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Near East Collection: Early Arabic Printing

Early Arabic Printing

Movable Type & Lithography

An Exhibition
Presented by the Near East Collection
April 1 to June 30, 2009


 

The Arabic and Persian books displayed in this exhibition are samples of early printed books in the Arabic script. Some of them are printed by the movable type method which was invented by Johann Gutenberg ca. 1439, others are lithographs, i.e. they were produced by a later method of printing called lithography (from the two Greek words lithos “stone” + graphio “to write”). Lithography, a precursor to offset printing, was invented by Alois Senefelder of Munich (1771-1834) in 1796. It uses a plate of stone with completely smooth surface to which is applied oil or fat and gum arabic to divide the smooth surface into regions which accept the ink and regions which reject it; hence, exploiting the reciprocally repellent properties of oil and water. It was widely used in printing books written in the Arabic script instead of the movable type because it is more convenient for the reproduction of the elegant handwritten manuscripts.

 

The role of the Arabs in the introduction of paper into Europe is very well documented. Paper was invented by the Chinese in the 1st century CE. It was transmitted to the Arabs around the middle of the 8th century CE. It is also well documented that the Chinese invented block printing and the movable type several centuries before its use in Europe. However, the moveable type was not much used by the Chinese due to the nature of the Chinese script.

The contribution of the Arabs, though, to the art of printing is still under investigation. Scholars have found evidence that the Arabs have in deed known the art of block printing and have produced written evidences in addition to artifacts of Arabic block printed materials. These artifacts are scattered in museums and libraries in Europe and the United States and also in private collections. Several studies have been written on this subject (Cf. the excellent study: Enigmatic charms: medieval Arabic block printed amulets in American and European libraries and museums / by Karl R. Schaefer. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2006).

The established tradition is that the moveable type and the wooden printing press which was modeled after the wine and olive press was invented by the German goldsmith Johann Gutenberg (1397?-1468). It is also said that Gutenberg was familiar with block printing and that he had worked on copper engravings with an artist known only by the epithet “Master of the Playing Cards.”

After learning to make paper and establishing paper mills throughout the Islamic Empire the Arabs wrote most of their handwritten manuscripts on paper. This tradition continued until the movable type printing press was widely introduced to the region after the French occupation of Egypt in 1798. For one reason or another, block printing among the Arabs was not developed, mostly, it seems, because those who practiced it were considered renegades, swindlers, sorcerers and magicians who wrote magical amulets to sell them in mass to simple people. On the other hand, block printing, however its degree of perfection, cannot rival the elegant calligraphy and decorations used in handwritten manuscripts.

Soon after the invention of the movable type in Europe, European scholars started to utilize other kinds of scripts. The first books to be printed in the Oriental languages in Europe were religious texts. In 1455 the Hebrew Bible was printed in Ferrara (Italy). The first Arabic book to be printed in movable type was also a religious book, Salat al-Sawa‘i bi-Hasab Taqs Kanisat al-Iskandariyah (صلاة السواعي بحسب طقس كنيسة الإسكندرية) “Prayers of the Hours According to the Liturgy of the Church of Alexandria.” It was printed in Fano (Italy). The Fano printing press was established by Pope Julius II (1443-1513). The second book was the Book of Psalms (in Hebrew, Greek, Arabic and Syriac with Latin translations). It was printed in 1516 in Genoa (Italy) at the order of the French king François I (1494-1547). Soon after, Arabic printing presses were established in other European cities; the most famous was the one founded by the Dutch scholar and Orientalist Thomas Erpenius (1584-1624) in Leiden (the Netherland). In this press Erpenius printed Arabic secular books, notably grammatical, poetical and historical books which he used in his teaching. The first Koran was printed in 1530 in Venice (Italy). Commentaries on the Koran by al-Baydawi (d. 1286?), al-Zamakhshari (1075-1144) and al-Suyuti (1445-1505) were printed in Padova (Italy) in 1632 with an introduction by the Catholic priest and scholar Louis (or Ludovico) Maracci (1612-1700).

The establishment of the Arabic printing presses in the Ottoman Empire was delayed due to the fear of the sultans that some biased persons might tamper with the sacred religious texts. Hence, in 1485 Sultan Bayezid II (1447 or 8-1512) issued a royal decree prohibiting the use of printed books. A similar decree was issued in 1515 by the Sultan Selim I (1470-1520). However, these prohibitions were not applied to books printed by Dhimmis (or People of the Book, i.e. Christians and Jews). Hence, Presses for printing Hebrew books were founded at the end of the 15th century in Constantinople and other cities in the Ottoman Empire.

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  Simon Samoeil, Curator of the Near East Collection,
  and Margot Curran, Exhibit Conservator.

