Reference and Other Secondary Sources Online

Selected reference and other secondary sources online that support research in British eighteenth-century studies can be found here. Selected other (non-LWL) digital collections of primary source textual materials that support research in British eighteenth-century studies can be found here. Resources marked with the symbol yale-only indicate resources that the Yale University Library licenses. Access to licensed resources is freely available through the Lewis Walpole Library wireless internet connection for readers at the Library. For information on other off-campus access for other members of the Yale community, click here. Other resources listed below are freely available on the internet.

Yale Resources

Find Database - YUL databases


Abstracts, Bibliographies, Catalogs, and Indexes

Selected Reference Sources: Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, Companions, etc.

Frequently Used Full-text Sources

General Online Resource Guides & Websites


Other Digital Collections Online--Primary Sources

Other Digital Image Collections Online

Horace Walpole's Strawberry Hill -- Select Bibliography

Yale Research Guides by Subject and other Yale Resources

All Yale Research Guides by Subject

Selected Subject Guides

British History Guide

Caribbean Collections at the Yale University Library

Colonial American History

Early Modern British History

English Language and Literature

History of British Art

Nineteenth Century British History

Robert B. Haas Family Arts Library - Arts Electronic Resources

Visual Resources Collection's Guide to Digital Image Resources

Yale Digital Collections


Digital Image Collection

Recent Antiquarian Acquisitions Blog

Strawberry Hill Database

Yale Indian Papers Project

YUL Digital Collections

Yale Center for British Art - Search all collections

Yale Medical Library-Digital Library

Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History - Search the Collections

Yale University Art Gallery eCatalogue

Yale Digital Commons

{back to top}

General Online Resource guides and websites

C18-L: Resources for 18th-century Studies across the disciplines

Early Modern Resources v.1
Early Modern Resources v.2

v.1 Early Modern Resources is a gateway site for anyone studying the early modern period (c.1500-1800 CE). It only lists resources that are free to access and are primarily concerned with the period. v.2 Early Modern Resources is a research portal for the early modern period (c.1500-1800 CE). It only lists websites that are free to access and focuses on high-quality resources that are suitable for advanced research, study and teaching.

Eighteenth-century Resources

These pages cover all the significant and reliable Internet resources [Jack Lynch has] been able to discover that focus on the (very long) eighteenth century — let's say Milton to Keats. The collection includes information on literature, history, art, music, religion, economics, philosophy, and so on, from around the world, as well as the home pages of societies and people who work on eighteenth-century topics.

18th Connect

18thConnect is an online finding aid and scholarly community in the field of eighteenth-century literary and historical studies.

International Seminar on the History of the Atlantic World, 1500-1825

Links to other resources related to the seminar whose purpose is to advance the scholarship of young historians of many nations interested in the common, comparative, and interactive aspects of the lives of the peoples in the lands that form the Atlantic basin, mainly in the early modern period; to contribute to the study of this large transnational historical subject; and to help create an international community of scholars familiar with approaches, archives, and intellectual traditions different from their own. 

{back to top}

Abstracts, Bibliographies, Catalogs, and Indexes

General -- sources that include information about eighteenth-century and/or British materials

Bibliography of British and Irish History Yale-only

The Bibliography of British and Irish History (BBIH) provides bibliographic data on historical writing dealing with the British Isles, and with the British Empire and Commonwealth, during all periods for which written documentation is available - from 55BC to the present. It is the successor to the Royal Historical Society Bibliography of British and Irish History, available online from 2002 to 2009. Covers selected books and articles published prior to 1900 and comprehensive coverage from 1901 to the present.
(for information click here)

British History Online Yale-only

British History Online digital library contains some of the core printed primary and secondary sources for the medieval and modern history of the British Isles.
(for information click here)

British Humanities Index Yale-only

An international abstracting and indexing tool for research in the humanities, BHI indexes over 320 internationally respected humanities journals and weekly magazines published in the UK and other English speaking countries, as well as quality newspapers published in the UK ... With the Subject Index to Periodicals, BHI provides an unbroken index to the humanities in Great Britain since 1915. Topics include architecture, archaeology, art, antiques, education, economics, foreign affairs, environment, cinema, current affairs, gender studies, history, language, law, linguistics, literature, music, painting, philosophy, poetry, political science, religion, and theatre.
(for information click here)

