatting element that identifies the term or concept being described, defined, or explained in a Definition List Item defitem.
Status Required
Parent defitem
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements corpname, date, emph, extref, famname, function, genreform, geogname, lb, name, num, occupation, persname, ref, subject, title
Unused Elements abbr, address, archref, bibref, blockquote, chronlist, expan, extptr, linkgrp, list, note, origination, ptr, repository, table, unitdate, unittitle
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, id
Element Name List Head
xpath ead/archdesc//listhead
Description A formatting element that groups headings for columns in a definition, marked, or ordered list, Chronology List chronlist, or index. The headings are called head01 and head02.
Status Optional
Parent list | chronlist
Repeatable No
Required Elements head01, head02
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, id
Element Name First List Heading
xpath ead/archdesc//listhead/head01
Description Formatting element within listhead that designate the heading over the first columns in a two column list.
Status Required
Parent listhead
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements extptr, ptr
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, id
Element Name Second List Heading
xpath ead/archdesc//listhead/head02
Description Formatting element within listhead that designate the heading over the second column in a two column list.
Status Required
Parent listhead
Repeatable No
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, ptr
Unused Elements extptr, ptr
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, id
Element Name Chronological List
xpath ead/archdesc//chronlist
Description A formatting element that designates information about the sequence in which significant past events, associated with the described materials, occurred.
Status Optional
Parent ead/archdesc//bioghist[not(ancestor::dsc)] | ead/archdesc/scopecontent | ead/archdesc/descgrp[@type='admininfo']/descgrp[@type='provenance']/acqinfo
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements chronitem
Optional Elements head, listhead
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Chronology List Item
xpath ead/archdesc//chronlist/chronitem
Description A formatting element that keeps a date paired with an associated event or group of events within a Chronology List chronlist.
Status Required
Parent chronitem
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements date, eventgrp
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements event
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, id
Element Name Event Group
xpath ead/archdesc/chronlist//chronitem/eventgrp
Description An element within a Chronology List Item chronitem that bundles one or more event elements associated with the same date.
Status Required
Parent chronitem
Repeatable No
Required Elements event
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, id
Element Name Event
xpath ead/archdesc//chronlist/chronitem/eventgrp/event
Description That part of a Chronology List Item chronitem which describes or names something that happened. The event is paired with a date (a single date or date range) and can be grouped with other events in eventgrp, if multiple events need to be associated with the same date.
Status Required
Parent eventgrp
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements None
Optional Elements corpname, date, emph, extref, famname, function, genreform, geogname, lb, name, num, occupation, persname, ref, subject, title, unitdate
Unused Elements abbr, address, archref, bibref, blockquote, chronlist, expan, extptr, linkgrp, list, note, origination, ptr, repository, table, unittitle
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, id
Element Name Table
xpath ead/archdesc//table
Description A wrapper element for formatting information in a row and column display.
Required Elements tgroup
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, colsep, frame, id, pgwide, rowsep
Element Name Table Group
xpath ead/archdesc//table/tgroup
Description A formatting element that bundles table subelements: colspec, thead, and tbody. Tables are comprised of one or more tgroup elements, depending on the number of times the column specifications change. The tgroup element provides a subgrouping of rows within a table that all use the same column specifications.
Status Required
Parent table
Repeatable No
Required Elements tbody
Optional Elements colspec, thead
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes cols
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes align, altrender, audience, colsep, id, rowsep
Element Name Table Head
xpath ead/archdesc//table/tgroup/thead | ead/archdesc/dsc/thead | ead/archdesc/dsc/c01/thead
Description A formatting element that contains the heading information in a table, usually column heads, that appears at the top of the table and may appear again at the top of any physical break in rows in the body. Also, a formatting element that is used to provide column headings for components of the dsc element.
Status Optional
Parent tgroup | c01
Repeatable No
Required Elements row
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes valign="top | middle | bottom"
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, id
Element Name Table Body
xpath ead/archdesc//table/tgroup/tbody
Description A formatting element that contains one or more row elements, which in turn contain entry elements in a table.
Status Required
Parent tgroup
Repeatable No
Required Elements row
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes valign="top | middle | bottom"
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, id
Element Name Row
xpath ead/archdesc//table//row | ead/archdesc/dsc/c01/thead/row
Description A formatting element that contains one or more entry elements (horizontal cells) in a table.
Status Required
Parent thead | tbody
Required Elements entry
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes valign="top | middle | bottom"
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, id, rowsep
Element Name Table Entry
xpath ead/archdesc//table//row/entry | ead/archdesc/dsc/c01/thead/row/entry
Description A formatting element that designates the contents of a cell in a table. A cell is the intersection of a row and a column.
Status Required
Parent row
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements None
Optional Elements corpname, date, emph, extref, famname, function, genreform, geogname, lb, name, num, occupation, persname, ref, subject, title
Unused Elements abbr, address, archref, bibref, blockquote, chronlist, expan, extptr, linkgrp, list, note, origination, ptr, repository, table, unitdate, unittitle
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes align="left | right | center | justify | char", valign="top | middle | bottom", colname=""
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, char, charoff, colsep, id, morerows, nameend, namest, rowsep
Comments @colname should be used within <thead>s that are children of dsc or c01. Those <thead>s are used to change the default dsc column headers. @colname values control which column heading is replaced. Acceptable values include "box", "folder", "reel", "desc", and "dates", corresponding to the Box, Folder, Reel, Description, and Dates columns.