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The first Arabic press to be established in the Ottoman Empire was founded in Constantinople, ca. 1720 during the reign of the Sultan Ahmed III (1673-1736) by the endeavors of Ahmet Efendi Celebi (أحمد أفندي چلبي) and his son Sait (سعيد) who enlisted the expertise of the Hungarian convert to Islam, the talented artisan and expert printer, İbrahim Muteferrika (إبراهيم متفرقة) (1674?-1745). The first Arabic book to be printed in this press was a translation into Ottoman Turkish of the Arabic lexicon al-Sihah (الصحاح) of al-Jawhari (d. 1003?) in the year 1728.

However, it seems that the Greek Melkite Christian community of Aleppo (Syria) founded an Arabic press to print their religious and liturgical texts at the beginning of the 18th century. The first books to be printed were the Psalms and the Gospels (in 1706) both translated into Arabic by the Bishop ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Fadl al-Antaki (عبد الله بن الفضل الأنطاكي) (d. 1052). The second press in Aleppo was established by the Maronite Church in 1857 by the endeavors of the Bishop Yusuf Matar (يوسف مطر).

In Lebanon several Arabic printing presses were also established. The first was in the town of al-Shuwayr near Beirut, by the endeavors of the scholar Abd Allah ibn Zakhariya Zakhir (عبد الله بن زخريا زاخر) (1684-1748) who was originally a goldsmith from the city of Aleppo (Syria). The second was the famous American Press which was established in Malta and then transferred to Beirut by the Protestant missionary and Yale Graduate (class of 1821), the Revered Eli Smith (1801-1857) who started working on the translation of the Bible into Arabic. The translation was completed after his death by his colleague Cornelius Van Dyck, (1818-1895).

In Egypt, the first printing press started with Napoleon’s campaign in 1798 in which were printed leaflets and pamphlets of decrees and ordinances of Napoleon (1769-1821). However, when Muhammad Ali Basha ((محمد علي باشا (1769-1849) became the ruler of Egypt in 1805 he resumed the work of the press in 1819 and named it “al-Matba‘ah al-Ahliyah” (المطبعة الأهلية) “The National Press”. The press was then transferred to the district of Bulaq on the Nile from whence its name “Matba‘at Bulaq” (مطبعة بولاق), i.e. the Bulaq Press. The Bulaq Press produced magnificent works not only in the traditional Arabic/Islamic sciences but also in all aspects of modern sciences which were translated into Arabic from the different European languages by competent Egyptian scholars and translators.


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فصل الخطاب في أصول لغة الأعراب
كتاب فصل الخطاب في أصول لغة الأعراب / تأليف ناصيف اليازجي اللبناني

Faṣl al-khiṭāb fī uṣūl lughat al-A‘rāb
Kitāb Faṣl al-khiṭāb fī uṣūl lughat al-A‘rāb / ta’līf Nāṣīf al-Yāzijī al-Lubnānī.
[Beirut : s.n.], 1866, 2nd ed.
 
A small but concise manual on Arabic grammar, its morphology and syntax, by Nāṣīf al-Yāzijī (1800-1871) one of the early 19th century Syrian/Lebanese famous intellectuals, teachers and poets. He worked at the beginning for 12 years as a secretary for the governor of Lebanon Emir Bashsīr al-Shihābī (1767-1850) but then devoted his time to teaching and writing.
 
Location: LSF, Yale Classification
Call Number: Fo50 Y283

 

 

هذه مجموعة الكتب المتداولة لدرس النحو قد اجتهد في تصحيحها وصونها عن الغلط والسهو

An entire and correct edition of the five books upon Arabic grammar which together with the principles of inflection in the Arabic language form the first part of a classical education throughout all the seminaries of Asia / carefully collated with the most ancient and accurate manuscripts which could be found in India by J. Baillie.
 
Calcutta : Printed at the Honorable Company Press, 1802-1805.
 
A manual of Arabic grammar comprising four short treatises in two vols. edited by the Lieutenant John Baillie (1772-1833), Professor of Arabic & Persian languages and of Islamic law at the College of Fort William in Calcutta, India.
 
Location: SML, Stacks, Yale Classification
Call Number: Fo50 B15

 
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عيون الأنباء في طبقات الأطباء
كتاب عيون الأنباء في طبقات الأطباء / تأليف موفق الدين أبي العباس أحمد بن القاسم بن خليفة بن يونس السعدي الخزرجي المعروف بابن أبي أصيبعة ؛ نقله من النسخ الموجودة في بعض خزائن الكتب وصححه إمرؤ القيس بن الطحان [أوغست مولر]

ʻUyūn al-anbāʾ fī ṭabaqāt al-aṭibbāʾ
Kitāb ʻuyūn al-anbāʾ fī ṭabaqāt al-aṭibbāʾ / by Muwaffaq al-Dīn Abī al-ʻAbbās Aḥmad ibn al-Qāsim ibn Khalīfah ibn Yūnus al-Saʻdī al-Khazrajī al-maʻrūf bi-Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʻah ; naqalahu min al-nusakh al-mawjūdah fī baʻḍ khazāʾin al-kutub wa-ṣaḥḥaḥahu Imruʾ al-Qays ibn al-Ṭaḥḥān [i.e. August Müller] (1848-1892)
[Cairo] : al-Maṭbaʻah al-Wahbīyah, 1299 [1882]
 
On the categories and biographies of physicians by the famous biographer and historian of Arab medicine Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʻah, Aḥmad ibn al-Qāsim (d. 1269 or 70). Comprises the Arabic text and index of the critical edition published in Königsberg (Germany) in 1884.
 