English Short Title Catalogue (ESTC)

Contains records for works printed in any language in England or its dependencies from 1473 through 1800, as well as works printed in English anywhere else in the world during that period. Subject headings appear in records for items published in 1700 or earlier.
(for information click here)

Heritage of the Printed Book Yale-only

The HPB Database (previously called the Hand Press Book Database) is a steadily growing collection of files of catalogue records from major European and North American research libraries covering items of European printing of the hand-press period (c. 1455-c. 1830) integrated into one file. This makes it possible for information to be retrieved in one single search across all files.
(for information click here)

Historical Abstracts Yale-only

Historical Abstracts contains annotated references to books, articles, and dissertations on the history of the world from 1450 to the present (excluding the United States and Canada, which are covered in America: History and Life). Published since 1954, Historical Abstracts indexes over 2,000 journals published throughout the world.
(for information click here)

In the First Person Yale-only

In the First Person provides indexing of more than 2,500 collections of oral history in English from around the world. With future releases, the index will broaden to identify other first-person content, including letters, diaries, memoirs, and autobiographies, and other personal narratives.
(for information click here)

Nineteenth Century Index Yale-only

The Nineteenth Century Index (C19 Index) searches established indexes such as the Nineteenth Century Short Title Catalogue, The Wellesley Index, Poole's Index to Periodical Literature, and Periodicals Index Online to create integrated bibliographic coverage of books and official publications, and articles published in journals, magazines and newspapers.
(for information click here)

19th Century Masterfile Yale-only

The 19th Century Masterfile is an accumulation of indexes to printed materials from the nineteenth century with coverage from about 1774 to 1920, depending on the index selected.
(for information click here)

Victorian Database Online Yale-only

Search over 100,000 records listing books, articles, and dissertation abstracts published from 1945 to 2002 on every field of nineteenth-century British studies.
(for information click here)

Wing Short Title Catalog Yale-only

Short-Title Catalogue of Books Printed in England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales and British America, and of English Books Printed in Other Countries, 1641-1700, edited by Donald Wing et al. The Wing Short Title Catalog is the essential bibliographic database of extant books, pamphlets and broadsides printed in English between 1641 and 1700. The Catalog lists the title, author name, imprint and physical format as well as including bibliographic information and listings of selected libraries and institutions that hold a copy of the work.
(for information click here)

Worldcat Yale-only

WorldCat is the Online Computer Library Center's (OCLC) online "union catalog"; that is, its database of over 1 billion records of books and other materials held in more than 10,000 academic, public, special and national libraries around the world. Use WorldCat to locate materials outside of Yale, in almost any area of study, or to locate items in specific libraries and research collections.
(for information click here)

{back to top}

Special Topics or Other Locations

Bibliography of Early Modern Italy- 1550-1800 Yale-only

"This bibliography... aims to record the entire production of Italian history pertaining to the period (1550-1800) over the last 150 years, roughly the time that scholars have worked from archives." An interdisciplinary gathering, it includes works in the following categories: 1) General and Historiography; 2) Travel and Historical Geography, 3) Politics & Administration; 4) Economics and Demography; 5) Social Stratification & Behavioural Studies; 6) Religious History; 7) Language Arts and Erudition; 8) Music and Spectacle; 9) Beaux-Arts and Architecture; and 10) History of Science.
(for information click here)

Bibliography of Native North Americans Yale-only

Bibliography of Native North Americans (BNNA) is a bibliographic database covering all aspects of native North American culture, history, and life. This resource covers a wide range of topics including archaeology, multicultural relations, gaming, governance, legend, and literacy. BNNA contains more than 141,000 citations for books, essays, journal articles, and government documents of the United States and Canada. Dates of coverage for included content range from the sixteenth century to the present.
(for information click here)

Irish History Online Yale-only

Irish History Online is a guide to what has been written about the history of Ireland from earliest times to the present. It has been established in association with the Royal Historical Society Bibliography of British and Irish History and London's Past Online.
IHO contains items, drawn from Writings on Irish History from 1936 to 2002, plus all the Irish material currently held on the online Royal Historical Society Bibliography. Included are articles from journals, including local history journals, and collective volumes. Searches can be made by author, by subject, by publication details, or by period covered.
(for information click here)