Inline Access Point Elements

The following inline access point elements can be used in many EAD data elements as listed above.

Element Name Personal Name
xpath ead/archdesc//persname
Description The proper noun designation for an individual, including any or all of that individual's forenames, surnames, honorific titles, and added names.
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements extptr, ptr
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes encodinganalog="100 | 600 | 692 | 700", role, rules, source
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, authfilenumber, id, normal
Element Name Corporate Name
xpath ead/archdesc//corpname
Description The proper noun name that identifies an organization or group of people that acts as an entity.
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements extptr, ptr
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes encodinganalog="110 | 111 | 610 | 611 | 693 | 710 | 711", role, rules, source
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, authfilenumber, id, normal
Element Name Family Name
xpath ead/archdesc//famname
Description The proper noun designation for a group of persons closely related by blood or persons who form a household.
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements extptr, ptr
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes encodinganalog="100 | 600 | 700", role, rules, source
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, authfilenumber, id, normal
Element Name Name
xpath ead/archdesc//name
Description The proper noun or noun phrase designation for an entity that is difficult to tag more specifically as a corpname, famname, geogname, persname, or title.
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements extptr, ptr
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes encodinganalog, role, rules, source
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, authfilenumber, id, normal
Element Name Subject
xpath ead/archdesc//subject
Description A name or phrase that indicates a secondary or subsidiary administrative level within a repository or other corporate body; a specialized area of subject or other collecting emphasis within a larger unit; or an ancillary collecting area based on the physical form of the materials.
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements extptr, ptr
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes encodinganalog="650 | 690", rules, source
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, authfilenumber, id, normal
Element Name Geographic Name
xpath ead/archdesc//geogname
Description The proper noun designation for a place, natural feature, or political jurisdiction.
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements extptr, ptr
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes encodinganalog="651", role, rules, source
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, authfilenumber, id, normal
Element Name Genre/Physical Characteristic
xpath ead/archdesc//genreform
Description A term that identifies the types of material being described, by naming the style or technique of their intellectual content (genre); order of information or object function (form); and physical characteristics.
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements extptr, ptr
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes encodinganalog="655", rules, source
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, authfilenumber, id, normal, type
Element Name Occupation
xpath ead/archdesc//occupation
Description A term identifying a type of work, profession, trade, business, or avocation significantly reflected in the materials being described.
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements extptr, ptr
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes encodinganalog="656", rules, source
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, authfilenumber, id, normal
Element Name Function
xpath ead/archdesc//function
Description Terms for the spheres of activities and processes that generated the described materials.
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements extptr, ptr
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes encodinganalog="657", rules, source
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, authfilenumber, id, normal
Element Name Title
xpath ead/archdesc//title
Description The formal name of a work, such as a monograph, serial, or painting, listed in a finding aid.
Required Elements None
Optional Elements date, emph, lb, num
Unused Elements extptr, ptr
Required Attributes render="altrender | bold | bolddoublequote | bolditalic | boldsinglequote | boldsmcaps | boldunderline | doublequote | italic | nonproport | singlequote | smcaps | sub | super | underline", xlink:type="simple"
Optional Attributes encodinganalog="630 | 730 | 740"', xlink:role, rules, source, altrender
Unused Attributes xlink:actuate, xlink:arcrole, audience, authfilenumber, xlink:href, id, normal, xlink:show, xlink:title, type, xpointer
Element Name Date
xpath ead/archdesc//date
Description A generic element that contains a month, day, or year in any format. Use date to identify any dates that merit encoding, except for the creation and other relevant dates of the described materials, which are instead tagged with the unitdate element.
Parent titleproper[@type='formal'], subtitle, publicationstmt, creation, change, p, item, label, chronitem, event, title, ref, extref
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements extptr, ptr
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes normal, calendar="gregorian", era="ce", type="original | ead | copyright | revised | XMetaLAuthor | Edix/Wordix | Excel | NoteTabPro | openOffice | OfficeOfOrigin:Word| vendor:ES | vendor:ArchProteus"
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, certainty, encodinganalog, id
Comments
Element Name Number
xpath ead//num
Description A generic element for numeric information in any form. The num element is used only when it is necessary to display a number in a special way, or to identify it with a TYPE attribute.
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements extptr, ptr
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes type
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Element Name Language
xpath ead//language
Description A subelement of langusage within the profiledesc portion of the eadheader that specifies the language or communication system in which the finding aid is written. Also a subelement of langmaterial within did, where it specifies the language of the materials being described.
Status Required
Parent langusage, langmaterial
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements extptr, ptr
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes langcode, scriptcode
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id
Comments The langcode attribute value must come from the ISO 639-2b list (http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/).The scriptcode attribute value must come from the ISO 15924 list (http://unicode.org/iso15924/iso15924-codes.html).