Location: SML, Stacks, Yale Classification
Call Number: Fod48 Ib44 1882

 

 

نسيم الصبا
كتاب نسيم الصبا / تأليف ابن حبيب الحلبي

Nasīm al-ṣabā
Kitāb Nasīm al-ṣabā / by Ibn Ḥabīb al-Ḥalabī.
Qusṭanṭīnīyah : Maṭbaʻat al-Jawāʾib, 1302 [1885]
 
A short treatise in thirty chapters on the different aspects of Arabic rhetoric and literary eloquence by the critic, historian and religious scholar Badr al-Dīn al-Ḥasan ibn ʻUmar ibn Ḥabīb al-Ḥalabī (1310-1377)
 
Location: SML, Near East Collection
Call Number: PJ7760 I2455 N3 1885

 
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كتاب فرائض مجمع راهبات دير سيدة بشارة الكلية القداسة مريم العذرا الباسيليات الروم الملكيات المنتيات لمجمع رهبان القديس ماري يوحنا الملقب بالشوير الروم الباسيليين المثبتة بالبراءة الرسولية من سيدنا الكلي القداسة إكليمنضس الثالث عشر الحبر الأعظم

Kitāb Farayiḍ Majmaʻ Rāhibāt Dayr Bishārat al-Kullīyat al-Qadāsah Maryam al-ʻAdhrā al-Bāsīlīyāt al-Rūm al-Malkīyāt al-muntamiyāt li-Majmaʻ Ruhbān al-Qiddīs Mārī Yūḥannā al-mulaqqab bi-al-Shuwayr al-Rūm al-Bāsīlīyīn al-muthbatah bi-barāʾah rasūlīyah min sayyidinā al-kullī al-qadāsah Iklīmanḍus al-thālith ʻashar al-ḥabr al-aʻẓam.
 
Constitutiones monialium greco-melchitarum ordinis S. Basilii magni congregationis B. Virginis annuntiationis a sanctissimo D.N. Clemente XIII.
Rūmiyah : Maṭbaʻat Majmaʻ Intishār al-Īmān al-Muqaddas, 1764.
 
An early printed Arabic book in Rome, containing the rules and regulations of the Catholic Melkite convent of the Shuwayr Basilian nuns in Biqā‘tūtah, Kasrawān, Lebanon.
 
Location: SML, Near East Collection
Call Number: BX4711.376 K383 1764

 

 

الأجرومية / لمحمد بن محمد بن أجرّوم

Grammatica arabica Agrumia appellate : cum versione Latina / ac dilucida expositione Thomae Obicini.
Romae : Typis Sac. Congregationis de Propag. Fide, 1631.
 
A very early printed edition of the Ajurrūmīyah by the Moroccan grammarian Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad ibn Ājurrūm (1273 or 4-1323), being a condensed treatise on Arabic grammar with elucidations in Latin by the Franciscan scholar and orientalist Tommaso Obizzino (1585-1632)
 
Location: SML, Stacks, Yale Classification
Call Number: Fo50 Ib512

 
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ثمرة الاكتساب في علم الحساب

Thamarat al-iktisāb fī ʻilm al-ḥisāb.
Būlāq : Dār al-Ṭibāʻat al-ʻĀmirah, 1263 [1846]
 
A manual of arithmetic. It was translated probably from original French at Madrasat al-Handasah “School of Engineering” in Cairo. According to the introduction, this is a second edition. Its Arabic was corrected by Ibrāhīm al-Dusūqī ʻAbd al-Ghaffār (1811 or 12-1882 or 3). A very rare copy.
 
Location: SML, Near East Collection
Call Number: QA103 T436 1846

 

 

شرح النقاية
كتاب شرح النقاية / لجلال الدين أبي الفضل عبد الرحمن السيوطي

Sharḥ al-Nuqāyah
Kitāb Sharḥ al-Nuqāyah / by Jalāl al-Dīn Abī al-Faḍl ʻAbd al-Raḥmān al-Suyūṭī.
[Fez : s.n.], 1317 [1899]
 
A commentary by Jalāl al-Dīn Abī al-Faḍl ʻAbd al-Raḥmān al-Suyūṭī (1445-1505), one of the most prolific, encyclopedic and learned authors of the 15th cent. on his own book al-Nuqāyah, a manual of Islamic learning and scholarship.
Lithograph
  Location: LSF, Yale Classification
Call Number: Fod20 Su97 1899

 
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زبدة الأفكار
تعليقات على حاشية الخيالي / لعبد الحكيم بن شمس الدين السيلكوتي