Mundus: Gateway to Missionary Collections in the United Kingdom Yale-only

The Mundus Gateway is a web-based guide to more than four hundred collections of overseas missionary materials held in the United Kingdom. These materials, comprising the archives of British missionary societies, collections of personal papers, printed matter, photographs, other visual materials and artefacts, are held in a large number of libraries, record offices and other institutions in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The web-guide contains a collection-level description of each collection including valuable background information and a summary of contents. There is a facility for freetext searches as well as searches by personal names, organization names, place-names and subjects.
(for information click here)

see also Other Library Catalogs (click here)

see also General Databases of Eighteenth-Century and British Texts--Primary Sources

{back to top}

Archival and Manuscript Materials, (including Dissertations and Theses)

ARCHON (Directory of archives with significant holdings of British material)

The ARCHON Directory includes contact details for record repositories in the United Kingdom and also for institutions elsewhere in the world which have substantial collections of manuscripts noted under the indexes to the National Register of Archives.

Artists Paper Register

A location register of the papers of artists, designers and craftspeople held in publicly accessible collections in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

DART-Europe E-theses Portal Yale-only

DART-Europe is a partnership of research libraries and library consortia who are working together to improve global access to European research theses.
(for information click here)

Dissertations and Theses Yale-only

Dissertation and Theses - Full Text (ProQuest) contains entries with information about doctoral dissertations and master's theses. It is the same database as Dissertation Abstracts, but with the significant advantage that titles published since 1997 are available in PDF digital format and have 24 page previews available.
(for information click here)

Index to Theses ... Accepted for Higher Degrees by the Universities of Great Britain and Ireland Yale-only

The Index to Theses provides total bibliographic control of all theses ever produced by British and Irish universities (1716 to the present). Access is by author, title, university, degree, year, and keyword. Abstracts are included for titles written since 1970.
(for information click here)

National Archives (UK)

The National Archives is the UK government's official archive, containing over 1,000 years of history. You can search for the records you need in a number of different databases. These include records held by The National Archives, our records digitised on our partners' websites, and records held in other archives. Searching is free, but there may be a charge to download documents.

Yale Finding Aid Database

This database consists of finding aids for archival and manuscript materials at Yale University. Their purpose is to provide information about the creation, historical context, arrangement, and content of archival and manuscript collections as well as the information necessary for users to identify and request the portions relevant to their research. These finding aids vary in style, depth of detail, and amount of materials covered, but their common purpose is to describe and enable access to archival and manuscript collections.

see also Archival and Manuscript Materials -- Primary Sources

{back to top}

Art, Music, and Theatre

Art Index Retrospective Yale-only

Art Index Retrospective is a bibliographic database that cumulates citations to Art Index volumes 1-32 of the printed index published between 1929-1984. The database cites articles from periodicals published throughout the world.
(for information click here)

Art Sales Catalog Online Yale-only

Art Sales Catalogues Online (ASCO) offers easy access to complete historical art sales catalogues for the period 1600 to 1900. Lugt's Répertoire online database has been included in this publication and serves as the "entrance gate" to the catalogues.

BHA and RILA - Bibliography of the History of Art and Répertoire de la Litterature de l'Art

European and American visual arts material published between 1975 and 2007.

International Bibliography of Art Yale-only

The definitive resource for scholarly literature on Western art, IBA is the successor to the Bibliography of the History of Art (BHA), and retains the editorial policies which made BHA one of the most trusted and frequently consulted sources in the field.
(for information click here)

International Bibliography of Theatre and Dance Yale-only

The International Bibliography of Theatre & Dance represents the most comprehensive multicultural and inter-disciplinary research tool available to theater students, educators and professionals. These volumes comprise a fully indexed, cross-referenced and annotated databank of over 60,000 journal articles, books, book articles and dissertation abstracts on all aspects of theatre and performance in 126 countries.
(for information click here)

International Foundation for Art Research Catalogues Raisonnés

Two new electronic resources — a database of published catalogues raisonnés and one of catalogues in preparation, covering paintings, original art on paper, sculptures, and photographs. They can be searched separately or together and will be updated regularly. (for information click here)