Inline <physdesc> Child Elements

The following inline elements can be used in the <physdesc> element.

Element Name Component Extent
xpath ead/archdesc//physdesc/extent
Description A physdesc subelement for information about the quantity of the materials being described or an expression of the physical space they occupy.
Status Optional
Parent physdesc
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibref, expan, extptr, extref, linkgrp, ptr, ref, title
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, label, type, unit
Element Name Component Dimensions
xpath ead/archdesc//physdesc/dimensions
Description A subelement of physdesc for information about the size of the materials being described; usually includes numerical data.
Status Optional
Parent physdesc
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibref, dimensions, expan, extptr, extref, linkgrp, ptr, ref, title
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, label, type, unit
Element Name Component Physical Facet
xpath ead/archdesc//physdesc/physfacet
Description A physdesc subelement for information about an aspect of the appearance of the described materials, such as their color, style, marks, substances, materials, or techniques and methods of creation.
Status Optional
Parent physdesc
Repeatable Yes
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, lb
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibref, corpname, date, expan, extptr, extref, famname, function, genreform, geogname, linkgrp, name, occupation, persname, ptr, ref, subject, title
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, audience, encodinganalog, id, label, rules, source, type, unit

Inline Style Elements

The following inline style elements can be used in many EAD data elements as listed above.

Element Name Emphasis
xpath ead//emph
Description Indicates text to be displayed with the form of emphasis noted in the render attribute. Use the RENDER attribute to specify the kind of emphasis, e.g., bold or italics.
Required Elements None
Optional Elements emph, extref, lb, ref, title
Unused Elements abbr, archref, bibref, expan, extptr, linkgrp, ptr
Required Attributes render="altrender | bold | bolddoublequote | bolditalic | boldsinglequote | boldsmcaps | boldunderline | doublequote | italic | nonproport | singlequote | smcaps | sub | super | underline"
Optional Attributes altrender
Unused Attributes id
Comments Should be used sparingly, only when necessary to indicate style for text where it is not indicated another element that is part of the regular EAD document structure.
Element Name Line Break
xpath ead//lb
Description An empty formatting element that forces text to start on a new line at a point chosen by the author rather than a linewrap algorithm or style sheet. Use only when a line break is needed within an element.
Required Elements None
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes None
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes None
Comments Should be used sparingly, only when necessary to indicate a line break at a point in the document where a break is not indicated another element that is part of the regular EAD document structure.

Linking Elements

The following linking elements can be used in many EAD data elements as listed above.

Element Name Reference
xpath ead//ref
Description An internal linking element that provides for movement from one place in a finding aid to another place in the same finding aid.
Required Elements None
Optional Elements corpname, date, famname, function, genreform, geogname, emph, lb, name, num, occupation, persname, subject, title
Unused Elements abbr, address, archref, bibref, blockquote, chronlist, expan, extptr, extref, list, note, origination, ptr, repository, table, unitdate, unittitle
Required Attributes target, xlink:type="simple", xlink:actuate="onRequest", xlink:show="replace"
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, xlink:arcrole, audience, xlink:href, id, xlink:role, xlink:title, xpointer
Comments Uses the target attribute and the id attribute value of another element to link to a different location in the finding aid.
Element Name Pointer
xpath ead//ptr
Description An empty internal linking element that uses attributes to provide for movement from one place in a finding aid to another place in the same finding aid.
Required Elements None
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes target, xlink:type="simple", xlink:actuate="onRequest", xlink:show="replace"
Optional Attributes None
Unused Attributes altrender, xlink:arcrole, audience, xlink:href, id, xlink:role, xlink:title, xpointer
Comments Uses the target attribute and the id attribute value of another element to link to a different location in the finding aid.
Element Name Extended Reference
xpath ead//extref
Description A linking element that can include text and subelements as part of its reference to an electronic object that is external to the EAD document.
Required Elements None
Optional Elements corpname, date, famname, function, genreform, geogname, emph, lb, name, num, occupation, persname, subject, title
Unused Elements abbr, address, archref, bibref, blockquote, chronlist, expan, extptr, extref, list, note, origination, ptr, repository, table, unitdate, unittitle
Required Attributes xlink:href, xlink:type="simple", xlink:actuate="onRequest", xlink:show="new"
Optional Attributes xlink:role
Unused Attributes altrender, xlink:arcrole, audience, entityref, id, xlink:title, xpointer
Comments Used to create a link to external web pages or other web resources.If used, the attribute xlink:role should encode the MIME type of the linked resource.
Element Name Extended Pointer
xpath ead//extptr
Description An empty linking element that uses attributes to connect the EAD document to an external electronic object, which is not part of the materials being described.
Required Elements None
Optional Elements None
Unused Elements None
Required Attributes xlink:href, xlink:type="simple", xlink:actuate="onLoad", xlink:show="embed"
Optional Attributes xlink:title, xlink:role="image/jpeg | image/gif | image/png"
Unused Attributes altrender, xlink:arcrole, audience, entityref, id, xpointer
Comments Used to embed external images in the text of the finding aid. Not used for linking to digital representations of the described materials.If used, the attribute xlink:role should encode the MIME type of the linked resource.
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