Zubdat al-afkār
Taʻlīqāt ʻalá Ḥāshiyat al-Khayālī / by ʻAbd al-Ḥakīm ibn Shams al-Dīn al-Siyalkūtī
[Istanbul : s.n.], 1235] [1820]
 
A treatise on Islamic doctrines, being a commentary by ʻAbd al-Ḥakīm ibn Shams al-Dīn al-Siyālkūtī (d. 1657) on the commentary of Aḥmad ibn Mūsá Khayālī (d. 1457?) on the commentary of Masʻūd ibn ʻUmar al- Taftāzānī (1322-1389?) on al-ʻAqāʾid al-Nasafīyah of Umar ibn Muḥammad al- Nasafī (1068?-1142)
 
Location: SML, Stacks, Yale Classification
Call Number: Fod39 Ab312 1820

 

 

زيج الصابئ
كتاب الزيج الصابئ : نقل عن النسخة المحفوظة بمكتبة بلدة الإسكوريال من بلاد الأندلس / تأليف أبي عبد الله محمد بن سنان بن جابر الحرّاني المعروف بالبتاني ؛ اعتنى بطبعه وتصحيحه وترجمه إلى اللغة اللاتينية وعلق حواشيه كارلو نالينو

Zīj al-Ṣābiʾ
Kitāb al-Zīj al-Ṣābiʾ : nuqila ʻan al-nuskhah al-maḥfūẓah bi-maktabat baldat al-Iskūriyāl min bilād al-Andalus / by Abī ʻAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Sinān ibn Jābir al-Ḥarrānī al-maʻrūf bi-al-Battānī ; iʻtaná bi-ṭabʻihi wa-taṣḥīḥihi wa-tarjamahu ilá al-lughah al-Lātīnīyah wa-ʻallaqa ḥawāshīh Karlū Nāllīnū.
Rūmīyah : [Prostat apud U. Hoeplium], 1899.
 
An early zīj, or astronomical almanac, written by the 9th/10th century mathematician, scientist and astronomer Muḥammad ibn Jābir al- Battānī, d. 929 (Albatenius of the Middle ages in Latin) He was a descendent of a Mandaean (Sabian) family from Harran (now in south-eastern Turkey).
 
Location: SML, Near East Collection
Call Number: QB23 A42 1899 +Oversize

 
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رسائل أبي بكر الخوارزمي

Rasāʾil Abī Bakr al-Khuwārizmī.
Qusṭanṭīnīyah : Maṭbaʻat al-Jawāʾib, 1297 [1880]
 
A collection of highly stylized letters written by the famous literati, poet, genealogist and scholar Muḥammad ibn al-ʻAbbās al- Khuwārizmī (934 or 5-993 or 4) a nephew of the famous historian and Koran commentator Muḥammad ibn Jarīr al-Ṭabarī (838?-923)
 
Location: SML, Near East Collection
Call Number: PJ7750 K53 Z48 1880

 

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ديوان مولانا عبد الرحمن
هذا ديوان مولانا عبد الرحمن

Dīvān-i Maulānā ʻAbdurraḥmān
Hāz̲ā dīvān-i Maulānā ʻAbdurraḥmān.
[Bombay : s.n], ‡c 1280 [1863]
Lithograph
 
Collected poems in Urdu by ʻAbdurraḥmān Afg̲h̲ānī
Location: SML, Yale Classification
Call Number: Frh35 Ab35 1863

 

 

سيرة رسول الله
سيرة سيدنا محمد، صلى الله عليه وسلم / رواية أبي محمد عبد الملك بن هشام عن زياد بن عبد الله البكائي عن محمد بن إسحاق

Sīrat Rasūl Allāh
Das leben Muhammed's / nach Muhammed Ibn Ishâk bearbeitet von Abd el-Malik Ibn Hischâm ; aus den Handschriften zu Berlin, Leipzig, Gotha und Leyden herausgegeben von Ferdinand Wüstenfeld.
 
Göttingen : Dieterich, 1858-1860.
 
A biography of the Prophet Muhammad in 3 vols. by ʻAbd al-Malik Ibn Hishām (d. 834)
 
Location: SML, Stacks, Yale Classification
Call Number: Fod38 M89 1858

 
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كتاب المطول / لمسعود بن عمر التفتازاني

Kitāb al-Muṭawwal / by Masʻūd ibn ʻUmar al-Taftāzānī
[Tabriz, Iran] : Dār al-Ṭibāʻah, 1323 [1905]
 
A treatise on Arabic language rhetoric by Masʻūd ibn ʻUmar al-Taftāzānī (1322-1389?), being a commentary on Muḥammad ibn ʻAbd al-Raḥmān al-Qazwīnī’s (1267 or 8-1338) Talkhīṣ al-miftāḥ, i.e, a summary of Miftāḥ al-ʻulūm “Key to sciences [of rhetoric]) of Yūsuf ibn Abī Bakr al- Sakkākī, (b. 1160).
Lithograph
 