International Index to Music Periodicals Full Text Yale-only

IIMP (International Index to Music Periodicals) indexes more than 400 music journals, with an emphasis on recent issues.
(for information click here)

The Print Council Index to Oeuvre-Catalogues of Prints by European and American Artists

An online edition of The Print Council Index to Oeuvre-Catalogues of Prints by European and American Artists by Timothy A. Riggs, expanded and updated by Lauren B. Hewes. The database now contains entries for European and American printmakers, print publishers, and photographers and Japanese printmakers and photographers. (for information click here)

RISM: International Inventory of Musical Sources, Series A/II: Manuscripts after 1600 Yale-only

The International Inventory of Musical Sources (RISM) is an international, non-profit joint venture which aims to comprehensively document the world's musical sources of manuscripts or printed music, works on music theory and libretti stored in libraries, archives, monasteries, schools and private collections.
(for information click here)

SCIPIO: Art and Rare Books Sales Catalogs Yale-only

SCIPIO: Art and Rare Books Sales Catalogs is the only online union catalog of auction catalog records in existence. SCIPIO provides bibliographic access to valuable sources of information on the provenance of art objects and rare books, the history of collecting, and contemporary and historical market trends. SCIPIO describes art and rare books auction sales catalogs dating from the late sixteenth century to currently schedule d auctions that have not yet been held. Records contain information on dates and places of sale, catalog title, the auction house, sellers, institutional holdings, and other information.
(for more information click here)

{back to top}

Government and Legal Documents, Economics

Digitised Historical Parliamentary Material (Parliament, UK)

Links to published Parliamentary material available online, including on external websites. Published Parliamentary material has been digitised and made available on the Internet by various organizations.
For FAQ pages on finding information about records and people in the Parliamentary archives, click here.

YUL--Social Science Library

Yale Law School -- Lillian Goldman Law Library

Morris--Catalog for Law School Library

see also Government, Legal Documents, Economics -- Primary Sources

{back to top}


Finding English Verse, 1650-1800: First-Line Indexes and Searchable Electronic Texts
(James Woolley)

A revised and enlarged checklist of first-line indexes and fully searchable texts.

see also Literature -- Primary Sources

{back to top}

Newspapers and Periodicals

IDZ Index of German Journals 1750-1815 Yale-only

The Index of German Journals contains 100.000 records of articles published 1750 - 1815.
(for information click here)

Waterloo Directory of English Newspapers and Periodicals, 1800-1900 Yale-only

The Waterloo Directory of English Newspapers and Periodicals, 1800-1900, is a subject-inclusive, language-inclusive bibliography of 50,000 publications, 48,000 personal names, 4,572 issuing bodies and 756 subjects.
(for information click here)

Wellesley Index to Victorian Periodicals Yale-only

The vast majority of articles written for Victorian periodicals were published anonymously, or under pseudonyms. The Wellesley Index identifies the authors of articles within 45 major Victorian periodicals, and provides a bibliography for each contributor. It incorporates the Curran Index of corrections and additions to the original index.
(for information click here)

see also Newspapers and Periodicals -- Primary Sources

{back to top}

{back to top}

Selected Reference Sources


British Empire 18th Century Timeline

Cambridge Histories Online Yale-only

The Cambridge Histories Online offers searchable full-text of over 250 well-known, used and trusted volumes in over fifteen subject areas including history, history of science, history of the book, language and literature, literary studies, music, philosophy, political and social theory, area studies, religious studies, theatre studies and performing arts, and warfare.
(for information click here)

Chicago Manual of Style

Dictionary of the Scots Language

The Dictionary of the Scots Language (DSL) comprises electronic editions of the two major historical dictionaries of the Scots language: the 12-volume Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (DOST) and the 10-volume Scottish National Dictionary (SND). DOST contains information about Scots words in use from the twelfth to the end of the seventeenth centuries (Older Scots); and SND contains information about Scots words in use from 1700 to the 1970s (modern Scots). Together these 22 volumes provide a comprehensive history of Scots, and a New Supplement now (2005) brings the record of the language up to date.

Gazetteer of British Place names

The Gazetteer provides an exhaustive Place Name Index to Great Britain, containing over 50,000 entries. It lists the historic county and the main administrative areas in which each place lies.