Location: Near East Collection LSF, Yale Classification
Call Number: Fod47 M391 +1905

 

 

مهج الدعوات ومنهج العبادات / لعلي بن موسى بن طاووس

Muhaj al-da‘awāt wa-manhaj al-‘ibādā / by ‘Alī ibn Mūsá Ibn Ṭāwūs.
[Tabriz] : Āqā Muḥammad Ismā‘īl, ‡c 1318 [1901]
 
Shiite prayers and devotions by ‘Alī ibn Mūsá ibn Ṭāwūs (1193-1266)
Lithograph
 
Location: LSF, Yale Classification
Call Number: Fod58 T19 1901

 
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بديع الميزان / لعبد الله بن الهداد العثماني الطلنبي

Badīʻ al-Mīzān / by ‘Abd Allāh ibn al-Ḥaddād al-ʻUthmānī al-Ṭulanbī
[Lucknow] : Maṭbaʻ-i Khudāʾī, 1262 [1846]
 
Commentary on Mīzān al-manṭiq, an anonymous manual of logic, based on al-Risālah al-Shamsīyah of ʻAlī ibn ʻUmar al-Qazwīnī (1203 or 4-1276 or 7)
Lithograph
 
Location: SML, Stacks, Yale Classification
Call Number: Fod40 Ab29 +1846
ʻAbd Allāh ibn al-Haddād ʻUthmānī al-Ṭulanbī

 

 

مفتاح الحساب
هذا كتاب مفتاح الحساب / تأليف غياث الدين جمشيد الكاشي

Miftāḥ al-ḥisāb
Hādhā kitāb Miftāḥ al-ḥisāb / by Ghiyāth al-Dīn Jamshīd al-Kāshī.
[Tehran : s.n.], 1303 [1889].
 
A manual of arithmetic and geometry by the 14th/15th cent. Persian mathematician and astronomer Jamshīd ibn Mas‘ūd al- Kāshī (d. ca. 1436)
Lithograph  
Location: SML, Stacks, Yale Classification
Call Number: Fod49 K151 1889

 
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أرجوزة السينائية
الأرجوزة السينائية في المسائل الطبية / لابن سينا

Urjūzah al-Sīnā’īyah
al-Urjūzah al-Sīnā’īyah fi al-masā’l al-ṭibbīyah / by Abicenna
[Lucknow, India] : al-Maṭba’ al-Ḥajarī, 1261 [1845]
 
The elements of medicine in verse composed by the most famous physician of the Middle Ages al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Abd Allāh ibn Sīnā (980-1037) known in the West as Avicenna.
Lithograph
 
Location: SML, Stacks, Yale Classification
Call Number: Fod48 Av53 +1845

 

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حاشية عبد النبي / لعبد النبي بن عبد الرسول الأحمدنگري

Ḥāshiyat ‘Abd al-Nabī / by ‘Abd al-Nabī ibn ‘Abd al-Rasūl al- Aḥmadnagarī.
[Lucknow, India] : Sulṭān al-Maṭābi‘, 1268 [1852]
 
A treatise on logic by ‘Abd al-Nabī ibn ‘Abd al-Rasūl al-Aḥmadnagarī (18th cent.) comprising glosses to ‘Abd Allāh al-Yazdī's (d. 1606 or 7) commentary on the first part of Mas’ūd ibn ‘Umar al-Taftāzānī's (1322-1389?) Tahdhīb al-manṭiq wa-al-kalām “Refining logic and speech”
Lithograph
 
Location: SML, Stacks, Yale Classification
Call Number: Fod40 Ab31 +1852

 

 

رسالة القطبية والتعليقات الزاهدية والحاشية عليها لغلام يحيى

al-Risālah al-Quṭbīyah wa-al-Ta‘līqāt al-Zāhidīyah wa-al-Ḥāshiyah ‘alayhā li-Ghulām Yaḥyá.
[Lucknow?] : al-Maṭba’ah al-Mutabarrikah al-’Alawīyah, 1264 [1847]
 
A treatise on logic, being a commentary by Liwā’ al-Hudá Ghulām Yaḥyá (prob. a 19th cent. Muslim scholar from India) on al-Risālah al-Quṭbīyah of Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Rāzī Quṭb al-Taḥtānī (1295-1365).
Lithograph
 
Location: SML, Stacks, Yale Classification
Call Number: Fod40 M891 +1847

 
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حلّ الموجز / لمحمد بن محمد الأقسرائي

Ḥall al-Mūjaz / by Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad, al-Aqsarā’ī
Also known by the title: Aqsarā’ī.
[Delhi] : Kārkhānah-i Ḥājjī Valī Muḥammad, [1870?]
 
Commentary on Mūjiz al Qānūn (abridgment of Avicenna's Qānūn “Canon of medicine”) by the famous physician and scholar Ibn al-Nafīs, ‘Alī ibn Abī al-Ḥazm (1210 or 11-1288) by Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Aqsarā’ī (14th cent.) with notes on the margins in Arabic and Persian.
Lithograph
 
Location: SML, Stacks, Yale Classification
Call Number: Fod48 M89 +1870

 

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الهدية الشرقية لطلبة اللغة الإنكليزية : وهو كتاب يتضمن مبادئ للفظ حروف الهجاء ومثائل في القراءة ومفردات وجمل مع قواعد صرفية ونحوية ومكاتبات وعبارات اصطلاحية وأمثال في اللغتين العربية والإنكليزية / تأليف قسطنطين إلياس خوري الدمشقي

al-Hadīyah al-Sharqīyah liṭalabat al-lughah al-Inkilīzīyah : wa-huwa kitāb yataḍammanu mabādi’ li-lafẓ ḥurūf al-hijā’ wa-mathā’il fī al-qirā’ah wa-mufradāt wa-jumal ma’a qawā’id ṣarfīyah wa-naḥwīyah wa-mukātabāt wa-’ibārāt iṣṭilāḥīyah wa-amthāl fī al-lughatayn al-’Arabīyah wa-al-Inkilīzīyah / ta’līf Qusṭanṭīn Ilyās Khūrī al-Dimashqī.
[Beirut, Lebanon] : Q.I. Khūrī, 1883.
 
One of the early Manuals for Arabic speakers printed in Beirut, Lebanon, probably at the American Press, containing practical rules for learning the English language, with vocabulary, dialogues, letters, idioms and proverbs, in Arabic and English by Constantine E. Khouri of Damascus, interpreter to the Consulate of the United States of America in Beirut, Lebanon.
 
Location: Arabic Islamic Reading Room, SML (Room 508)
Call Number: PE1130 A8 K487 1883

 

 

فتاوى فصول الإحكام في أصول الأحكام، المعروف بفصول عمادي / من مؤلفات أبي الفتح بن أبي بكر بن عبد الجليل المرغيناني ؛ بمقدمه كتب متعدده از تصحيح حميد الدين

Fatāwá Fuṣūl al-iḥkām fī uṣūl al-aḥkām, al-ma’rūf bi-Fuṣūl-i ‘Imādī / min mu’allafāt Abī al-Fatḥ ibn Abī Bakr ibn ‘Abd al-Jalīl al-Marghīnānī ; bi-muqābalah-i kutub-i muta’addidah az taṣḥīḥ-i Ḥamīd al-Dīn.
[Calcutta] : Maṭba’-i Asiyāṭīk Lītʹhūgrāfīk Kumpanī-i Bahādur, 1827.
 
A treatise on Islamic law and fatwas, i.e. legal opinions according to the Hanafi School of Islamic jurisprudence by ‘Abd al-Raḥīm ibn Abī Bakr al-Marghīnānī (13th cent.)
Lithograph
 
Location: SML, Stacks, Yale Classification
Call Number: Fod44 Ab32 1827

 
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مختصر المعانى المعروف : شرح متن متين مسمى بتلخيص مؤلف جلال الدين محمد بن عبد الرحمن / نسخۀ متبركه محشاه بحواشى بارعه از تصنيف سعد الملة والدين التفتازانى

Mukhtaṣar al-ma‘ānī al-ma‘rūf : sharḥ-i matn-i matīn musammá bi-Talkhīṣ-i mu’allaf-i Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd al-Raḥmān / nuskhah-‘i mutabarrikah muḥashshāh bi-ḥavāshī-i bāri‘ah az taṣānīf-i Sa‘d al-Millat va al-Dīn al-Taftāzānī.
[Delhi?] : Maṭba’-i Ḥusnī Amīr Ḥasan Raz̤avī, 1262 [1846]
Treatise on Arabic language rhetoric comprising a commentary by Mas’ūd ibn ‘Umar al-Taftāzānī's (1322-1389?) on Talkhīṣ al-Miftāḥ by Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd al-Raḥmān al- Qazwīnī (1267 or 8-1338). The latter work is itself an extract from Yūsuf ibn Abī Bakr,.al-Sakkākī's (b. 1160) Miftāḥ al-‘ulūm part 3 (‘Ilm al-ma‘ānī wa-al-bayān “Science of semantics and eloquence).
Bound with the author's Muṭawwal. [Delhi?] : al-Maṭba‘ah al-Mutabarrikah al-‘Alawīyah, 1265 [1848 or 1849].
Lithograph
 
Location: SML, Stacks, Yale Classification
Call Number: Fod47 M39 +1849

 

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شرائع الإسلام
كتاب شرائع الأحكام / من تصنيفات المحقق الحلي

Sharā’i’ al-Islām
Kitāb Sharā’i’ al-aḥkām / min taṣnīfāt al-Muḥaqqiq al-Ḥillī.
[Tehran] : Shaykh Riḍā, 1311 [1894]
 
A Shiite treatise on Islamic law by al-Muḥaqqiq al-Ḥillī, Ja’far ibn al-Ḥasan (1205 or 6-1277)
Lithograph
 