Lexicons of Early Modern English

LEME searches and displays word-entries from monolingual English dictionaries, bilingual lexicons, technical vocabularies, and other encyclopedic-lexical works, 1480-1702.

Oxford Classical Dictionary  Yale-only

The Oxford Classical Dictionary is a one-volume guide to all aspects of the ancient world - political, economic, philosophical, religious, artistic, and social.
(for information click here)

 Oxford English Dictionary  Yale-only

"The definitive record of the English language."
(for information click here)

 Oxford Language Dictionaries Online Yale-only

Initially offering millions of words, phrases, and translations, in French, German, Spanish and Italian, the site will expand to include many other languages such as Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Polish.
(for information click here)

Oxford Reference Online Yale-only

The Premium Collection offers a huge range of fully-indexed, extensively linked, up to date, and cross-searchable dictionary, language reference, and subject reference works published by Oxford University Press, including detailed information across a broad subject range from titles in the world-renowned Oxford Companions series.
(for information click here)

The Record Interpreter : a collection of abbreviations, Latin words and names used in English historical manuscripts and records, 2nd ed.

First published in 1910, this classic work continues to be useful for library users who need to translate Latin appearing in historical records and texts. Coverage includes abbreviations of Latin words used in English records, abbreviations of French words used in English records, a glossary of Latin words found in records and other English manuscripts, Latin names and places in Great Britain and Ireland, Latin names of bishoprics in England, Latin names of bishoprics in Scotland, Latin names of bishoprics in Ireland, Latin forms of English surnames, and Latin given names with their English equivalents.--Guide to Reference

{back to top}

Special topics

DiCamillo Companion Database of Houses

The Database of Houses is a continuing effort to list every country house built in Britain and Ireland, standing or demolished. The Database is updated daily and currently lists over 7,000 houses. This undertaking will compile as many details as can be found about the houses, families who occupied them, and their estates, in a standardized format.

Bible in EnglishYale-only

The Bible in English contains twenty-one different versions of the English Bible. In addition to thirteen complete Bibles, there are five texts that comprise New Testaments only, two that contain just the Gospels, and William Tyndale's translation of the Pentateuch, Jonah, and New Testament.
(for information click here)

King James Bible Yale-only

The King James or 'Authorized' edition of the Bible (1611) was the standard edition of the Bible for nearly three centuries, drawing heavily on previous editions and providing the principal influence for many subsequent versions. It is arguably the most influential single document for English literary studies in general. The text (of the 'He' version) is given in full, with all introductory matter, annotation, calendars, genealogies and tables included.
(for information click here)

{back to top}

Art and Music

British Printed Images to 1700

This website, funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council, makes available a database of thousands of prints and book illustrations from early modern Britain in fully-searchable form. It also offers ancillary facilities aimed to enhance users’ understanding and appreciation of the material it presents, such as various resources contextualising prints and printmaking, as well as original research on British prints to 1700, including the ‘Print of the Month’ that appears on this page.
(for information click here)

Catalogue of Engraved British Portraits Preserved in the Department of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum / Freeman O'Donoghue.

Designed to provide a ready and complete means of the great collection of national portraits preserved in the Department [of Prints, and Drawings].
(for links to individual volumes click here)

Catalogue of prints and drawings in the British Museum: Division I. Political and Personal Satires / Frederick George Stephens and Mary Dorothy George.

(for links to individual volumes click here)

Dictionary of pastellists before 1800 - Pastels and pastellists

Online edition of the Dictionary of pastellists before 1800 by Neil Jeffares, an art reference work on pastels by artists of all schools working during the eighteenth century or before. The information contained on this site (which will continue to develop) is intended to constitute a complete prosopography of those involved in the art of pastel.
(for information click here)

Directory of British Picture Framemakers 1750-1950

A selective directory of framemakers and carvers and gilders, who produced frames for significant artists and patrons or who advertised extensively in art periodicals. The 2nd edition includes 30 additional makers, taking coverage back from 1750 to 1630.

Getty Research Institute: Search Tools and Databases

Includes links to Bibliographies, Thesauri, and Digital collections and more.

Hogarth: The Site for Research on William Hogarth (1697-1764)

This website by author Bernd Krysmanski includes Hogarth biographies, books on Hogarth, online essays, image galleries, special search tools, and more.