Location: SML, Stacks, Yale Classification
Call Number: Fod44 H55 +1894

 

 

منية المصلّي / [لسديد الدين الكشغري] ؛ باهتمام سيدّ عبد الغفور

Munyat al-muṣallī / by [Sadīd al-Dīn al-Kāshgharī] ; bi-ihtimām Sayyid ‘Abd al-Ghafūr.
[India] : ‡b Maṭba’ Sayyid al-Akhbār, ‡c 1264-1269 [1848-1853]
 
Treatise on the rules and rites of prayer, according to the Ḥanafī school with commentary in the margin by the Hanafi Islamic law scholar Sadīd al-Dīn al-Kāshgharī (13th cent.?)
Lithograph
 
Location: SML, Stacks, Yale Classification
Call Number: Fod39 Sa15 +1848

 
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شرح الشمسية
نسخۀ عجيبه و صحيفه غريبه : مسمى به شرح الشمسيه : المشهور بقطبى / از تصنيف قطب المله والدين الرازى ؛ محشى بحواشى نادرة الوجود باهتمام مطبع حيدرى

Nuskhah-’i ‘ajībah va ṣaḥīfah-i gharībah : musammá bih Sharḥ al-Shamsīyah : al-mashhūr bih Quṭbī / az taṣnīf-i Quṭb al-Millah wa-al-Dīn al-Rāzī ; muḥashshá bi-ḥawāshī nādirat al-wujūd bi-ihtimām-i Maṭba’-i Ḥaydarī.
[Lucknow?] : Maṭba’-i Ḥaydarī, 1263 [1847]
 
A treatise on logic, being a commentary on al-Risālah al-Shamsīyah of ‘Alī ibn ‘Umar al-Qazwīnī (1203 or 4-1276 or 7) by Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Rāzī Quṭb al-Taḥtānī (1295-1365)
Lithograph
 
Location: SML, Stacks, Yale Classification
Call Number: Fod40 M8912 +1847

 

 

شرح الهداية في الحكمة / لحسين بن معين الدين الميبودي ؛ بتحشّي المولوي نور علي

Sharḥ al-Hidāyah fī al-ḥikmah / by Ḥusayn ibn Mu’īn al-Dīn al-Maybudī ; bi-taḥashshī al-Mawlawī Nūr ‘Alī.
[Lucknow?] : al-Maṭba’ah al-Muḥammadīyah al-Mutabarrikah, ‡c 1262 [1846]
 
Bound with: Ḥāshiyat Maybudhī / min taṣnīf Mawlānā Aṣfahānī. [Lucknow?] : Kārkhānah-’i Nithār ‘Alī, 1268 [1852]
 
Commentary by Qāḍī Mīr, Ḥusayn ibn Mu’īn al-Dīn (d. 1504 or 5) on the second and third parts (dealing with physics and metaphysics) of Hidāyat al-Ḥikmah (Introduction to Philosophy) by Athīr al-Dīn al-Abharī, al-Mufaḍḍal ibn ‘Umar (d. 1265)
Lithograph
 
Location: SML, Yale Classification
Call Number: Fod40 H95 +1852

 
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مسلْم الثبوت
نسخه عجيب و متن غريب مسمّى به مسلّم الثبوت / تصحيح و تحشى محمد معين الدين

Musallam al-thubūt
Nuskhah-i ‘ajīb va matn-i gharīb-i musammá bih Musallam al-thubūt / taṣḥīḥ va taḥashshī-i Muḥammad Mu’īn al-Dīn.
[India?] : Maṭba’-i ‘Alavī, 1263 [1847]
 
Two treatises: the first on Islamic law by Muḥibb Allāh ibn ‘Abd al-Shakūr al- Bahārī (d. 1707 or 8). The text is accompanied by interlinear and marginal commentary. The second is Mu’īn al-ghāʼiṣīn fī radd al-mughāliṭīn, a manual for refuting the opponents by using principles of logic by / by Muḥammad ‘Abd al-Ḥalīm (prob. a 19th cent. Muslim scholar from India).
 
Lithograph
 
Location: SML, Stacks, Yale Classification
Call Number: Fod44 M899 +1847

 

 

ديوان ابن الفارض
هذا ديوان العارف بالله تعالى، سلطان العاشقين ومربي المريدين المستمد من عطاء ربه الفائض شرف الدين سيدي عمر بن الفارض، قدس الله سره، وأفاض علينا بره

Dīwān Ibn al-Fāriḍ
Hādhā Dīwān al-’ārif billāh ta’ālá, sulṭān al-’āshiqīn wa-murabbī al-murīdīn al-mustamidd min ‘aṭā’ rabbihi al-fā’iḍ Sharaf alDīn Sayyidī ‘Umar ibn al-Fāriḍ, qaddasa Allāh sirrahu, wa-afāḍa ‘alaynā birrah.
[Cairo] : Maṭba’at ‘Uthmān Afandī, 1280 [1863 or 1864]
Lithograph
 
The Dīwān “collected poems” of Ibn al-Fāriḍ, ‘Umar ibn ‘Alī (1181 or 2-1235), the Egyptian born Sufi and mystic poet. His father came to Egypt from Hama, Syria. His theological and sufi (mystical) views were, and still are, very controversial. But to the Sufis, he still is “Sulṭān al-’āshiqīn” (Sultan of them who had fallen in love, i.e. love of God). A very scarce edition.
 