Image Permanence Institute Graphics Atlas

The Graphics Atlas is a new online resource that brings sophisticated print identification and characteristic exploration tools to archivists, curators, historians, collectors, conservators, educators, and the general public.

Oxford Art Online - Grove Art Online Yale-only

The Dictionary of Art Online is a fully searchable copy of the print dictionary, including some but not all of the illustrations and photographs in the print version. The online dictionary provides an image search for images from the Bridgeman Art Library and also links to images elsewhere on the internet.
(for information click here)

Oxford Music Online - Grove Music Online Yale-only

The online version of three music encyclopedias: The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd ed., The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, and The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz, 2nd ed. Extensive work lists and bibliographies conclude most articles.
(for information click here)

see also Other Digital Image Collections Online -- Primary Sources

Other Digital Image Collections Online -- Identifying Print Media

and Handouts from the "Caricature and the Comic Image 1800-1850" Master Class

{back to top}


American National Biography Yale-only

American National Biography offers portraits of more than 17,400 men and women -- from all eras and walks of life.
(for information click here)

Ancestry Library Edition Yale-only

United States and United Kingdom genealogical resources, offering coverage of the United States and the United Kingdom, including census; military; court, land, and probate; vital and church records; directories; passenger lists and more, as well as some similar record collections from Canada and some European countries.
(for information click here)

Fold3 History and Genealogy Archives Yale-only

Fold3 provides convenient access to US military records, including the stories, photos, and personal documents of the men and women who served. (Includes newspapers)
(for more information click here)

Biography & Genealogy Master Index Yale-only

Biography and Genealogy Master Index is a comprehensive index to biographical sketches in more than 2700 volumes and editions of current and retrospective reference books, covering both contemporary and historical figures throughout the world.
(for information click here)

Biography Index: Past & Present Yale-only

Biography Index: Past and Present is a new version of the Biography Index database, containing retrospective coverage from Biography Index back to when it was first published in 1946, combined with coverage right up to the present. This database offers information about people from all all time periods throughout history and right up to the present in a single, easy to use database.
(for information click here)

Biography Resource Center - Reference Content Yale-only

The Biography Resource Center (BioRC) is a comprehensive database of biographical information throughout history, around the world, and across all disciplines and subject areas.
(for information click here)

British Monarchy - United Kingdom Monarchs (1603-present)

Brief histories of the royal houses and biographical sketches of the British monarchs from the reign of James I to the present.

Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online Yale-only

The first phase of the Dictionary of Canadian Biography presents persons who died between the years 1000 and 1920 or whose last known date of activity falls within these years.
(for information click here)


HeritageQuest Online Yale-only

Unique, essential material for American genealogical and historical researchers, with coverage dating back to the late 1700s.
(for information click here)

Orlando: Women's Writing in the British Isles from the Beginnings to the Present Yale-only

Orlando provides entries on authors' lives and writing careers, contextual material, timelines, sets of internal links, and bibliographies.
Interacting with these materials creates a dynamic inquiry from any number of perspectives into centuries of women's writing.
(for information click here)

Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Yale-only

The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography is the premier source for biographical information on persons connected with the British Isles from all periods of history.
(for information click here)

ULAN (Union List of Artists Names, Getty)

The ULAN includes proper names and associated information about artists. Artists may be either individuals (persons) or groups of individuals working together (corporate bodies). A minimum record contains a numeric ID, a name, a role, nationality, and life dates.
(for information click here)

{back to top}

Rare Books and Manuscripts

ABC for Book Collectors, by John Carter and Nicolas Barker (8th ed.)

Words and phrases commonly used in book collecting.

British Armorial Bindings, by John Morris, Continued and edited by Philip Oldfield

Under the sponsorship of The Bibliographical Society of London in conjunction with the University of Toronto Library, the British Armorial Binding database brings to fruition almost half a century of endeavour.  Its purpose is to create a comprehensive catalogue of all the coats of arms, crests, and other heraldic devices that have been stamped by British owners on the outer covers of their books, together with the bibliographical sources of the stamps.

British Library Database of Bookbindings

This database is a finding aid to the British Library's bookbinding collections. It includes information and images for selected items from the Library's rich collection of fine bindings of books printed in western Europe from the fifteenth century to date.

Dictionary of Abbreviations Commonly Used by German and Italian Antiquarian Booksellers and Auctioneers, by Bernard Rosenthal

Each abbreviation is followed by the full resolution of the German and Italian word and by its English translation, in most cases with one or more examples illustrating the context and the combinations in which the abbreviation is most likely to occur.

Dictionnaire de termes en usage dans le commerce des livres anciens, by Edgar Franco, in English, French, German and Italian

Dictionary limited to the terms used by antiquarian booksellers which are not to be found in the usual bilingual, trilingual, or multilingual dictionaries.

Glossary of the trade in several languages, by Bernard Rosenthal (in English)

or, How to Describe Rare Books, Manuscripts, Autographs, Maps, Prints, Atlases, First Editions, Illustrated Books - Glossary in English

Lamort, Anne. La Bibliophilie (in French)

Everything you've always wanted to know about rare bookselling, and never dared to ask. A scholarly and charming book, in a most elegant binding, which explains the terms and customs of the antiquarian book trade.

Publishers Bindings Online--Research Tools

PBO is a digital collection of decorative bindings, along with a comprehensive glossary and guide to the elements of these objects, by The University of Alabama, University Libraries, in partnership with the University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries.

Rare Books .info

The Digital Library of Reference Works on Rare Books. provides one hundred electronic bibliographies online. Subjects cover early printing, world literature, natural history, science, medicine, theology, cultural and area studies, Judaica, music, theology, art and architecture, among others. Key bibliographies include standard reference works by Brunet (Manuel), Sabin (Americana), Fairfax Murray (French and German Books), and many more hard-to-find works. Also includes glossary, links,

RBMS Bibliographic Standards Committee, Directory of Web Resources for the Rare Book Cataloger

Includes numerous links in such categories as: General cataloging sites; Rare Book cataloging sites and Resources; Library of Congress Lists; Reference Sites (General, Language Resources, Biography Sites, Place Names, Calendars and Computus); Special Collections Sites; History of Books and Printing; Special Topics for Rare Books; Images of Rare Books; Catalogs which are particularly useful for Special Collections; Early Cartographic Materials; Medieval Manuscripts.

 YUL Cataloging--Rare Book Team

{back to top}

Watermarks and Papermaking


Thomas L. Gravell Watermark Collection: Home

Watermarks of incunabula printed in the low countries

Watermarks from the Biblioteca da Ajuda

Wasserzeichen des Mittelalters

WIES - Watermarks in Incunabula printed in Espana

Dutch Institute for Art History, Florence (Italy); Watermarks Database

Bernstein Consortium databases, including:

Known Paper Databases

Papermaking at Hayle Mill (1976 film by Anglia TV, posted by Simon Barcham Green)

{back to top}

Lewis Walpole Library Reference Collection (in Print)

To see the Orbis listings for the books in the Reference collection (and the Staff reference collection) at the Lewis Walpole Library, click here.

{back to top}


Echoes from the Vault- University of St. Andrews Special Collections

Echoes from the Vault is the official blog of the Special Collections of the University of St Andrews. Here you can find posts about unique or exciting finds amongst the vaults in our day-to-day work, bringing to light voices that have remained quiet for many years. This blog will also feature news and events happening within the Special Collections Department and the University Library.

18th-Century Common

The 18th-Century Common offers a public space for sharing the research of scholars who study eighteenth-century cultures with nonacademic readers.

The Early Modern Commons

EMC is an aggregator for blogs covering the period c.1500-1800. It is intended as a resource to help readers to keep up with early modern blogging, and to connect with people who share their interests.

Enfilade - A serial newsletter for Historians of Eighteenth-Century Art & Architecture

John Johnson Collection's Ephemera Resources

This blog aims to accumulate a useful and growing guide to the many websites either wholly or partially devoted to ephemera. The blog will list two types of resources: online resources and bibliographic references (books and articles, both hard copy and electronic).

Long Eighteenth Century

The Long Eighteenth has been created as a response to a desire expressed by several members of the listserv C18-L for a weblog community for the discussion of eighteenth-century scholarship and criticism across disciplinary and language boundaries. The Long Eighteenth offers contributor rights to anyone who has a desire to engage others in conversation about current issues in eighteenth-century studies. Includes many links to related resources, including other relevant blogs.