Location: SML, Near East Collection
Call Number: PJ 7755 I18 A17 1863

 
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القصيدة الأزرية
هذه هي القصيدة التي اشتهرت في الأقطار اشتهار الشمس في رابعة النهار ... الموسومة بالهائية، المعروفة بالأزرية، المشتهرة بالألفية / لكاظم الأزري ... في مدح النبي والوصي وآل البيت. وتخميسها لجابر الكاظمي ؛ حرره أحمد القمي. ويليها الشهاب الثاقب في ردّ ما لفقه الناصب

al-Qaṣīdah al-Uzrīyah
Hādhihi hiya al-qaṣīdah allatī ishtaharat fī al-aqṭār ishtihār al-shams fī rābi’at al-nahār … al-mawsūmah bi-al-Hā’īyah, al-ma’rūfah bi-al-Uzrīyah, al-mushtahirah bi-al-Alfīyah / li-Kāẓim al-Uzrī ... fī madḥ al-Nabī wa-al-Waṣī wa-al-Āl. Wa-takhmīsuhā li-Jābir al-Kāẓimī ; ḥarrarahu Aḥmad al-Qummī. Wa-yalīhā al-Shihāb al-thāqib fī radd mā laffaqahu al-nāṣib.
al-Najaf : Maṭba’at al-Mubārakah al-Murtaḍawīyah, 1341 [1922]
Lithograph
 
A poem by Kāẓim al- Uzrī (1730-ca. 1797) praising the Prophet Muhammad and his family. The poem is quintupled (مخمّس) by Jābir al-Kāẓimī (1807 or 8-1895 or 6), in addition to some other poems in the defense of the rights of Āl al-Bayt (the descendents of the Prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fāṭimah (d. 632 or 3) and his cousin and son-in-law the Caliph ‘Al ī ibn Abī Ṭālib, 600 ca.-661). A very rare copy.
 
Location: SML, Near East Collection
Call Number: PJ 7765 U94 U975 1922

 

 

شرح أربعين / لمحمد بن مفيد القمي المعروف بقاضي سعيد

Sharḥ Arba’īn / li-Muḥammad ibn Mufīd al-Qummī al-ma’rūf bi-Qāḍī Sa’īd.
Ṭihrān : Chāpkhānah-’i Kitābchī Ikhvān, 1355 [1936]
 
A Shiite commentary and explanations of 40 hadiths (or sayings) of the Prophet Muhammad by al-Qāḍī Sa’īd, Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad Mufīd al-Qummī (1639-1695 or 96). The Arabic text is preceded by 3 introductions in Persian by Muḥammad Bāqir ‘Alī Ābādī, Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāmidād and Naṣr Allāh al-Taqawī. First edition.
Lithograph
&n
Location: SML, Near East Collection
Call Number: BP135 Q555 1936

 
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درّة الغواصّ في أوهام الخواصّ
هذا كتاب درّة الغواصّ في أوهام الخواصّ / للإمام الحريري

Durrat al-ghawwāṣ fī awhām al-khawāṣṣ
Hādhā kitāb durrat al-ghawwāṣ fī awhām al-khawāṣṣ / lil-Imām al-Ḥarīrī.
Miṣr [Cairo] : Maṭba’at al-Ḥajar al-Ḥamīdah, 1273 [1857]
 
A textbook on the common mistakes commited by writers and their correct usage by the well known literati al-Ḥarīrī (1054-1122), the author of the Maqāmāt or Assemblies. A very scarce edition.
Lithograph
  Location: SML, Near East Collection
Call Number: PJ 6167 H375 1857

 

 

تحفة المكتبية لتقريب اللغة العربية
هذا كتاب التحفة المكتبية لتقريب اللغة العربية / لرفاعة بك أفندي

Tuḥfah al-maktabīyah li-taqrīb al-lughah al-’Arabīyah
Hādhā Kitāb al-tuḥfah al-maktabīyah li-taqrīb al-lughah al-’Arabīyah / li-Rifā’ah Bik Afandī.
[Cairo : s.n.], ‡c 1286 [1869 or 1870]
 
A textbook on Arabic grammar and usage by Rifā’ah Rāfi’ al- Ṭahṭāwī, (1801-1873) one of the very first Egyptians sent by Muhammad Ali (1769-1849), the governor of Egypt, to study in Paris. He is known for his prolific writings and translations from French of the European sciences into Arabic. A first edition.
Lithograph
 
Location: SML, Near East Collection
Call Number: PJ 6106 T324 1869

 
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