Strawberry Hill House Garden

The vision for the garden and grounds is to restore and enhance the historic fabric of the site in order to create a visitor attraction of historical significance with visits being carried out as part of tours of Horace Walpole’s house. The proposals will improve accessibility and interpretation of the grounds.

Treasure Hunt - National Trust Collections

This blog is about celebrating the beauty of the National Trust’s places and collections, and about uncovering the stories behind the objects in our collections, and about how those objects relate to each other, and to us.

LWL blogs:

Hogarth (coming soon)


Op-Ed is the blog of the Yale Indian Papers Project. Editors intend it to be a discussion point about people, places, things, and events relating to New England Native communities.

Recent Antiquarian Acquisitions

The Recent Antiquarian Acquisitions blog features new additions of early materials to the Lewis Walpole Library’s collection.

Selected Other Yale Blogs:

Early Modern at Beinecke

Early Modern at the Beinecke, a guide to the early modern British and European collections of Yale University's Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library. This site offers an introduction to the Beinecke's print and manuscript holdings for Britain and Europe, from 1500-1800, including the Osborn Collection of British literary and historical manuscripts. It also contains links and information on exhibitions, digital resources, and events relating to the early modern collections.

Early Modern Paleography

Early Modern Paleography celebrates the beauty and complexity of early modern English handwriting, with a daily offering from the Osborn Collection of Yale University’s Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library. Ranging from the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries, Early Modern Paleography draws from letters, poetry, commonplace books, diaries, inventories, annotations, and other strengths of the Osborn collection. Each day for a year, starting on January 1, 2010, entries invited viewers to puzzle, to read, to transcribe, and above all to enjoy the enduring fascination of early modern British manuscript culture.

{back to top}

Frequently Used Sources Available Full-Text Online

Catalogue of prints and drawings in the British Museum: Division I. Political and Personal Satires/ Frederick George Stephens and Mary Dorothy George (also referred to as "BMCat")

Vol. I: 1320 to APRIL n, 1689 (No. i to No. 1235) 

Vol. II: JUNE 1689 to 1733 (No. 1236 to No. 2015) 

Vol. III: PART I. MARCH 28, 1734, to c. 1750 (No. 2016 to No. 3116) 

Vol. III: PART II. 1751 to f. 1760 (No. 3117 to No. 3804)  [this volume does not appear to be included in the group digitized on this site]

Vol. IV: 1761 to c. A.D. 1770 (No. 3805 to No. 4838)   

Vol. V:1771 to 1783 (No. 4839 to No. 6360)  

Vol. VI: 1784 to 1792 (No. 6361 to No. 8283)   

Vol. VII: 1793 to 1800 (No. 8284 to No. 9692)   

Vol. VIII: [this volume does not appear to be included in the group digitized on this site]

 Vol. IX:  1811 to 1819 (No. 11704 to No. 13500)

 Vol. X: 1820 to 1827 (No. 13501 to No. 15496)   

Vol. XI: [this volume does not appear to be included in the group digitized on this site]

Description of the Villa of Mr. Horace Walpole, ... at Strawberry-Hill near Twickenham, Middlesex / Horace Walpole. 1784. (also referrred to as the "Description"). Available online to Yale users only through Eighteenth Century Collections Online, click here. Yale-only

A Catalogue of the classic contents of Strawberry Hill collected by Horace Walpole, 1842. (also referred to as the "Strawberry Hill Sale Catalogue"). Available online on the Internet Archive, click here, and the Hathi Trust, click here.

A Catalogue of the extensive and most valuable collection of engraved portraits, of the most illustrious and other eminent British characters that figure in annals of history and biography ... as originally collected by Horace Walpole, earl of Orford*, 13 June 1842 and nine following days (also referred to as the "London Sale Catalogue").

Catalogue of engraved British portraits preserved in the Department of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum/ by Freeman O'Donoghue.  (also referred to as "EBP")

Volume I: A-C

Vol. II: D-K

Vol. III: L-R

Vol. IV: S-Z

Vol. V: Groups

Vol. VI: Supplement and Indexes

Horace Walpole's Correspondence / Horace Walpole (all 48 volumes of the Yale Edition, edited by W.S. Lewis)

{back to top}